Suraj Mal

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To be distinguished from Suraj Mal of Nurpur.
Maharaja Suraj Mal
Maharaja of Bharatpur
Bahadur Jung
Maharaja Suraj Mal.jpg
Reign 1756 - 1763 AD
Coronation Deeg, 22nd May 1755
Born February 1707
Died 25 December 1763
Place of death near Delhi
Predecessor Maharaja Badan Singh
Successor Maharaja Jawahar Singh
Issue Jawahar Singh
Nahar Singh
Ratan Singh
Nihal Singh
Ranjit Singh
Royal house Sinsinwar Jat Dynasty
Royal anthem of Bharatpur
Father Rup Singh
Mother Devki (Deoki)
Religious beliefs Hinduism

Maharaja Suraj Mal (February 1707–25 December 1763) or Sujan Singh was ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India. He has been described by a contemporary historian as "the Plato of the Jat people" and by a modern writer as the "Jat Odysseus", because of his political sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision.[1]

Early life[edit]

Coat of arms of Bharatpur rulers

Surajmal was born on February 1707 in Bharatpur, India.[citation needed] He was eldest son of the Jat emperor of Bharatpur, Maharaja Badan Singh,[2] and his wife Rani Devki of Jat family from Kama. He had 14 Queens,[3] of whom six have been described by Fransoo.[citation needed] He enumerates them as below:[4]

  1. Maharani Kishori, the daughter of Chowdhary Kashi Ram Jat of Hodal.
  2. Rani Hansia, the daughter of Chowdhary Rati Ram Jat of Salempur. She died childless.
  3. Ganga Rani, who hailed from a village Bichawindi.
  4. Kalyani Rani, who came from the village Nahani Jhansi and was the mother of Nahar Singh.
  5. Rani Gauri, who originated from Gori clan of Rajputs of Amahand and was mother of Jawahar Singh and Ratan Singh.
  6. Rani Khattu, who was the khas wife of Suraj Mal.

From his four wives, he left five sons: Jawar Singh, Ratan Singh, Nawal Singh, Ranjit Singh and Nahar Singh. The first two were born of a lady, popularly reputed to have been a Rajputni, possibly of Gaurua clan, the third was son of a Malin mother, the last two, Ranjit Singh and Nahar Singh were born of his own Jat tribe. But the mother of none of these enjoyed the particular affection of the King, who loved most dearly his masculine and barren wife, the famous queen Maharani Kishori. Jawahar Singh was fortunate enough to be adopted by this lady, whose influence and affection shielded the rebellious youth from the worst effects on the wrath of his father. For various political reasons, Suraj Mal also had 24 mistresses each from a different cast, so as to gain popularity within a cast.[5]

He was a son of Maharaja Badan Singh. Out of his surviving sons Surajmal and his brother Pratap Singh were popular and competent for throne of Bharatpur[citation needed] To avoid any future family feud Badan Singh constructed two separate forts and palaces, at Kumher for Surajmal and at Weir for Pratap Singh. Due to his health conditions Badan Singh handed over the state of Weir to Pratap Singh around 1738-40 and declared Surajmal as successor for the rest of state and handed over the administration to him. Due to untimely death of his son Pratap Singh on 2 November 1745 and severity of his eye problem he decided to retire from active royal affairs. He had virtually exercised the sole management of the affairs of the state of Bharatpur for over twenty years before and after the death of Badan Singh. On November 1745 Suraj Mal became the ruler of Jat Empire.[6]

Rise of Jat power[edit]

Flag of Bharatpur State

In the early 18th century, the farmers of Bharatpur were being terrorised and ill treated by the Mughals. At this point of time Churaman, a powerful Jat village headman rose against this tyranny but was defeated harshly by the Mughals. This did not remain for long, since the Jats once again came together under the leadership of Badan Singh, and controlled a vast expanse of territory. The Mughal emperor recognised him and the title of 'Raja' (king) was conferred upon him in 1724.

Deeg was the first capital of the Bharatpur state with Badan Singh being proclaimed its ruler in 1722. He was responsible for conceiving and constructing the royal palace on the southern side of the garden, now called Purana Mahal or old palace. Because of its strategic location and proximity to Mathura and Agra, Deeg was vulnerable to repeated attacks by invaders. In 1730, crown prince Suraj Mal is reported to have erected the strong fortress with towering walls and a deepwater moat with high ramparts about 20 feet (6.1 m) wide in the southern portion of the town. In the same year he built the fortress at Kumher.

Raja Badan Singh’s heir, Raja Suraj Mal, was the most famous of the Bharatpur rulers, ruling at a time of constant upheaval around him. Raja Surajmal used all his power and wealth to a good cause, and built numerous forts and palaces across his kingdom, one of them being the Lohagarh Fort (Iron fort), which was one of the strongest ever built in Indian history. The inaccessible Lohagarh fort could withstand repeated attacks of British forces led by Lord Lake in 1805 when they laid siege for over six weeks. Having lost over 3000 soldiers, the British forces had to retreat and strike a compromise with the Bharatpur ruler. Of the two gates in the fort, one in the north is known as Ashtdhaatu (eight metalled) gate while the one facing the south is called Chowburja (four-pillared) gate.

Maharaja Suraj Mal conquered the site of Bharatpur from Khemkaran Sogaria, the son of Rustam, in 1733 and established the Bharatpur town in 1743.

Chandaus war 1746[edit]

The Chandaus War was in important event in the career of Maharaja Suraj Mal. Chandaus town is in Aligarh district. In 1745, the Delhi Mughal Emperor became angry with Nawab Fateh Ali Khan of koīl (Aligarh), so to punish him Badsah sent an Afghan chieftain Asad Khan. Fateh Ali Khan expected loss and insult in war with Asad Khan, so he sought help of Maharaja Suraj Mal. In the month of November 1745, hardly a month had passed for Suraj Mal and it was his first opportunity to take independent decisions in matters of external political and army affairs. Suraj Mal assured Fateh Ali Khan to help and sent an army under command of his son and later he himself moved to koīl (Aligarh. When Asad Khan attacked koīl (Aligarh) in early 1746, war took place at Chandaus in which Asad Khan was killed and the royal army was defeated. Thus with the active help and strength of Suraj Mal, Fateh Khan could save his jagir. This war helped in increasing the power of Bharatpur state.[7][8]

Bagru war[edit]

Maharaja Suraj Mal developed friendly relations with Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur, who loved him like son. Raja Jai Singh died on 21 September 1743. After Sawai Jai Singh, there was a family dispute between his two sons Ishwari Singh and Madho Singh. Suraj Mal supported claim of the elder son Ishwari Singh on the throne. Younger son Madho Singh also put forward his claim for the throne and he was supported by Maharana Udaipur Jagat Singh. A war started between two brothers at place called Jahajpur in the end of 1743, which ended up in the victory of Ishwari Singh in March 1747.[9]

After a peace of one year the Jaipur state's family dispute reached the peak. The Niwai expedition of Peshwa in May 1748 resulted into Ishwari Singh's agreeing to provide four parganas to Madho Singh. Meanwhile on receiving a message from Ishwari Singh Suraj Mal reached Jaipur with an army of 10000 and advised Ishwari Singh to ignore Peshwa's agreement. Holker then moved to attack Jaipur. Madho Singh was supported by Marathas, Rathors, Sisodia, Hada, Khichi and Panwar rulers.[10]

