Hungarians

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Hungarians
Magyarok
Famous Hungarians2.jpg
Total population
c. 13.1–14.7 million[note 1]
Regions with significant populations
Hungary Hungary 8,504,492[1][note 2] – 9,827,875[2][note 3]
Neighbors of Hungary c. 2.2 million
 Romania 1,227,623  (2011)[3]
 Slovakia[note 4] 458,467  (2011)[4]
 Serbia 253,899   (2011)[5]
 Ukraine 156,566  (2001)[6]
 Austria 55.038  (2014)[7]
 Croatia 16,595  (2001)[8]
 Slovenia 6,243  (2002)[9]
Rest of Europe c. 0.3–0.5 million
 Germany 135,600
 France 100,000 to 200,000  (2004)[10]
 United Kingdom 52,250  (2011)
 Sweden 40,000–70,000
 Czech Republic 14,672  (2001)[11]
 Ireland 8,034  (2011)[12]
 Turkey 6,800  (2001)[13]
 Russia 3,768  (2002)[14]
 Macedonia 2,003  (2002)[15]
North America c. 1.9 million
 United States 1,563,081  (2006)[13]
 Puerto Rico 1,050
 Canada 315,510  (2006)[16]
South America c. 0.15 – 0.2 million
 Brazil 80,000[17]
 Chile 50,000[18]
 Argentina 40,000–50,000[19]
Oceania c. 70,000[13]
 Australia 67,616[20]
 New Zealand 1,476
Asia c. 10,000
 Thailand 3,029
 Philippines 1,114
Languages
Hungarian
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Protestantism (Calvinism, Lutheranism and Unitarianism).
Greek Catholicism, Islam, Judaism and irreligion.
Part of a series on the
History of Hungary
Coat of arms of Hungary
Portal icon Hungary portal

Hungarians, also known as Magyars (Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group who speak Hungarian and are primarily associated with Hungary. There are around 13.1–14.7 million Hungarians, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary (as of 2011).[21] About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Australia, Chile, and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; subgroups with distinct identities include the Székely, the Csángó, the Palóc, and the Jassic (Jász) people.

Name[edit]

Further information: Name of Hungary
The possible homeland of the Hungarians was situated at the regions of Southern Ural.

The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from the Bulgar-Turkic On-Ogur (meaning "ten" Ogurs),[22] which was the name of the Utigur Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. Although, written sources called Magyars "Hungarians" prior to the conquest of the Carpathian Basin (in 837 "Ungri" mentioned by Georgius Monachus, in 862 "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani, in 881 "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus) when they still lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe eastward from the Carpathians. The Hungarians probably belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, and it is possible that they became its ethnic majority.[22] In the Early Middle Ages the Hungarians had many different names, such as "Ungar" (in German) or "Hungarus".[23] The "H-" prefix is an addition in Medieval Latin.

Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian word Yugra (Югра). It may refer to the Hungarians at a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their settlement of Hungary.[24]

The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than the term "Hungarian".[22] Magyar is a Finno-Ugric word[25] from the Old Hungarian, mogyër. The term "Magyar" possibly comes from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, called Megyer. The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" referring to the Hungarian people as a whole.[26][27][28] The term Magyar may also come from the Hunnic term "Muageris" or Mugel.[29]

The Greek cognate of Tourkia (Greek: Τουρκία) was used by the Byzantine emperor and scholar Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in his book De Administrando Imperio,[30][31] though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars.[32]

The historical Latin term Natio Hungarica ("Hungarian nation") had a wider meaning, as it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity.

History[edit]

Pre-4th century AD[edit]

Main article: Hungarian Prehistory

During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up. Some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards.[33] From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community. Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Andronovo Culture.[34]

4th century to c. 830 AD[edit]

In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved to the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria (Bashkortostan) and Perm Krai.

In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga, Don and the Seversky Donets rivers.[35] Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241.

The Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars (Proto-Bulgarians, Onogurs) and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds that the Hungarians were organized in a confederacy of seven tribes. The names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján.

c. 830 to c. 895[edit]

Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate. As a result, three Kabar tribes[36] of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River, (today's Ukraine).[citation needed] The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854,[35] though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the Varangians and the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians (already referred to as the Ungri) along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin, mostly against the Eastern Frankish Empire (Germany) and Great Moravia, but also against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria.[37]

Entering the Carpathian Basin (c. 895)[edit]

Prince Árpád crossing the Carpathians. A detail from the Arrival of the Hungarians, Árpád Feszty's and his assistants' vast cyclorama (over 1800 m²), painted to celebrate the 1000th anniversary of the Hungarians conquest of Hungary, now displayed at the Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park in Hungary.

In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin. The tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time (c. 895), due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and then by their old enemies the Pechenegs. The Bulgarians won the decisive battle of Southern Buh. It is uncertain whether or not those conflicts were the cause of the Hungarian departure from Etelköz.

From the upper Tisza region of the Carpathian Basin, the Hungarians intensified their looting raids across continental Europe. In 900, they moved from the upper Tisza river to Transdanubia (Pannonia),[citation needed] which later became the core of the arising Hungarian state. At the time of the Hungarian migration, the land was inhabited only by a sparse population of Slavs, numbering about 200,000,[35] who were either assimilated or enslaved by the Hungarians.[35]

Archaeological findings (e.g. in the Polish city of Przemyśl) suggest that many Hungarians remained to the north of the Carpathians after 895/896.[38] There is also a consistent Hungarian population in Transylvania, the Székelys, who comprise 40% of the Hungarians in Romania.[39][40] The Székely people's origin, and in particular the time of their settlement in Transylvania, is a matter of historical controversy.

History after 900[edit]

Medieval Hungary controlled more territory than medieval France, and the population of medieval Hungary was the third largest of any country in Europe. The Hungarian leader Árpád is believed to have led the Hungarians into the Carpathian Basin in 896. In 907, the Hungarians destroyed a Bavarian army in the Battle of Pressburg and laid the territories of present-day Germany, France, and Italy open to Hungarian raids, which were fast and devastating. The Hungarians defeated the Imperial Army of Louis the Child, son of Arnulf of Carinthia and last legitimate descendent of the German branch of the house of Charlemagne, near Augsburg in 910. From 917 to 925, Hungarians raided through Basle, Alsace, Burgundy, Saxony, and Provence.[41] Hungarians expansion was checked at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, ending their raids against Western Europe, but the raids on the Balkan Peninsula continued until 970.[42] Hungarian settlement in the area was approved by the Pope when their leaders accepted Christianity, and Stephen I the Saint (Szent István) was crowned King of Hungary in 1001. The century between the arrival of the Hungarians from the eastern European plains and the consolidation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1001 was dominated by pillaging campaigns across Europe, from Dania (Denmark) to the Iberian Peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal).[43] After the acceptance of the country into Christian Europe under Stephen I, Hungary served as a bulwark against further invasions from the east and south, especially against the Turks.

Population growth of the Hungarians (900–1980)

At this time, the Hungarian nation numbered around 400,000 people.[35] The first accurate measurements of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary including ethnic composition were carried out in 1850–51. There is a debate among Hungarian and non-Hungarian (especially Slovak and Romanian) historians about the possible changes in the ethnic structure of the region throughout history. Some historians support the theory that the proportion of Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the Middle Ages.[44][45][46][47][48] Non-Hungarians numbered hardly more than 20% to 25% of the total population.[44] The Hungarian population began to decrease only at the time of the Ottoman conquest,[44][45][48] reaching as low as around 39% by the end of the 18th century. The decline of the Hungarians was due to the constant wars, Ottoman raids, famines, and plagues during the 150 years of Ottoman rule.[44][45][48] The main zones of war were the territories inhabited by the Hungarians, so the death toll depleted them at a much higher rate than among other nationalities.[44][48] In the 18th century their proportion declined further because of the influx of new settlers from Europe, especially Slovaks, Serbs, Croats,[citation needed] and Germans.[44][45][48][49] According to the immigrationist theory of the origins of the Romanian people,[50] it is suggested that Romanians entered Transylvania during the same period.[45][49][51] As a consequence of Turkish occupation and Habsburg colonization policies, the country underwent a great change in ethnic composition as its population more than tripled to 8 million between 1720 and 1787, while only 39% of its people were Hungarians, who lived primarily in the centre of the country.[44][45][46][48]

