Maha Thammarachathirat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Maha Thammaracha)
Jump to: navigation, search
Maha Thammarachathirat
King of Ayutthaya kingdom
King of Siam
Reign 1569–1590
Predecessor Maha Chakkraphat
Successor Naresuan
Spouse Wisutkasat
Issue Suphankanlaya
Full name
Sanphet I
House Sukhothai Dynasty
Born 1509
Died 1590

Thammarachathirat (Thai: มหาธรรมราชาธิราช) or Sanphet I (Thai: สรรเพชญ์ที่ 1) or formerly known as Khun Phirenthrathep (Thai: ขุนพิเรนทรเทพ) was the first King of Ayutthaya kingdom of the Sukhothai dynasty ruling from 1569 to 1590. As a powerful Sukhothai noble, Phirenthrathep gradually rose to power. After playing many political turns, he was eventually crowned as the King of Siam.

A Sukhothai noble[edit]

Main article: Sukhothai dynasty

Though the Kingdom of Sukhothai had come under personal union with Ayutthaya since 1448, the royal clan of Sukhothai still held power in their base Phitsanulok and constitutes as one of four political clans of 16th century Ayutthaya (Supannabhum, Uthong, Sukhothai, and Sri Thamnakorn). Chairacha, however, tried to reduce the power of Sukhothai nobles. He ceased to appoint the Uparaja the King of Sukhothai and called the Sukhothai nobles to Ayutthaya to dissolve their base of power at Phitsanulok.[1]

Khun Phirenthrathep was one of the Sukhothai nobles at the court of Ayutthaya. In 1548, the kingdom fell under the governance of Worawongsathirat and Si Suda Chan of the Uthong clan. The Uthong clan rose to power at the expense of other clans.[1] Khun Pirenthrathep then sought alliance with Sri Thamnakorn clan led by Khun Inthrawongse and staged a coup against Worawongsathirat and Si Suda Chan in 1548, restoring the throne to Supannabhum dynasty.

Maha Chakkraphat made Khun Phirenthrathep (who had staged a coup and put him on the throne) the Phra Phitsanulok as Maha Thammarachathirat. The name Maha Thammaracha was the reigning name of Sukhothai kings in the 14th century. Maha Thammarachathirat enjoyed a great power. He married Maha Chakkraphat's daughter, Sawatdirat, as his queen with the name Queen Wisutkasat.[2]:73

King of Phitsanulok[edit]

In 1548, Tabinshweti of Pegu led Burmese forces and invaded Ayutthaya in the Burmese–Siamese War of 1548. The Siamese managed to force a retreat upon the Burmese. However, the Siamese armies under Prince Ramesuan the Uparaja and Maha Thammarachathirat were ambushed and the two captured. They were released when Maha Chakkrapat paid the ransom of two male war elephants.[2]:14-21

In 1563, Tabinshweti's successor, Bayinnaung, led the massive Burmese armies to invade Siam. He laid siege on Phitsanulok. Maha Thammarachathirat offered "stout resistance", but surrendered and submitted after all food was gone and a smallpox epidemic spread.[2]:36

Maha Thammarachathirat had to send his - Naresuan - to Pegu as a captives. With his son in Burmese captivity, Maha Thammarachathirat was forced to allied himself with Bayinnaung.[2]:67

Mahinthrathirat - son of Maha Chakkraphat - then sought alliance with Setthathirat of Lan Xang to fight Bayinnuang and Maha Thammarachathirat. In 1566, during Maha Thammarachathirat's absence from Phitsanulok to Pegu, Mahinthrathirat brought Queen Wisutkasat and her sons and daughters to Ayutthaya. Maha Thammarachathirat sought help from Bayinnuang.[2]:47-50

In 1568, Bayinnuang marched large Burmese armies to Ayutthaya with supports from Maha Thammarachathirat. Ayutthaya finally fell in 1569 and Maha Thammarachathirat was installed as King of Ayutthaya. Bayinnuang bestowed him the reigning name Sanpet I.

King of Ayutthaya[edit]

Maha Thammarachathirat asked Bayinnuang to return his sons Naresuan and Ekathotsarot to Ayutthaya in exchange for his daughter Suphankanlaya as Bayinnuang's secondary wife in 1571. Maha Thammarachathirat made Naresuan the King of Phitsanulok and Uparaja in 1569. Ayutthaya kingdom under Maha Thammarachathirat was tributary to Burma.

Cambodian invasions[edit]

In 1570, the King of Lovek marched Cambodian armies to Ayutthaya and laid siege on the city but failed. In 1574, under the request from Pegu, Maha Thammaracha led the Siamese armies to subjugate Vientiane. The Cambodians took this opportunity to invade Siam but was also repelled.

In 1578, the Cambodians invaded Khorat and proceeded further to Saraburi. Naresuan sent Siamese armies to ambush the Cambodians at Chaibadan, halting the invaders from reaching Ayutthaya.

Break from Pegu[edit]

In 1581, Bayinnuang died, succeeded by his son Nanda Bayin. In 1583, the Lord of Ava and the Shans staged a rebellion against Pegu. Nanda Bayin then requested for troops from Ayutthaya. The Siamese armies went slowly to Ava under leadership of Naresuan. Nanda Bayin then suspected of Siamese royalty and secretly ordered his son Minchit Sra the Uparaja to defeat Naresuan's army and kill him upon reaching Pegu. However, Naresuan was forewarned and denounced Burmese tributary in 1583.

In 1584, Nanda Bayin himself led the Peguan armies into Siam but was defeated by Naresuan.[3] For many years the Burmese armies surged into Ayutthaya but was repelled. Maha Thammarachathirat died 1590. He was succeeded by Naresuan.


Maha Thammarachathirat
Born: 1509 Died: 1590
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Ayutthaya
Succeeded by
Preceded by
King of Sukhothai
Succeeded by