There was a front of seven rulers against Ishwari Singh, but Jat army under the leadership of Maharaja Suraj Mal faced the supporters of Madho Singh, the combined forces of Marathas, Mughals and Rajputs in Bagru War that started on 20 August 1748. The war continued for three days in heavy rains. Jaipur army's harawal was led by Sikar thakur Shiv Singh Shekhawat, who was killed by Gangadhar Tantya on second day. Maharaja Suraj Mal himself took the leadership of Jaipur harawal on third day. Suraj Mal fought the war with great courage and hacked himself 50 and wounded 160 enemies. He converted almost sure defeat of Ishwari Singh to a victory.[11] Thus in 1749 he established Ishwari Singh on the throne of Amber. This war enhanced the reputation of Maharaja Suraj Mal in the entire country.[12]

Bundi court poet Shurya Mall, who was watching the above war has mentioned about the bravery of Suraj Mal in Hindi poetry as under:[12]

नहीं जाटनी ने सही व्यर्थ प्रसव की पीर ।
जन्मा उसके गर्भ से सूरजमल सा वीर ।
"The Jatni did not bear the labour pain in vain, she gave birth to a brave warrior like Suraj Mal."

Another version of this battle is that, after Sawai Jai Singh, when there was a dispute between Madho Singh and Ishwari Singh for the accession of the throne . Madho Singh was supported by Holkars and Ishwari Singh’s side was taken by Shindes. In this war, Holkar-Madho Singh army lost to Shinde-Ishwari Singh army.[13]

The Marathas were defeated by Afghan armies at the Third Battle of Panipat and a hundred thousand Maratha survivors reached Suraj Mal’s territory while returning south, sans arms, sans clothes and sans food. Maharaja Suraj Mal and Maharani Kishori received them with tender warmth and hospitality, giving free rations to every Maratha soldier or camp follower. The wounded were taken care of till they were fit to travel. Thus, Maharaja Suraj Mal spent no less than three million rupees on their sick and wounded guests.

Treaty with Mir Bakshi (1 January 1750)[edit]

Delhi Badshah was worried by the rising power of Jats of Bharatpur, as Jats had occupied Faridabad. Ahmadshah gave the Jagir of Faridabad to wajir Safdar Jang. The new wajir advised Balram, who had occupied Palwal and Faridabad paraganas and Suraj Mal to leave the shahi parganas but they ignored it. At the same time Mir Bakshi Salabat Khan also left for the Marwar expedition. In November 1749, Safdar Jang and Mir Bakshi planned to attack Maharaja Suraj Mal from different directions and sent a message to Suraj Mal to leave Faridabad for them. Suraj Mal was not moved by this proposal. Wajir Safdar Jang thought it wastage of time and money to do war with Suraj Mal, so he decided to be friendly with Suraj Mal. They wanted help of Suraj Mal to defeat Farrukhabad’s Vangash Pathan. Suraj Mal assured them to help and got faujdari of Mathura in exchange.[7]

Mir Bakshi attacked Mewat to destroy Nimrana fort of Suraj Mal and occupied it on 30 December 1749. After this Mir Bakshi moved to Agra rather than Narnaul and stayed near Saray Shobh Chand. On 1 January 1750 Suraj Mal could know the objective of Mir Bakshi Salabat Khan, so he moved towards his camp. The army of Suraj Mal with 5000 Jat soldiers seized the army of Mir Bakshi. The Gohad ruler, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana, with 200 sawars also joined him. Hakim Khan and Rustam Khan along with many Mughal soldiers were badly killed. The supply of water, food and other communications were blocked and Mir Bakshi was forced to do the treaty with Maharaja Suraj Mal.[7]

Mir Bakshi Salabat Khan signed the following treaty with Suraj Mal through Fateh Ali Khan:[14]

  1. No person of Mir Bakshi will cut pipal (Ficus religiosa) tree in their country.
  2. No temple in this area will be insulted and no objection will be raised regarding worship of Hindus.
  3. Shuraj Mal took the responsibility that he would get Rs 1.5 million peshkash from Rajputs of Ajmer Subah. Provided Mir Bakshi takes oath that he would not cross Narnaul.

Ghaserā War 1753[edit]

The friendship of Suraj Mal with wajir Safdarjand paid him the dividends. On 20 October 1752 Suraj Mal appeared before the samrat with wajir and he was awarded with the title of 'Kunwar Bahadur Rajendra' and his father Badan Singh as 'Raja Mahendra'. In December wajir gave Suraj Mal the faujdari of Mathura and shahi jagir on Khalsa land. Thus Suraj Mal could legalise his possession over the shahi areas with the support of wajir.

In the early 1753, wajir cunsulted Suraj Mal to punish faujdar Bahadur Singh Bargujar of Koil, as both were suspecious of his friendship. They decided to attack Koil. Wajir obtained shahi orders and handed over the leadership of this expedition to Suraj Mal.[15] Suraj Mal moved from Delhi for the war in first week of February 1753. Jawar Singh joined him after crossing Yamuna. Suraj Mal attacked Aligarh on 10 February and brought under his reign. Faujdar Bahadur Singh had to take shelter in his ancestral fort at Ghasera.[16]

Suraj Mal consulted his four Generals- Surati Ram Gaur, Bharath Singh, Daulat Ram and Kripa Ram Gujar about strategy to deploy the army to seize the Ghasera fort. The north front was led by Jawar Singh, south front by Bakshi Mohan Ram, Sultan Singh and Vir Narain. Balu Ram was asked to be ready for any front. Suraj Mal himself with a gun-army of 5000 and artillery led the eastern front with his mama (maternal uncle) Sukh Ram, Maidu ruler Ratan Singh, Mir Muhammad Panah, Gokul Ram Gaur, Ram Chandra Tomar, Hari Nagar and other chiefs including that of famously mercenary Saharan clan.[17]

On the other-side Rao Bahadur Singh was ready with 8000 soldiers, sufficient food and weapons. On the first day of war, Rao had to retreat back on the eastern front. His brother Jalim Singh and son Ajit Singh were wounded. Rao returned to fort and started intensive artillery attack from inside the fort. Suraj Mal instructed his beldars to dig out the trenches and shift the army fronts to the outer boundary. The war continued for many days.[17]

Due to the severity of war and its probability of continuing for longer period, Rao Bahadur Singh, under pressure of his people sent his wounded brother for negotiation with Suraj Mal. Suraj Mal put a proposal to leave the front on the condition of paying Rs 1 million along with entire artillery to be handed over to him. The stubborn Rao did not agree to hand over cannons. Meanwhile Jalim Singh died. After few days Suraj Mal again tried for negotiations but could not succeed. Suraj Mal then ordered severe attack from all sides. A severe war took place on the night of 22 April 1753. Next day Mir Muhammad Panah along with 1500 jat soldiers were killed but Jat army could enter the fort. Bahadur Singh decided for the jauhar, he massacred all the women in the fort. Rao Bahadur Singh along with his son Ajit Singh and the soldiers fought the decisive war. The court poet Sudan of Suraj Mal, who was eye witness of the war, has described about their bravery impartially.[citation needed] Rao Bahadur Singh along with his son Ajit Singh fought till last moment and were killed on 23 April 1753 and the fort of Ghasera was captured by Suraj Mal.[18]