Other historians, particularly Slovaks and Romanians, argue that the drastic change in the ethnic structure hypothesized by Hungarian historians in fact did not occur. They argue that the Hungarians accounted for only about 30–40%[citation needed] of the Kingdom's population since its establishment. In particular, there is a fierce debate among Hungarians and Romanian historians about the ethnic composition of Transylvania through these times.

In the 19th century, the proportion of Hungarians in the Kingdom of Hungary rose gradually, reaching over 50% by 1900 due to higher natural growth and Magyarization. Between 1787 and 1910 number of ethnic Hungarians rose from 2.3 million to 10.2 million due to population explosion, generated by the resettlement of the Great Hungarian Plain and Voivodina by mainly Roman Catholic Hungarian settlers from the northern and western counties of the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1715 (after the Ottoman occupation) the Southern Great Plain was nearly uninhabited but now has 1.3 million inhabitants, homogeneous with ethnic Hungarians.

Spontaneous assimilation was an important factor, especially among the German and Jewish minorities and the citizens of the bigger towns. On the other hand, about 1.5 million people (about two-thirds non-Hungarian) left the Kingdom of Hungary between 1890–1910 to escape from poverty.[52]

The Treaty of Trianon: Kingdom of Hungary lost 72% of its land and 3.3 million people of Hungarian ethnicity.

The years 1918 to 1920 were a turning point in the Hungarians' history. By the Treaty of Trianon, the Kingdom had been cut into several parts, leaving only a quarter of its original size. One-third of the Hungarians became minorities in the neighbouring countries.[53] During the remainder of the 20th century, the Hungarians population of Hungary grew from 7.1 million (1920) to around 10.4 million (1980), despite losses during the Second World War and the wave of emigration after the attempted revolution in 1956. The number of Hungarians in the neighbouring countries tended to remain the same or slightly decreased, mostly due to assimilation (sometimes forced; see Slovakization and Romanianization)[54][55][56] and to emigration to Hungary (in the 1990s, especially from Transylvania and Vojvodina).

After the "baby boom" of the 1950s (Ratkó era), a serious demographic crisis began to develop in Hungary and its neighbours.[57] The Hungarian population reached its maximum in 1980, then began to decline.[57]

For historical reasons (see Treaty of Trianon), significant Hungarian minority populations can be found in the surrounding countries, most of them in Romania (in Transylvania), Slovakia, and Serbia (in Vojvodina). Sizable minorities live also in Ukraine (in Transcarpathia), Croatia (primarily Slavonia), and Austria (in Burgenland). Slovenia is also host to a number of ethnic Hungarians, and Hungarian language has an official status in parts of the Prekmurje region. Today more than two million ethnic Hungarians live in nearby countries.[58]

There was a referendum in Hungary in December 2004 on whether to grant Hungarian citizenship to Hungarians living outside Hungary's borders (i.e. without requiring a permanent residence in Hungary). The referendum failed due to insufficient voter turnout. On May 26, 2010, Hungary's Parliament passed a bill granting dual citizenship to ethnic Hungarians living outside of Hungary. Some neighboring countries with sizable Hungarian minority expressed concerns over the legislation.[59]

Later influences[edit]

Besides the various peoples mentioned above, the Magyars assimilated or were influenced by subsequent peoples arriving in the Carpathian Basin. Among these are the Cumans, Pechenegs, Jazones, Germans, Vlachs (Romanians) and Slavs, amongst others. Ottomans, who occupied the central part of Hungary from c. 1526 until c. 1699, inevitably exerted an influence, as did the various nations (Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and others) that resettled depopulated territories after their departure. Similar to other European countries, Jewish, Armenians, and Roma (Gypsy) minorities have been living in Hungary since the Middle Ages.

