Mahamrityunjaya Mantra

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The Mahamrityunjaya Mantra (Sanskrit: महामृत्युंजय मंत्र, mahāmṛtyuṃjaya mantra "Great Death-conquering Mantra"), also called the Tryambakam Mantra, is a verse of the Rigveda (RV 7.59.12). It is addressed to Tryambaka, "the three-eyed one", an epithet of Rudra, later identified with Shiva.[1][2] The verse also recurs in the Yajurveda (TS 1.8.6.i; VS 3.60)[1]

Mantra text[edit]

The Mahamrityunjaya Mantra reads:

In Devanagari script:
ॐ त्र्यम्बकं यजामहे सुगन्धिं पुष्टिवर्धनम् ।
उर्वारुकमिव बन्धनान् मृत्योर्मुक्षीय मामृतात् ।।
In IAST transliteration:
oṁ tryambakaṁ yajāmahe sugandhiṁ puṣṭi-vardhanam ǀ
urvārukam-iva bandhanānmṛtyormukṣīya māmṛtāt ǁ

In some Hindu religious books the complete mantra is preceded by oṁ hrauṁ jūṁ saḥ / oṁ bhūrbhuvaḥ svaḥ and followed by oṁ svaḥ bhuvaḥ bhūr / oṁ saḥ jūṁ hrauṁ oṁ, which is its Tantric version.[3]

There are at least two versions of the Tryambakam mantra found in the Rudrashtadhyayi and in the Shukla/Krishna Yajur Veda. The versions are similar with variation in a few syllables: oṁ tryambakaṁ yajāmahe sugandhiṁ pativedanam, urvārukam-iva bandhanānmṛtyormukṣīya māmutaḥ.

"Om Jum Sah" is the Mahamrityunjaya bīja mantra.

Literal Meaning of the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra[edit]

Word-by-word meaning of the Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra:-

  • oṁ = is a sacred/mystical syllable in Sanatan Dharma or hindu religions, i.e. Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism.[4]
  • त्र्यम्बकम् tryambakam = the three-eyed one (accusative case),
त्रि + अम्बकम् = tri + ambakam = three + eye
  • यजामहे yajāmahe = We worship, adore, honour, revere,
  • सुगन्धिम् sugandhim = sweet smelling, fragrant (accusative case),
  • पुष्टि puṣṭi = A well-nourished condition, thriving, prosperous, fullness of life,
  • वर्धनम् vardhanam = One who nourishes, strengthens, causes to increase (in health, wealth, well-being); who gladdens, exhilarates, and restores health; a good gardener,
पुष्टि-वर्धनम् = puṣṭi+vardhanam = पुष्टि: वर्धते अनेन तत् = puṣṭiḥ vardhate anena tat (samas)= The one who nourishes someone else and gives his life fullness.
  • उर्वारुकमिव urvārukamiva = like the cucumber or melon (in the accusative case),
Note: Some people have decomposed the compound urvārukam in this way: 'urva' means "vishal" or big and powerful or deadly; 'arukam' means 'disease'. But urva (उर्वा) does not mean 'vishal' in Sanskrit; rather it is cognate with the Hindi word oorva (ऊर्वा); so this translation is not correct.
  • बन्धनान् bandhanān = "from captivity" {i.e. from the stem of the cucumber} (of the gourd); (the ending is actually long a, then -t, which changes to n/anusvara because of sandhi)
Note: bandhanān means bound down. Thus, read with urvārukam iva, it means 'I am bound down just like a cucumber (to a vine)'.
  • मृत्योर्मुक्षीय mṛtyormukṣīya = Free, liberate From death
मृत्यु: + मुक्षीय = mṛtyuḥ + mukṣīya= from death + free (Vedic usage)
  • मा ∫ मृतात् mā ∫ mṛtāt = (give) me immortality, emancipation
Note: Here are two possible combinations
1) मा + अमृतात् = mā + amṛtāt = not + immortality, nectar
Translation would be: (Free me from death but) not from immortality.
2) मा (माम) + अमृतात् = mā (short form of mām) + amṛtāt = myself + sure, definitely
Translation would be: Free me from certain death.

Simple Translation[edit]

OM. We worship the Three-eyed Lord who is fragrant and who nourishes and nurtures all beings. As is the ripened cucumber (with the intervention of the gardener) is freed from its bondage (to the creeper), may he liberate us from death for the sake of immortality.[5]

Origin[edit]

The Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra is said to have been found by Rishi Markandeya. It was a secret mantra, and Rishi Markandeya was the only one in the world who knew this mantra. The Moon was once in trouble, cursed by King Daksha. Rishi Markandeya gave the Mahamritryunjaya Mantra to Sati, Daksha's daughter, for the Moon. According to another version this is the Bija mantra as revealed to Rishi Kahola that was given by Lord Shiva to sage Sukracharya, who taught it to Rishi Dadicha, who gave it to King Kshuva, through whom it reached the Shiva Purana.[6]

It is also called the Rudra mantra, referring to the furious aspect of Lord Shiva; the Tryambakam mantra, alluding to Shiva's three eyes; and it is sometimes known as the Mrita-Sanjivini mantra because it is a component of the "life-restoring" practice given to the primordial sage Sukracharya after he had completed an exhausting period of austerity. Its Devata is Rudra or Lord Shiva in his fiercest and most destructive roopa or aspect. In the Vedas it finds its place in three texts - a) the Rig veda VII.59.12, b) the Yajur Veda III.60, and c) the Atharva Veda XIV.1.17.[7]

Significance[edit]

It is said to beneficial for mental, emotional and physical health[8] and to be a moksha mantra which bestows longevity and immortality.[9]

According to some puranas, the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra has been used by many Rishis as well as Sati during the time when Chandra suffered from the curse of Prajapati Daksha. By reciting this mantra, the effect of the curse of Daksha, which could make him die, slowed, and Shiva then took Chandra and placed it upon his head.

This mantra is addressed to Lord Shiva for warding off untimely death.[10] It is also chanted while smearing Vibhuti over various parts of the Body and utilised in Japa or Homa (havan) to get desired results. While its energy protects and guides the initiates a mantra re-links consciousness to its deeper and more abiding nature and repetition of the mantra constitutes Japa, the practice of which develops concentration that leads to a transformation of awareness. Whereas the Gayatri Mantra is meant for purification and spiritual guidance, the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra is meant for healing rejuvenation and nurturance.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra meaning, significance, audio
  2. ^ Mrityunjaya Mantra- Victory over Death
  3. ^ chanted version led by Anuradha Paudwal. Accessed 16 June 2014.
  4. ^ Om
  5. ^ "Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra, Meaning, Significance, Audio". 
  6. ^ "Mahamrityunjaya Mantra". 
  7. ^ Swami Vibhooti Saraswati. "Mahamrityunjaya Mantra-Door into Eternal Life". 
  8. ^ "Mahamrityunjaya Mantra". 
  9. ^ Vishnu Devanand. Meditations and Mantras:An Authoritative Text. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 63. 
  10. ^ David Frawley. Mantra Yoga and Primal Sound. Lotus Press. p. 158. 
  11. ^ Rolf Sovik. Moving Inward:The Journey to Meditation. Himalayan Institute Press. p. 162. 

External links[edit]