Attack on Delhi (10 May 1753)[edit]

Maharaja Suraj Mal fortified the city by building a massive wall around the city. He started living in Bharatpur in 1753. Maharaja Suraj Mals attack on Old Delhi and nearby areas frightened the people and started running to New Delhi for the protection of life and property. The Royal army of Mughals could not protect them as they were engaged in war with the Maratha. On 14 May Jats sacked Chārbāg, Bāg-e-kultāt and Hakīm Munīm Bridge. They sacked Jaisinghpura on 15 May and burnt many areas. On 16 May Jats attacked Delhi ferociously and defeated Sādil Khan and Raja Devidatta in a severe war. On 17 May their army could capture Ferozshah Kotla but were forced out never taking Delhi proper. In a severe war with Rohillas Najib was wounded and 400 Ruhela soldiers were killed.[19]

The Nawab of Delhi, in revenge of the defeat, instigated Marathas to attack Suraj Mal. The Marathas laid siege over the Kumher fort on 1 January 1754. Suraj Mal gave strong resistance. However, the Marathas were on the brink of conquering the Kumher fort.New surveys from the ASI has proved that he didn't captured Delhi, but he took the gate of Ferozshah Kotla while The Moghuls were on a war with Marathas and brought them to bharatpur state.

Jat-Maratha treaty (18 May 1754)[edit]

The Marathas had attacked Kumher Fort on 20 January 1754 AD. They besieged the Kumher Fort till 18 May 1754. The war continued for about four months. During the war Khanderao Holkar, son of Malharrao Holkar, was one day inspecting his army in an open palanquin, when he was fired from inside the fort and a cannonball hit him and he was killed on 17 March 1754. Malhar Rao got very angry on the death of his only son and wanted to take revenge and vowed that he would cut off the head of Maharaja Suraj Mal and throw the soil of fort into Yamuna after destroying it. Marathas increased the pressure. At a time, when the Marathas were just going to take over the fort and destroy it, Maharaja Suraj Mal counselled Maharani Kishori, who assured him not to worry and started the diplomatic efforts. She contacted Diwan Roop Ram Katara. She knew that there were some differences between Malharrao Holkar and Jayappa Sindhia and that Jayappa Sindhia was very firm in determinations. She advised Maharaja Suraj Mal to take advantage of mutual differences within Marathas. Diwan Roop Ram Katara was a friend of Jayappa Sindhia. She requested Diwan Roop Ram Katara to take letter of Maharaja Suraj Mal with a proposal of a treaty. Jayappa Sindhia assured to assist and contacted Raghunathrao. Raghunathrao in turn advised Holkar for treaty with Suraj Mal. Malhar Rao Holkar assessed the situation and consented for treaty due to possibility of isolation. This led to a treaty between both rulers on 18 May 1754. This treaty proved very beneficial for Maharaja Suraj Mal. However, this increased the differences between Holkars and Shindes.[20]

The prelude to Panipat[edit]

India held her breath in painful suspense for the last six months of the year 1760. A struggle between the foreign Afghan invader and the Maratha for ascendancy in Northern India was given the appearance of a great communal and religious war by the Durrani. Agents of Peshwa visited the court of every Hindu prince of Rajputana, but received a cold reception and evasive replies.[citation needed] Right from the start the Maratha commander attempted to win over allies. He wrote, though in vain, to the various Hindu and Muslim chiefs, seeking their help in banishing the invader and protecting India.[21][22] The Sarva Khap Panchayat of the upper Doab, however, responded to this call.[23]

Jats join Bhau[edit]

After his arrival on the bank of the Chambal, Sadashivrao Bhau sent a high-flown letter to Raja Suraj Mal, requesting him to come without delay to the Maratha camp and unite.[24] Raja Suraj Mal, however, suspected treachery and hence hesitated to visit the Maratha camp till Malhar Rao Holkar and Sindhia furnished personal oaths and solemn assurances concerning his safety.[25] They persuaded him to meet the Bhau at Agra. Suraj Mal went to the Maratha camp and was honourably received by the Bhau and other Maratha generals. Bhau, in person, advanced two miles (3 km) to welcome his only as well as an important ally Suraj Mal. The renewed pledge followed, Bhau taking the Yamuna’s water in his hands as a solemn proof of his alliance with Jat Raja. The wazir held a conference with Bhau through the mediation of Suraj Mal.[25]

Everything went well for a few days and it was all love and cordiality between the Jats and the Marathas. But coolness soon sprang up owing to difference of opinion as to the plan of campaign against Abdali. The Maratha commander-in-chief called a council of war at Agra, and there, Suraj Mal was asked to give his opinion as to the proper method to be followed in impending campaign. The Jat chief emphasised caution and reflection in conducting the war against a mighty and clever enemy like Abdali. He proposed that the ladies, the heavy equipage, big guns, and such other things, which were of little use in the present struggle, should be dispatched to Jhansi, Gwalior or any of his forts. The line of supplies should be kept safe and open. The provisions, he ensured, could be produced from Jat country. He advised to carry on an irregular warfare with light cavalry (jang-i-kazzaqana) against the Shah, and not encounter him in pitched battles in the manner of kings and emperors (jung-i-Sultani). He further advised the Bhau that one of the army should be sent towards the east, another towards Lahore, so that by devastating those countries, the supply of grain to the army of Durrani may be cut off and also create a diversion and thus force his Indian allies to desert Abdali. When the rainy season will arrive both sides will be unable to move from their places and at last the Shah, who will be in a disadvantageous position (in comparison with us), will of himself become distressed and return to his own country. The Afghans thus disheartened, would submit to your power.[26][27]

However, it could also be said that, this couldn't have been of much help to the Marathas, as Abdali was hugely dependent on Najib and Shuja for the supplies from Rohilkhand, Antarved (which is to the east of Yamuna) and from Awadh respectively. Also, it is worth noting that at that moment of time, Abdali was banked on the eastern side of the Yamuna river and thus, it seems improbable for him to get supplies from Lahore or Afghanistan.

Before Najib was made Mir-Bakshu of Delhi by Abdali during one of his invasions, Gajuddin was the Wazir of Delhi. Gajuddin had killed two of the Delhi Badshahs. He was the one who helped and introduced Najib in the Delhi Darbar. But then, Najib back-fired and instead ousted Gajuddin from Delhi. He even tried to lay his hands on the women in relation with Ghaji-ud-din. Thus, Ghaji-ud-din came under the cover of the Marathas for protection and help against Najib. But, Ghaji-ud-din with help of Bhausaheb, just wanted to fulfill his selfish motive of retaining the post of Wazir of Delhi. He didn’t have any army of his own with him when he came under the Maratha cover.