Ethnic affiliations and genetic origins[edit]

The place of origin for the regional groups of Hungarians in the conquest period according to Kinga Éry

The linguistic heritage of the Hungarians comes from Finno-Ugric peoples. A branch of Uralic speakers migrated from their earlier homeland near the Ural mountains and settled in various places in Eastern Europe, until they conquered the Carpathian Basin between the 9th and 10th centuries. Present-day Hungarian populations seem to be genetically European.[60] Compared to the European nations, Andrea Vágó-Zalán's study determined that the Bulgarians were genetically the closest and the Finns were the furthest from the recent Hungarian population.[61]

Thanks to Pál Lipták's researches it has been known for almost half a century that only 16.7 percent of 10th century human bones belong to the Euro-Mongoloid and Mongoloid types.[62][63] The European characteristics in the biological composition of the recent Hungarian population and the lack of Asian markers are not solely due to the thousand years of blending.[62] Biologically, the population around 1000 AD in Hungary was made up almost exclusively of Europeans.[62]

According to István Raskó's team, "genetic differences exist between the ancient and recent Hungarian-speaking populations, and no genetic continuity is seen".[64] This study suggests "a Siberian lineage of the invading Hungarians, which later has largely disappeared". Another conclusion was that "modern Hungarian and Szekler populations are genetically closely related"[65]

According to Dreisziger, István Raskó's researches conclude that present-day Hungarians are the descendants of the subjugated pre-conquest population.[66]

"More importantly these investigations suggest that the vast majority of present-day Hungarians cannot be the descendants of the conquerors: today’s Hungarians are predominantly the progeny of the subject peoples of the tenth century, that is, of the pre-conquest population of the Carpathian Basin."

—Dreisziger, Nándor (2013)

István Raskó presumed that Árpád's Magyars carried the Hungarian language, however the results of his studies may imply that the conquerors were not Hungarians but a small-numbered Turkic-speaking people.[66]

Horolma Pamjav's group sees a connection between Madjars (a Kazakh tribe) and recent Hungarian population "they were closest to the Hungarian population rather than their geographical neighbors". The drawn conclusion was that "modern Hungarians may trace their ancestry to Central Asia, instead of the Eastern Uralic region as previously thought".[67]

Anthropologically, the type of Magyars of the conquest phase shows similarity to that of the Andronovo people,[68] in particular of the Sarmatian groups around the southern Urals.[69] The Turkic (Onogur) components in the ancient Magyars were characterized by Turanid (24%), Pamirian (20%) and subordinated "Andronovo" types.[70][71] Within the blood group system attributed to Karl Landsteiner, the rate of the "0" and "B" bloodgroup genes characterizing Hungarians (31.05% and 17.90%) is off from the Indo-European and Finno-Ugrian nations, but it is within the range found among Central Asian Turkic nations.[72][better source needed]

The occurrence of the Turkic types (Turanid, Pamirian, Anterior-Asian and Oriental-Mongoloid) in the modern Hungarians is assessed to 46.2%, that of the Finno-Ugrians (Uraloid, Lapponoid and approx. 55% of the East Baltic type) to 4.6%, while the Old Slavic (approx. 45% of the East-Baltic type and each 50% of the Nordoid and Cromagnoid types) and the German (approx. each 50% of the Nordoid and the Cromagnoid types) constitute 3.2% and 0.5%, respectively.[73] However, according to Hungarian anthropologist Lajos Bartucz, the Finno-Ugric contribution is estimated to 20%, while the Turanid (Alföldi) type is estimated to 25-30%, the Indo-European Dinarid type to 20%, the Alpine type to 15%, the Taurid type to 4-5%, the Nordic type to 4% and the Mediterranean type to 1%.[74][better source needed]

Maps[edit]

Traditional costumes (18th and 19th century)[edit]

