|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2009)|
|- City -|
Magnitogorsk State Technical University
|Administrative status (as of September 2011)|
|Federal subject||Chelyabinsk Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Magnitogorsk|
|Administrative center of||City of Magnitogorsk|
|Municipal status (as of September 2011)|
|Urban okrug||Magnitogorsky Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Magnitogorsky Urban Okrug|
|Mayor||Yevgeny Teftelev|
|Population (2010 Census)||407,775 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||44th|
|Time zone||YEKT (UTC+06:00)|
|City status since||1931|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3519|
|Magnitogorsk on WikiCommons|
Magnitogorsk (Russian: Магнитогорск; IPA: [məgnʲɪtɐˈgorsk]) is an industrial city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the extreme southern extent of the Ural Mountains by the Ural River. Population: 407,775 (2010 Census); 418,545 (2002 Census); 440,321 (1989 Census).
It was named for the Magnitnaya Mountain that was almost pure iron, a geological anomaly. It is the second largest city in Russia that does not serve as an administrative center of either a federal subject or an administrative division. The largest iron and steel works in the country, Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, is located here.
Magnitnaya was founded in 1743 as part of the Orenburg Line of forts established under the Empress Elizabeth. By 1747 the Russian settlement was large enough to justify the building of the small wooden "Church of the Holy Trinity".
In 1752 two entrepreneurs called Tverdysh and Myasnikov started investigating the possibility of mining the ore for which the area would later become famous, and having established that there were no pre-existing rights to the Magnitnaya Mountain ore, the two petitioned for the right to extract it themselves. Their petition was granted and iron ore extraction began in 1759.
As a part of preparation for the Soviet Five-Year Plans in 1928 a Soviet delegation arrived in Cleveland, Ohio to discuss with American consulting company Arthur G. McKee a plan to set up in Magnitogorsk a copy of the US Steel steel mill in Gary, Indiana. The contract was four times increased and eventually the new plant had a capacity of over four million tons annually.
The rapid development of Magnitogorsk stood at the forefront of Joseph Stalin's Five-Year Plans in the 1930s. It was a showpiece of Soviet achievement. Huge reserves of iron ore in the area made it a prime location to build a steel plant capable of challenging its Western rivals. However, a large proportion of the workforce, as ex-peasants, typically had few industrial skills and little industrial experience. To solve these issues, several hundred foreign specialists arrived to direct the work, including a team of architects headed by the German Ernst May.
According to original plans Magnitogorsk was to be inspired by Gary and Pittsburgh, at the time the most prominent centers of steel production in the United States. It was to have followed the linear city design, with rows of similar superblock neighborhoods running parallel to the factory, with a strip of greenery, or greenbelt, separating them. Planners would align living and production spheres so as to minimize necessary travel time: workers would generally live in a sector of the residential band closest to the sector of the industrial band in which they worked.
However, by the time that May completed his plans for Magnitogorsk construction of both factory and housing had already started. The sprawling factory and enormous cleansing lakes had left little room available for development, and May, therefore, had to redesign his settlement to fit the modified site. This modification resulted in a city being more "rope-like" than linear. Although the industrial area is concentrated on the left bank of the river Ural, and the most residential complexes are separated and located on its right bank, the city inhabitants are still subjected to noxious fumes and factory smoke.
The book Behind the Urals, by John Scott, documents the industrial development of Magnitogorsk during the 1930s. Scott discusses the fast-paced industrial and social developments during Stalin's first five-year plan and the rising paranoia of the Soviet regime preceding the Great Purge of the late 1930s.
In 1937 foreigners were told to exit and Magnitogorsk was declared a closed city. There is not much reliable information about events and development of the city during the closed period.
The city played an important role during World War II because it supplied much of the steel for the Soviet war machine and its strategic location near the Ural Mountains meant Magnitogorsk was safe from seizure by the German Army.
During perestroika the closed city status was removed and foreigners were allowed to visit the city again. Years after perestroika brought a significant change in the life of the city, the Iron and Steel Plant was reorganized as a joint-stock company Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works (MISW or MMK), which helped with the reconstruction of the railway and building a new airport.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Magnitogorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Magnitogorsk is incorporated as Magnitogorsky Urban Okrug.
The city is connected by the Magnitogorsk International Airport and by a railway. Public transportation includes trams, buses, and taxis.
Education and culture
There are also three theatres: Pushkin Drama Theatre (the oldest in the city), the Opera and Ballet House, and the Puppet Theatre. The Church of the Ascension of the Lord opened in 2004.
Metallurg Magnitogorsk is an ice hockey team based in Magnitogorsk, playing in the Kontinental Hockey League. Evgeni Malkin of the Pittsburgh Penguins and Nikolai Kulemin of the New York Islanders both used to play for the club and both are Magnitogorsk natives. The town's football team is FC Magnitogorsk playing in the Amateur Football League. Located in the vicinity of the city, Abzakovo is a popular mountain skiing base built by the MMK (see the URL below).
Magnitogorsk was mentioned in the Blacksmith Institute's 2007 survey of the world's worst polluted cities, placed in the report's unranked list of the 25 most polluted places outside the top ten. Pollutants include lead, sulfur dioxide, heavy metals and other air pollutants. According to the local hospital, only 1% of all children living in the city are in good health. The Blacksmith Institute says that, according to a local newspaper report, "only 28% of infants born in 1992 were healthy, and only 27% had healthy mothers". However according to Blacksmith Institute, plant managers have upgraded much of their equipment in recent years and emissions have been reduced by about 60%.
- Resolution #161
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Imagining America: influence and images in twentieth-century Russia
- The World's Worst Polluted Places: The Top Ten, Blacksmith Institute, September 2007
- Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Постановление №161 от 25 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Постановления №1577 от 29 августа 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в перечень муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №111-112, 14 июня 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #1577 of August 29, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise. Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Scott, John, Behind the Urals: An American Worker in Russia's City of Steel, Indiana University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-253-20536-0
- Degtyarev A. G., Letopis' gory Magnitnoy i goroda Magnitogorska, 1993.
The book is about Magnitogorsk, its history and natural resources
- Stephen Kotkin. Steeltown, USSR
- http://magnitka.clink.ru the official website of Magnitogorsk
- http://www.dialogpress.ru/ Magnitogorsk Main News
- City Magnitogorsk (Russian)
- http://macalester.edu/courses/geog61/aritz/magnitogorsk.html Macalester College site about Magnitogorsk
- Photo sights Magnitogorsk
- Magnitogorsk and Vicinity (Abzakovo, Bannoye)
- The Soviet Steel City at Magnitogorsk
- Magnitogorsk Photos (Russian)