Surajmal and Ghaji-ud-din along with Gangoba Tatya (the karbhari of Holkars) and the karbhari of the Shindes had planned to take over Delhi with the help of the army of Bhausaheb and then, give the control of Delhi to Surajmal and the post of Wazir of Delhi to Ghaji-ud-din. In return, the two karbharis were hoping to get money and greater role in the affairs of the North. For this motive itself, the two karbharis were persuading Bhausaheb during their march to Delhi, to return to Pune and that they would take control of Delhi and drive out the invaders. But Bhausaheb being the brave and responsible person he was, refused to leave his army in the North and return to Pune. Bhausaheb had come to know about motives of Surajmal, Ghaji-ud-din, and the two karbharis. However, he didn’t punish the two karbharis in the middle of the battle as it could have led to tension and confusion, and thought that it would be appropriate to deal with them when the Marathas returned to Pune after a successful campaign. However, Holkars and Shindes weren't a part of this plan and the only culprits were the two karbharis.[13]

Raja Suraj Mal, accompanied by Ghazi-ud-din, joined the Bhau with 8000 Jats. The allied army reached Delhi on 23 July 1760 and laid siege to it.[citation needed] Marathas captured Delhi rather easily although there was a substantial army posted there. Ibrahim Gardi with his artillery did a commendable job, giving first taste of the Maratha artillery to the Afghans. When the imperial capital fell, Ghaji-ud-din had his revenge upon the Mughals (i.e.Abdalis). However, in contrast to popular belief, Delhi was already reduced to ashes due to invasions by various powers. Thus, the Marathas weren't able to get suuplies from Delhi too.[28] Ghaji-ud-din now was waiting as to when he would be made Wazir of Delhi. But Bhau already knew about Ghaji-ud-din's selfish motives and thus, signified his unwillingness to recognise Ghazi-ud-din as wazir. He conferred the title of Raje Bahadur upon Naro Shankar, appointed him with the office of wazir. Raja Suraj Mal felt that his word was violated and he strongly represented against it.[29]

Bhausaheb then went on to melt the ceiling of the Diwan-i-khas, which was made up of many jewels. However, Bhausaheb was compelled to do so, as the there was not even any food to eat for the Marathas and the warriors of the Maratha army who were more expensive than the jewels on the ceiling were dying of hunger. Delhi was also reduced to ashes. As there was no ally of the Marathas in the north, there was absolutely no way from where the Marathas could get adequate supplies.

In October 1760, the Bhau having decided to march against the Nawab of Kunjupura, summoned his chiefs, Holkar, Sindhia, Suraj Mal and others to consult them. Suraj Mal took this opportunity to vent his embittered feelings and with great bluntness said to the Bhau:

“Give back to Ghazi-ud-din the office of wazir, which of right belongs to him. I am embarrassed on this account, and my honour and good name have been affected by it. From this time, be kind enough to give greater consideration to our little requests. In that case you can consider me and my resources at your disposal. I shall continue to help and supply you with provisions as before. You should not leave Delhi. Mature your plans from this place…It is not advisable to be now entangled in affair of Kunjpura.”,[30][31]

However, Bhausaheb had to make the decision of attacking Kunjpura as he had come to know about the huge godown of foodgrains stored in Kunjpura, which was stored by Abdali in case he needed it. These supplies were soon to be delivered to Abdali. Hence, Bhausaheb made the decision of quickly attacking Kunjpura.

Thus, Bhausaheb differed sharply. He struck to the entrenched mode of warfare through heavy artillery and feet musketeers of his favourite Gardi without appreciating that this system had yet to be synthesised with the traditional Maratha mode to yield the intended results.[21][32]

Marathas stormed Kunjpura and again achieved a rather easy victory although there was a substantial army protecting Kunjpura. The whole Afghan garrison was either killed or enslaved. Noted generals of Abdali were slain. This win lifted the spirits in the Maratha camp and also gave the Marathas (who were waiting for the war to finally begin, as, well over a year had passed since they had left Pune) the chance of battling the Afghans. Large quantities of foodgrains were won by Bhausaheb in Kunjpura but that too didn't last for many days and Marathas had to fight the battle on an empty stomach.

If not for Kunjpura, then it would have been even more difficult for the Marathas to survive.

G.C.Dwivedi writes that equally sagacious was Suraj Mal’s insistence on keeping a firm base at Delhi. Impliedly it meant that the line of communication should not be lengthened and that continuous supplies be vigilantly ensured. The real implications of ignoring it were seen later on.[32] Keene observes that had the advice of Suraj Mal been followed the resistance to the Abdali would have been more successful and the whole history of Hindustan far otherwise, than what it has since been.[33][34][35][36][37][38]

Suraj Mal’s withdrawal from Bhau’s camp[edit]

Suraj Mal, greatly disgusted and mortified, left the assembly and returned to his place, cursing his own folly in coming to the Maratha camp. As his motive of controlling Delhi couldn't be achieved through Bhausaheb, Suraj Mal thought of leaving the Maratha camp. Sindhia and Holkar had pledged their word of honour for the safety of Suraj Mal. These two chiefs, now greatly concerned, met secretly and thus deliberated.

Having deliberated, they sent for Rupram Katara, the vakil of Suraj mal and advised him "Do flee from this place tonight by any means. The encampment of Bhau Sahib lies at a distance: without letting him know it, slip out in silence. The pledge of honour between you and us is thus redeemed; say not a single word to us after this.” [39]

Holkar and Sindhia could have thought that Bhausaheb and Balwant Rao had planned to arrest Suraj Mal and thus, to keep their word regarding the safety of Suraj Mal, Holkar and Sindhia alerted Rupram Katra. However, this deliberation could be debated as Holkar and Sindhia weren't the best of friends and had some differences.

Rupram Katara came back to the Jat camp and explained the whole situation to his master Raja Suraj Mal. When three hours of night remained, the Jats silently struck their tents, packed their baggage, and marched off, with the connivance of Sindhia and Holkar, in the direction of Ballabhgarh, the nearest Jat stronghold, 22 miles (35 km) to the south of Delhi. Suraj Mal safely reached Ballabgarh; the Maratha troops who went in pursuit came back after plundering some bazaars and the Bhau bit his lip in anger.[40] Suraj Mal left the Maratha camp on 2 August according to H.R.Gupta[41] but according to J.N.Sarkar on 3 August.[42]

Panipat and its sequel[edit]

Raja Suraj Mal, accompanied by Ghazi-ud-din Imad-ul-mulk, marched away to Tughlaqabad; grain became very dear (at Delhi)[Waqa, p. 178] A large tract of the country about Delhi had been so completely ruined by constant ravages, that the Durrani became dependent on the country of Ruhelas for his supplies and the Maratha army drew theirs from Suraj Mal’s kingdom. There was an acute shortage of supplies. So it is no wonder that the Marathas had to fight on an empty stomach at Panipat.[43]