Folklore and Landscape[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Though the number is based on the recent 2011 census data, it is a lower estimate, as both in Hungary and in Slovakia census participants had the option to opt out and not declare their ethnicity, hence about 2 million people decided to do so.[1]
  2. ^ This number is a lower estimate, as 1.44 million people opted out declaring ethnicity in 2011.
  3. ^ Native Hungarian-speakers.
  4. ^ This number is a lower estimate, as 405.261 people (7,5% of the total population) did not specify their ethnicity at the 2011 Slovak Census.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ [2]. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  2. ^ "Hungarian census 2011 – 1.1.4.2 A népesség nyelvismeret és nemek szerint (population by spoken language)". Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  3. ^ (Romanian) "Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele definitive ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011", at the 2011 Romanian census site; accessed July 11, 2013
  4. ^ 2001 Slovakian Census
  5. ^ 2011 Serbian Census
  6. ^ National composition of population[dead link]
  7. ^ [3]
  8. ^ Položaj Nacionalnih Manjina U Republici Hrvatskoj – Zakonodavstvo I Praska
  9. ^ Slovenia
  10. ^ Bund Ungarischer Organisationen in Deutschland[dead link]
  11. ^ Národnost ve sčítání lidu v českých zemích[dead link]
  12. ^ "CSO Emigration". Census Office Ireland. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c "2006 community survey". Factfinder2.census.gov. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  14. ^ Russia Report to COE[dead link]
  15. ^ Republic of Macedonia – State Statistical Office[dead link]
  16. ^ "The 2006 census". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  17. ^ Revista Época Edição 214 24 June 2002[dead link]
  18. ^ Hungarian Immigration in Latin America
  19. ^ "Hungarian Embassy in Buenos Aires 20 June 2009". Mfa.gov.hu. 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  20. ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics (Census 2006)". Abs.gov.au. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  21. ^ Eurostat. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  22. ^ a b c Peter F. Sugar, ed. (1990-11-22). A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-253-20867-5. Retrieved 2011-07-06. 
  23. ^ Edward Luttwak, The grand strategy of the Byzantine Empire, Harvard University Press, 2009, p. 156
  24. ^ OED (s.v. "Ugrian"): "Ugri, the name given by early Russian writers to an Asiatic race dwelling east of the Ural Mountains"
  25. ^ Robert B Kaplan, Ph.D., Richard B Baldauf, Jr., Language Planning And Policy In Europe: Finland, Hungary And Sweden, Multilingual Matters, 2005, p. 28
  26. ^ György Balázs, Károly Szelényi, The Magyars: the birth of a European nation, Corvina, 1989, p. 8
  27. ^ Alan W. Ertl, Toward an Understanding of Europe: A Political Economic Précis of Continental Integration, Universal-Publishers, 2008, p. 358
  28. ^ Z. J. Kosztolnyik, Hungary under the early Árpáds: 890s to 1063, Eastern European Monographs, 2002, p. 3
  29. ^ Kosztolnyik, Z. J., Hungary under the early Árpáds, 890s to 1063, Distributed by Columbia University Press, 2002, pp. 28–29, ISBN 0-88033-503-3, Library of Congress control number 2002112276
  30. ^ Jenkins, Romilly James Heald (1967). De Administrando Imperio by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. Corpus fontium historiae Byzantinae (New, revised ed.). Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. p. 65. ISBN 0-88402-021-5. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing in his De Administrando Imperio (ca. 950 AD) "Patzinakia, the Pecheneg realm, stretches west as far as the Siret River (or even the Eastern Carpathian Mountains), and is four days distant from Tourkia (i.e. Hungary)."