Raja Suraj Mal’s position was so conspicuous and his attitude so important that even his neutrality was considered by both parties as worth securing. He could not be persuaded to join the Maratha again. He thanked his priest Rupram for his recent escape. The vigilant Abdali at once seized this opportunity to make an attempt to win over Suraj Mal. He knew that his enemies could not be decisively crushed till they had been deprived of such a strong base of operations as country of Suraj Mal. He had several times tried without success to detach the Jat Raja from the Marathas. He now opened the fresh negotiations with the Jat Raja, through Nawab Shuja-ud-daula. Raja Devi Dutt, Ali Beg (of Georgia), and others came, on behalf of Shuja-ud-daula to the Jat for negotiating the terms of a compromise. The Jat agreed to it, wore the khilat sent by Shuja-ud-daula and the Shah, and exchanged oaths. The practical result of this treaty was to ensure only the neutrality of Raja Suraj Mal, but not his active assistance on the Afghan side. He entered into this alliance with the Abdali only to provide against an emergency, and because complete isolation was too dangerous for any state in then prevailing political condition of India.[44]

Suraj Mal shelters Maratha refugees from Panipat[edit]

After the fearful wreck of the magnificent Maratha army at in third Battle of Panipat (14 January 1761), the survivors fled southwards. In their hour of misfortune, the very peasants stripped them of their arms, property and clothes. Naked and destitute the Maratha soldiers entered the country of the Jats, who welcomed them to their hospitable doors and provided medicine, clothes and food for their relief. If Suraj Mal had not befriended the Marathas in their hour of adversity, very few of them would have crossed the Narmada to tell the woeful tale of Panipat to the Peshwa. And this he did at the imminent risk of incurring the enmity of the Abdali staking his life and fortune at the impulse of a pious and noble sentiment which would have done honour to the stoutest heart of Rajputana in her heroic days.[44] All Muslim writers,[45][46] extol the generosity of Suraj Mal: The Maratha writers also acknowledge this. At Mathura they entered the territory of the Jats. Suraj Mal, impelled by the Hindu religious sentiment sent out his troops to protect them, and relieved their distress in every way by distributing food and clothes to them.[44] At Bharatpur was the Jat queen Maharani Kishori, who showed much charity to the fugitives. Thirty to forty thousand men were fed here for eight days; the Brahmans being given milk, peda, and other sweetmeats. For eight days all were entertained in great comfort. A proclamation was made to the citizens that quarters and food were to be given to the fugitives in the manner most convenient to each. None was to be put to trouble. In this way the Jat spent altogether ten Lakhs of Rupees. Many men were thus saved.[47] Shamsher Bahadur came wounded to the fort of Kumher; Suraj Mal tended him with the utmost care; but he died in grief for Bhausaheb.[48] After relieving their distress, and pacifying their hearts, Suraj Mal gave one Rupee in cash, a piece of cloth and one seer of grain to every ordinary man (common soldier and camp followers), and sent them to Gwalior,[47][49]

Abdali's campaign against Jats[edit]

The Marathas were defeated by Afghan armies at the Third Battle of Panipat and thousands of Maratha survivors reached Suraj Mal's territory while returning south, sans arms, sans clothes and sans food. Maharaja Suraj Mal and Maharani Kishori received them with tender warmth and hospitality, giving free rations to every Maratha soldier or camp follower. The wounded were taken care of till they were fit to travel. Thus, Maharaja Suraj Mal spent no less than three million rupees on their sick and wounded guests.

After the defeat of Marathas in war with Ahmad Shah Abdali, the treatment given to the Marathas by Bharatpur state angered Abdali. Abdali demanded Rs. One crore from Suraj Mal as a penalty for helping his enemies. Suraj Mal was not ready to give this huge amount to Abdali and make him more powerful, so he decided to have war with Abdali.

On 2 February 1760, Abdali moved to Bharatpur against Suraj Mal and seized Deeg fort on 2 February 1760. Suraj Mal played a trick. One group of Maratha forces was sent to Rewari, another towards Bahadurgarh and third group of Jat force was sent towards Aligarh. Jat Army looted Aligarh on 17 March 1760 and destroyed its fort. Abdali was forced to withdraw from the capture of Deeg Fort. He followed Marathas through Mewat. Holkar had also become friendly to Suraj Mal. Holkar was defeated at Sikandra and came to Bharatpur for refuge.[50]

Capture of Agra Fort (12 June 1761)[edit]

Agra was the richest town during that period. Maharaja Suraj Mal decided to capture Agra fort to re-establish his influence in doab region. On 3 May 1761 the Jat army of Suraj Mal with 4000 Jat soldiers reached Agra under the command of Balram and gave the message of Maharaja Suraj Mal to the kiledar (in charge) of Agra fort that the army wanted to cross the Yamuna and needed camping place. The kiledar gave the sanction for camping. Meanwhile the Jat army started entering the fort, which was resisted by the guards in which 200 people died. Jat army started war from Jamamasjid. During this period Maharaja Suraj Mal stayed at Mathura to observe the situations. On 24 May 1761 Maharaja Suraj Mal along with Imād and Gangadhar Tantya moved from Mathura, crossed Jamuna and reached Aligarh. From Aligarh his army moved and captured the areas of Jat ruler koīl and Jalesar. They reached Agra to help his army at Agra in the first week of June. Maharaja Suraj Mal arrested the family members of the guards staying in Agra town and pressurised the guards of fort for surrender. At last the kiledar agreed to surrender by receiving a bribe of Rs 100,000 and jagir of five villages. Thus after a seize of one month Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774.[51]

After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under regidentship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort. There is a haveli in the name Maharaja Nawal Singh in Agra Fort and also a Chhatri of Maharaja Jawahar Singh built in rightside of Khasmahal near the Chhatri of Rosanara-Jahanara.[52]

Suraj Mal’s conquest of Haryana[edit]

The third battle of Panipat was followed by a comparative calm – a quiet of exhaustion; Northern India at least ceased for some time to be the battle-field of the Afghan and the Maratha. Panipat had only shattered the extravagant dream of the Marathas but brought no permanent peace to Islam. The moment the Maratha was overthrown, the Jat came in and challenged her victorious champion who, weary and exhausted, shrank from the contest and retired beyond the Indus. The stubborn Jat courage revived confidence in the prostrated Hindu mind, and Islam was again thrown on the defensive.[53]

Suraj Mal wanted to seize these few moments of his enemies respite for carrying out his twofold object which he had long in view; first to interpose a solid block of a Jat confederacy between the Abdali and the Ruhelas, extending from Ravi to the Jamuna; secondly to expel Najib-ud-daula from Delhi, restore his protégé the ex-wazir Ghazi-ud-din to his former position and power, and control the policy of empire through him. But he decided not to attack Delhi first but simply cover it during his contemplated campaign. He sought the expansion of his dominion in the tract of Haryana dominated by powerful Muslim jagirdars and the districts around Delhi, mainly inhabited by the Jats.[54]

Suraj Mal was active in annexations in the following two years 1762 and 1763. Suraj Mal sent his eldest son Maharaja Jawahar Singh to conquer Haryana while another army was sent under his youngest son Nahar Singh,[55] to establish his authority in Doab, and watch the movement of the eastern Ruhela chiefs.

The Jat attack on Farrukhnagar[edit]

Towards the end of 1763, arose a quarrel between the Jats and the Baloch. The expansionist ambitions of the former and the latter’s unfriendly policy towards the Jats formed the general background of this event.[56]

Maharaja Jawahar Singh directed his attack upon Farrukhnagar, held by a powerful Baloch chief, Musavi Khan. But he having failed to capture it, Suraj Mal himself came and laid siege to strong fort of Farrukhnagar in October 1763, with all his forces and big artillery. Two months passed away and Musavi Khan being hard pressed, consented to surrender it if Suraj Mal would take an oath on the Ganges water not to hinder his departure.[57][58] But the Jat on this occasion made the same unscrupulous use of the sanctity of the Ganges as that of the Quran by some Muslim rulers. The Baloch chief was made a prisoner and sent to Bharatpur. Thus, after a siege of two months, the fort of Farrukhnagar, along with all its effects came in the Jat possession on about 12 December 1763.[59]

Garhi Harsaru, Rewari and Rohtak had already fallen into the hands of Suraj Mal. He now turned his arms against Bahadurgarh, about 12 kos to the west of Delhi, the stronghold of another powerful Baloch chief Bahadur Khan. In his distress, the Baloch chief appealed for help to Najib-ud-daula, who however judged it inexpedient to provoke a war with Suraj Mal, before the arrival of the Abdali.[citation needed]

By the year 1763, the Jat power under Suraj Mal had reached surpassed that under his predecessors.[60] Owner of a spacious kingdom, of the richest and overflowing treasury,[citation needed] and of the most formidable and gallant troops unrivalled in contemporary India,[60][61][62] as Suraj Mal was, little wonder that needy persons like Mir Qasim of Bengal, turned their eyes for help to him.[60]

War between Suraj Mal and Najib-ul-Daula (December 1763)[edit]

As the Administrator of Delhi and the imperial heartlands including Agra, Najib-ul-Daula the Mukhtar Khas (Chief Reperesentative) of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, was clearly unsuccessful in halting the Jat peasant uprisings led by the deviant Suraj Mal. During one massive assault Jat renegades and their leaders overran the Mughal garrison at Agra they plundered the city and the two great silver doors to the entrance of the famous Taj Mahal were looted and thoughtlessly melted down by Suraj Mal in 1764.[63] Since then many Mughal Faujdars and commanders such as Sayyad Muhammad Khan Baloch vowed to avenge the ruins of the Mughal Empire caused by Suraj Mal and his tyrannical renegades.

The Baloch incident, in turn, precipitated a clash between Suraj Mal and Najib-ud-daula, both of whom looked with an evil eye at each other.[62] The allies of Najib had succumbed to the Jat stratagem only two days before he could reach Delhi (14 December 1763).[64] Najib, dreading the tremendous strength of his foe, attempted to placate him more than once. But Suraj Mal was so much annoyed with his conduct that all his efforts proved to be of no avail.[65]

The mediators sent by Ruhela chief failed to pacify him. The couriers came back disgusted to Najib on 23 December 1763.[citation needed] Suraj Mal, leaving Jawahar Singh with a strong garrison at Farrukhnagar, crossed the Yamuna south of Delhi and stayed on the west bank and burnt the villages in neighbourhood of Ghaziabad. Thereafter the Jats returned south of Delhi. The Ruhela chief, on getting this news, marched out of Delhi with his forces and stood in garden of Khizrabad within four miles (6 km) of the Jat troops. But he repaired to the city without engaging them in a battle. Meanwhile, Suraj Mal, detaching his baggage, again crossed Yamuna and encamped on the other side.[66][citation needed] making a last minute desperate bid, Najib sent his agents with a present of two pieces of beautiful Multan chintz and a message to Suraj Mal expressing his superiority but a request to go back. This appeal failed to calm down the exasperated Jat Raja who sent a challenging reply on 24 December 1763. The die was caste now. Najib-ud-daula, taking Gulab Singh Gujar, Sayyid Muhammad Khan Baloch (Siyyidu), Afzal Khan, Zaibita Khan and all his troops, less than 10000 in number, crossed the Yamuna two hours before dawn and took post on the west bank of the Hindan, 10 miles (16 km) south-east of Delhi. Suraj Mal with his army of at least 25000 strong and heavy artillery pulled up opposition to them. Several small engagements occurred in which the Jats displayed their superiority. Cannonading was also resorted to between the two sides which lasted till 3 pm. Thereafter, Suraj Mal tried to surround his foes from three sides, deploying 5000 men to Najib’s rear. About sunset (the same day i.e. Sunday, 25 December 1763),[citation needed] Suraj Mal while watching the movements of the troops with small retinue, was killed by Siyyidu and his men who most probably lay in ambush for him. As usually happens in such cases, the leaderless Jats, overwhelmed with shock decamped the same night (25–26 December 1763), thereby conceding to Najib-ud-daula "a victory which no one had expected,” The Jesuit observer says that Najib and his men "were victorious without knowing it."[67]

Death of Suraj Mal[edit]

Maharaja Suraj Mal died on 25 December 1763 in war with Najib-ud-dola. He was succeeded to the throne by his son, Maharaja Jawahar Singh.

Documents and tradition by no means agree as to the manner of Suraj Mal’s death. Father Wendel, writing within five years of this incident, says,

"One day Suraj Mal getting news that a large body of the enemy was coming to pounce upon Nahar Singh ( his son and destined successor), who was in that expedition, marched in haste with a few thousand horsemen, to succour him. Unfortunately, in passing through a ditch (mullah) which the river Hindan had left there, he was surprised on both sides by a party of Ruhela infantry – who had been placed in ambush there. By a furious discharge of their muskets ... on the Jats still in disorder, they brought down Suraj Mal with all his retinue who lay there on the plain either slain or wounded“[68]

Suraj Mal died on Sunday 25 December 1763 and the event was recorded in the Waqa only two days after its occurrence, i.e. Tuesday. Besides those quoted in the text it contains the following details:

Sayyad Muhammad Khan Baloch a leading Mughal commander cut off the head and hand from the body of the Jat, and brought and kept with himself for two days. After that these were taken to the presence of Najib-ud-Daula. Then only could he believe that Suraj Mal was dead."[68]

Qanungo has put a question mark on Suraj Mal’s falling into an ambush as father Wendel has said. He has suggested that it is quite likely that the surprise of the reconnoitring party under Suraj Mal by Najib Khan’s retreating troopes was taken as an ambuscade. But the versions of the father and the author of the Siyar do not tally with that of the Bayan and Waqa-i-Shah Alam Sani. The Bayan says that Suraj Mal led six thousand troops to attack; and according to the Waqa 1000 men died on both sides and Suraj Mal met his death in a rash charge upon enemy’s centre.[69]

Love for art and literature[edit]

Maharaja Suraj Mal was a great lover of arts and literature. He had patronised a number of poets in his darbar, the famous ones were Sūdan, Somnath, Akhairaj, Shivram, Kalanidhi, Vrindavandas, Sudhakar, Harvansh etc.

Sūdan was the main court poet of Maharaja Suraj Mal. He was Mathur by caste resident of Mathura and a favourite of the Maharaja. He had accompanied the Maharaja during all important wars and has written historical account in the book named 'Sujān Charitra'.