  31. ^ Günter Prinzing; Maciej Salamon (1999). Byzanz und Ostmitteleuropa 950-1453: Beiträge zu einer table-ronde des XIX. International Congress of Byzantine Studies, Copenhagen 1996. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 46. ISBN 978-3-447-04146-1. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  32. ^ Henry Hoyle Howorth (2008). History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century: The So-called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia. Cosimo, Inc. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-60520-134-4. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  33. ^ Róna-Tas, András (1999). Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages. p. 96. 
  34. ^ Blench, Roger; Matthew Briggs (1999). Archaeology and Language. Routledge. p. 210. ISBN 0-415-11761-5. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  35. ^ a b c d e A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  36. ^ Peter F. Sugar, Péter Hanák, Tibor Frank, A History of Hungary, Indiana University Press, 1994 page 11. Google Books
  37. ^ "Magyars". Thenagain.info. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  38. ^ Koperski, A.: Przemyśl (Lengyelország). In: A honfoglaló magyarság. Kiállítási katalógus. Bp. 1996. pp. 439–448.
  39. ^ Piotr Eberhardt (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-century Central-Eastern Europe. M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY and London, England, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7656-0665-5. 
  40. ^ "Szekler people". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  41. ^ Stephen Wyley. "The Hungarians of Hungary". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  42. ^ "History of Hungary, 895–970". Zum.de. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  43. ^ "The Hungarians (650–997 AD)". Fanaticus.org. 2004-10-22. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g Hungary. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  45. ^ a b c d e f A Country Study: Hungary. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  46. ^ a b "International Boundary Study – No. 47 – April 15, 1965 – Hungary – Romania (Rumania) Boundary". US Bureau of Intelligence and Research. 
  47. ^ Historical World Atlas. With the commendation of the Royal Geographical Society. Carthographia, Budapest, Hungary, 2005. ISBN 963-352-002-9CM
  48. ^ a b c d e f Steven W. Sowards. "Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History (The Balkans in the Age of Nationalism), Lecture 4: Hungary and the limits of Habsburg authority". Michigan State University Libraries. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  49. ^ a b C. A. MaCartney D. Litt. (1962). Hungary A Short History. Edinburgh University Press. 
  50. ^ Schramm 1997, pp. 304., 309.
  51. ^ Robert A. Kann (1980). A history of the Habsburg Empire, 1526–1918. University of California Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-520-04206-9. 
  52. ^ Peaks/waves of immigration[dead link]
  53. ^ Kocsis, Károly (1998). "Introduction". Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin. Simon Publications LLC. ISBN 1-931313-75-X. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  54. ^ Bugajski, Janusz (1995). Ethnic Politics in Eastern Europe: A Guide to Nationality Policies, Organizations, and Parties. M.E. Sharpe (Washington, D.C.). ISBN 1-56324-283-4. 
  55. ^ Kovrig, Bennett (2000), Partitioned nation: Hungarian minorities in Central Europe, in: Michael Mandelbaum (ed.), The new European Diasporas: National Minorities and Conflict in Eastern Europe, New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, pp. 19–80.
  56. ^ Raffay Ernő: A vajdaságoktól a birodalomig. Az újkori Románia története (From voivodeships to the empire. The modern history of Romania). Publishing house JATE Kiadó, Szeged, 1989, pp. 155–156)
  57. ^ a b "Nyolcmillió lehet a magyar népesség 2050-re". origo. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  58. ^ Hungary: Transit Country Between East and West. Migration Information Source. November 2003.
  59. ^ Veronika Gulyas (May 26, 2010). "Hungary Citizenship Bill Irks Neighbor". The Wall Street Journal. 
  60. ^ "Genetic structure in relation to the history of Hungarian ethnic groups". Human Biology. 1996. 
  61. ^ Andrea Vágó-Zalán, A magyar populáció genetikai elemzése nemi kromoszómális markerek alapján, ELTE TTK Biológia Doktori Iskola, 2012, p. 51