Somnath alias Shashinath, resident of village Chhichhora near Mathura, had created books namely Sujān Vilās, Brajendra Vinod, Mādhav Vinod, Dhruv Vinod, Shashināth Vinod, Prem Pachisi, Nawabon Vilās, Sangrām Darpan, Rash Piyush Nidhi, Shrangār Vilās, Rāmcharit Ratnākar Rāmkalādhar, Krishna Lilāwati etc. under the guidance of Maharaja Suraj Mal. He had appointed Somnath as dānādhyaksha of the state. Poets Somnath and Kalanidhi translated entire Ramayana into Hindi. On request of Suraj Mal, Somnath translated 'singhāsan batisi' to 'Sujān Vilās' and later on he wrote all books for Suraj Mal only.[70]

Poet Shivrām remained with Suraj Mal from youth period at Kumher and Suraj Mal awarded him Rs. 36000 on his poetry Navadhā bhakti rāgras sār written in 1735, when Suraj Mal was staying at Kumher. Poet Somnath and Kalanidhi had gone to Wair at that time when Suraj Mal's younger brother Pratap Singh was staying there. Somnath went to Suaj Mal at Deeg after death of Pratap Singh and Kalanidhi stayed at Wair. Both these poets translated entire Ramayana to Hindi at Wair. Kalanidhi, in addition to Hindi translation of three volumes of Ramayana (Bālakānd, Yudhakānd and Uttarkānda), also books like Upanishadsār, Durgā Mahātmya, Rāmagitam, Shrangar Mādhuri and Alankār Kalānidhi.[70]

Poet Akhai Ram wrote three books namely-Singhāsan Batisi, Vikram Vilās and Sujān Vilās for Suraj Mal. First book was published in 1755.[71]

Uday Ram produced two books namely- Girivar Vilās and Sujān Samvat. He has described in Girivar Vilās about the first dīpdan ceremony of Suraj Mal in Manasi Ganga River, where he seems to be present himself. Sujān Samvat is collection of historical information of Suraj Mal like Sujān Charitra.[71]

Poet Datta's book 'Maharaja Suraj Mal ki krapan' is a unique book of Vīrsāhitya. Mahākavi Dev also came to Bharatpur for patronage. He was there when Deeg fort was being constructed and it is likely that he made 'Sujān Vinod' for Suraj Mal.[72]

Vrandavandas was also the poet who got patronage of Suraj Mal. in 1756 he was there at the time of attack by Abdali and has described about this severe attack. He wrote the book 'Hari Kalā Veli'.[71]

Character and achievements of Suraj Mal[edit]

Personality of Suraj Mal[edit]

Suraj Mal was the most greatest Maharaja of Bharatpur.

In appearance Suraj Mal was taller than usual and robust, of a rather dark complexion and quite fat. He had extremely twinkling and awe-inspiring eyes. His whole physiognomy showed more of fire than what was noticeable in his conduct which was amiable, gentle, generous and considerate.[73][74][75] He was a loving husband, a doting father, affectionate brother and an obedient son. Though he had several Queens, he was not given debauchery and dissipation. His noble act of honourable returning the Maratha ladies captured in raid on Holkar (1754), may show that he always preserved the modesty of women folk.[75]

The way Suraj Mal unflinchingly stood besides Safdar Jang till the end is indicative of his devotion to his friends, while his treatment of Imad, Muhkam and Holkar suggests his heroic magnanimity towards his bitterest foes – Musavi khan being the lone exception in this regard. Like his father, Suraj Mal did not forget the good done to his own family by Jai Singh of Jaipur. Thus, in spite of his fabulous wealth and great strength, he continued to show his respect to Jaipur ruler, Raja Madho Singh,[citation needed] till the collusion with Najib apparently made him suspect his motives.[76]

So great and persistent was the popular trust in his benevolence and humane outlook that multitudinous people along with their valuables and families sought protection in his state in the face of recurrent threats. On one occasion (in 1760), the compassionate Jat spent as much as 1 million of rupees from his pocket in looking after Maratha refugees.[76]

Suraj Mal, in spite of the change of his former condition and the immense wealth he piled up had not at all given up the primitive simplicity of his race in what concerned his own mode of living.[77]

Shah Waliullah depicts him as a fanatic and blames him for persecuting Islam and prohibiting "azanand salat" throughout the length and breadth of his domain.[78] Though true to some extent in the case of his successor,[79] this view seems to be largely overdrawn and unjust in the case of Suraj Mal. By temperament, he was incapable of such a fanatic conduct. A great centre of Hindu worship, Brij, especially Mathura, had suffered repeated persecution, including the one (1757) in the lifetime of Suraj Mal. Yet, in spite of the deep pangs that this incident caused in his heart, Suraj Mal, even when at the height of his power, did not demolish a single mosque in Mathura and had to bear Bhau’s stinging remarks on that score. Far from being vindictive, Suraj Mal displayed a great catholicity by constructing a mosque in his own capital in the memory of Shamsher Bahadur, who was half brother of Peshwa and reached Jat State after defeat in Panipat in 1761.[80] We do not know if any other Hindu prince of the time could boast of it. It is noteworthy, in this context, that Muslims also formed a part of his personal attendants, who stood by their master and laid down their lives for him.[81]

A great builder[edit]

Suraj Mal was a great builder and according to Wendel, spent not lakhs but crores on his magnificent edifices, such as, the truly royal and superb palace of Deeg and gorgeous fort of Bharatpur, both incomparable in Hindustan.[citation needed] He is credited with building several tanks, arbours and temples in Govardhan, Mathura, Vrindavan and other religious places. Besides, he spent lakhs of rupees in charitable deeds. Numerous religious deeds were performed by them at different places in Brij. Giriraj Govardhan’s importance increased under them and several artistic chhatris were built there along with other buildings.[76]

On the one hand, he carried choicest pieces of the Mughal grandeur from Agra to adorn his court and on the other his wealth and will galvanised the un-provided for architects of the impoverished Court of Delhi to the new home of art. Besides, on his forts Suraj Mal spent crores of rupees embellishing Deeg, Bharatpur, Wair and Kumher with enchanting buildings, ponds and gardens.[82] The author of Imad tells us that some of the buildings were so magnificent that the kind of these could not be found anywhere-not even in Delhi and Agra. Crowning all these was architecturally sumptuous and superb palace of Deeg, which had been planned and constructed by Suraj Mal on such a gorgeous scale that the work on it did not end even by 1768. A widely travelled eye witness testifies:

“It is difficult to realise the expanse and magnificence of this palace without seeing it… I have seen none in Hindustan that would surpass it in magnificence, or even would come near to it.”,[83]

Military talents and administration[edit]

Born in a martial community, Suraj Mal had a variety of military talents which vigorously supported his character in his many engagements.[62] No danger wavered his courage and resolutions as no success filled him with presumption or vanity. He was a gallant soldier, an excellent tactician and a great captain, as his great adversary Najib-ud-Daula himself admitted.[84] With signs of boldness visible at the very dawn of his career (early thirties), his military fame spread gradually far and wide and even the greatest in the land sought his powerful support. Along with bravery and courage he combined shrewdness, tact and calculation. He displayed a remarkable sense of realism, both in war and politics. He never acted on sudden impulse and set his hand to a task only after great deliberation.[85]