  62. ^ a b c Csanád Bálint (October 2008). "A történeti genetika és az eredetkérdés(ek)". Magyar Tudomány: 1170. Retrieved 2009-10-06.  Cited: "Lipták Pálnak köszönhetően közel fél évszázada tudjuk, hogy a 10. sz.-i embercsontoknak csak 16,7 %-a tartozik a mongolid és az europo-mongolid rasszhoz. Tehát a mai magyarság szerológiai, és genetikai összetételében egyértelműen kimutatott európai jelleg, ugyanakkor az ázsiainak hiánya nem egyedül az eltelt ezer év keveredéseinek köszönhető, hanem már a honfoglalás- és Szent István-kori Magyarország lakossága is szinte kizárólag biológiailag európai eredetűekből állt." Translation: "Due to Pál Lipták we know, for almost half a century, that only 16.7 percent of 10th century human bones belong to the Euro-Mongoloid and Mongoloid races. Thus, the unambiguously established European characteristics in the genetic and serological composition of the recent Hungarian population and the lack of Asian markers are not solely due to the thousand years of blending but biologically the populations of the conquest period and St Stephen's Hungary were made up almost exclusively of peoples of European origin."
  63. ^ Pál Lipták: A magyarság etnogenezisének paleoantropológiája (The paleoanthropology of Hungarian people's ethnogenesis) (Antropológiai Közl., 1970. 14. sz.)
  64. ^ "Comparison of maternal lineage and biogeographic analyses of ancient and modern Hungarian populations, ''U.S. National Library of Medicine''". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2013-08-22. 
  65. ^ "Y-chromosome analysis of ancient Hungarian and two modern Hungarian-speaking populations from the Carpathian Basin;". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 
  66. ^ a b Dreisziger, Nándor, "Ármin Vámbéry (1832-1913) as a Historian of Hungarian Settlement in the Carpathian Basin." AHEA: E-Journal of the American Hungarian Educators Association, Volume 6, 2013
  67. ^ A. Z. Bíró, A. Zalán, A. Völgyi, and H. Pamjav. A Y-chromosomal comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139:3 (July 2009): pages 305-310.
  68. ^ István Fodor (1982). In search of a new homeland: the prehistory of the Hungarian people and the conquest. Corvina. p. 122. 
  69. ^ Antal Bartha, A magyar nép őstörténete, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1988, p.221. Quote:
    • "Figyelemre érdemes, hogy a honfoglaló magyarok embertani alkata közel áll a dél-uráli szauro és szarmata népesség körében fellelhetö tipusokhoz."
  70. ^ István Balogh, Péter Hajdú, Ancient cultures of the Uralian peoples, Corvina Press, 1976, p. 136.
  71. ^ Péter Hajdú, Uráli népek: nyelvrokonaink kultúrája és hagyományai, vol.85, Corvina, 1975, p.132:
    • "A magyarság török komponensét turanid, pamíri és alárendelten „Andronovo típusú" embertani komponensek jellemzik. A magyarok néppé válása végső fokon a Kárpát-medencében (a Középső-Dunamedencében) fejeződött be, méghozzá..."
  72. ^ http://hargita.awardspace.com/genek/genetien.html
  73. ^ Endre Czeizel, Heide-G. Benkemann, H. Werner Goedde, Genetics of the Hungarian Population: Ethnic Aspects, Genetic Markers, Ecogenetics, and Disease Spectrum, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1991, p. 95.
  74. ^ Sándor Juhász-Nagy, A magyar októberi forradalom története, 1918 okt. 31-1919 márc. 21, Cserépfalvi, 1945, p.10. Quote:
    • "Bartucz legújabb kutatásai szerint a magyarságban a turanid (alföldi) rassz csak 25—30%-ra, a keleteurópai (keleti finn) rassz pedig csak 20%-ra becsülhetö, [...]. [...] A másik fele az indogermán jellegü 20% dinári, 15% alpesi, 4 — 5% taurid (elôázsiai), 4% nordikus és 1% mediterran rassz vegyületeiböl adódik."

Bibliography[edit]

  • Molnar, Miklos (2001). A Concise History of Hungary. Cambridge Concise Histories (Fifth printing 2008 ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66736-4. 
  • Korai Magyar Történeti Lexicon (9–14. század) (Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th–14th Centuries)) Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó; 753. ISBN 963-05-6722-9.

External links[edit]

Genetic studies