At the time of death, the standing army under him consisted of 15000 cavalry, 25000 infantry and 300 pieces of cannons.[citation needed] He also possessed 60 elephants and 5000 horses in his stables.[86] Apart from it, considering the number of his forts, the garrison posted in them must not have been less than 25000 soldiers, equipped with long and short range cannons and munition.[85]

The author of Siyar says, Suraj Mal had in his stable twelve thousand horses, mounted by so many picked man, amongst whom on horseback and then wheeling round to load under shelter, and these men had by continual and daily practice become so expeditious and so dangerous marksmen, and withal so expert in their evolutions, that there were no troops in India and could pretend to face them in the field. Nor was it thought possible to wage war against such a prince with any prospect of advantage.[62][87]

The Jat King had a vision to appreciate the innate susceptibilities of his Jat brethren. He presumably knew that it was difficult, if not impossible, for them to shed abruptly or wholly their deep-rooted democratic instinct and sentiments of individual and tribal independence. Therefore he wisely refrained from an abrupt recourse to a despotic system of the Mughal type. Qanungo rightly points out that the Jat government as it stood at Suraj Mal’s death still corresponded to a feudal confederacy with the Jat King as the supreme head.[88][89]

Several changes were effected in the land administration obtaining under Akbar. The pargana of Sahar[disambiguation needed] was split into four parts – Sahar[disambiguation needed], Shergarh[disambiguation needed], Kosi[disambiguation needed] and Shahpur. Mangotala was divided into Sonkh and Sonsa. Frah and possibly Mursan, Sahpau and Mant were made parganas about this time. Similar changes were made in several other districts of the kingdom.[90][91]

Full details of the administrative set-up of Suraj Mal are not available. Below the King, who was the fountain head was probably the most powerful grandee, Balram Jat (his brother-in-law), who held the post of Chief Minister.[92] Jiwa Ram held the office of Diwan.[citation needed] Somnath was the Danadhyaksha (the head of the charity department). The management of the army seems to have been entrusted to several officers, each heading a sub-department. We know the names of two officers, Balram and Mohan Ram, who headed the cavalry and the artillery respectively. Balram was also the faujdar of the capital.[92][93][94] This leads us to believe that there were other faujdars as well. This apart, the posts of Mantri, Bakshi, Kotwal and Qiladar referred to in Sujan Charitra must have continued during the reign of Suraj Mal as well.[91]

Apart from the strongest band of troops, a network of fairly strong (three of them being impregnable) forts studded with beautiful buildings, richest treasures and a political system commensurate with the Jat instincts and traditions, the "Jat Plato" Suraj Mal handed down a Kingdom "well cultivated, peaceful and out of danger of being suddenly attacked…”[91]

Diplomacy of Suraj Mal[edit]

The statue of Maharaja Suraj Mal at Maharaja Suraj Mal Institute Delhi.

Endowed with a cool calculating vision, a profound sense of foresight and an exemplary shrewdness, Suraj Mal’s genius shone forth in the field of diplomacy. Prof. Hari Ram Gupta calls him "the shrewdest diplomat of the time."[95] He displayed great adroitness in handling men and matters. Amidst the moments of greatest trial, he exhibited a commendable presence of mind and endurance. In an atmosphere of intrigue and unscrupulous diplomacy, he equally baffled the dissembling Mughal and cunning Marathas,[96] as also the crafty Abdali and subtle Rajputs. His was a most precarious position indeed for he stood between the two most formidable and hostile powers, the Abdali on the north and the encroaching Marathas on the south. His fabulous treasure was the perennial object of their greed, while his expansionist course and independent existence in the neighbourhood justly annoyed both the Mughals and the Rajputs. In addition, the influential forces of Islamic renaissance were also deadly opposed to him. More than once had the Abdali and Marathas endeavoured to ruin him. Even normally, a potential threat from their side always stared Suraj Mal in his face.[97]

In such circumstances, the survival of the Jat kingdom itself was a Herculean task. But Suraj Mal mainly by his marvelous diplomatic suppleness; 'peculiar' wisdom and heroic fortitude, not only succeeded in thwarting all his enemies but also in increasing his fortunes in face of successive crises. Wendel says that Suraj Mal had the guts to save himself from the Maratha-Durrani exactions when others were being squeezed, to protect his territory against the redoubled Abdali while a number of powerful grandees could not help draining out their own resources by joining him (the Abdali), to ensure peace amidst the prevailing trouble which had engulfed his neighbours, to strengthen his power while others were losing to disentangle himself from the Marathas whose discomfiture he had clearly foreseen, to turn Abdali without a recourse and in a word to become more powerful amidst the common decay. The Jesuit father aptly concludes,

That was Suraj Mal, the master diplomat of the period. No doubt, Najib-ud-Daula also possessed great diplomatic tact and political sagacity.[citation needed] But main difference between the two lies in the fact that Najib had the powerful patronage of his deliverer, Ahmad Shah Abdali, whereas Suraj Mal solely on his own outwitted both Abdali and the Marathas at one and the same time. In addition, Suraj Mal guaranteed to his kingdom a progress which Najib could not.[98]

Suraj Mal was an ambitious and powerful man; but his ambition was tempered with caution and self-control. With an instinctive sagacity and strong sense of realism, Suraj Mal fully gasped the realities of the situation and then set his heart upon what was attainable in the field of war and administration. He could perceive the hazards of undue entanglement in far flung areas; so he scrupulously confined his activities to the nearby ethnic Jat areas only. Keeping an eye on the instincts and traditions of his people and combining persuasion with force, he proceeded cautiously to make them acquiesce in the institution of Kingship. Matrimonial relations with important families, grant of appanages to members of the royal family and lands to the other Jat grandees, and the suppression of recalcitrant chiefs, may be appreciated in this light. These Jagirdars remitted revenue to the State Treasury and helped the Raja in the defence of the realm. The stormy situation in northern India, which engrossed Suraj Mal’s attention and his untimely death interrupted the process initiated by him.[99]

So long as he was alive Suraj Mal commanded the love, respect and admiration of people.[citation needed] Now even though more than two centuries have elapsed since his death, his memory is still alive and green in the heart of his people, who assemble every year (in a fair) at his Samadhi at Shahdara to pay their homage to the great Jat hero.[91]

Raja Suraj Mal was endowed with all the qualities of a good ruler …. And succeeded by his government in vastly increasing his tenantry and treasure.[citation needed] This was predominantly the result of the patient toil of that Raja. By the time of his death, the Jat State had grown to 200 miles (320 km) in length (east-west0 and 140 miles (230 km) in breadth (north-south), covering a part of the suba of Delhi and three-fourths of that of Agra. The Jat Kingdom consisted of the districts of Agra, Mathura, Dholpur, Aligarh, Bulandshahar, parts of Mainpuri, Meerut and Rohtak including present day Bhiwani, Gurgaon and Rewari, besides the original principality of Bharatpur.[89]

The revenue of Jat State[edit]

In consequence of his prudence, skill and administrative ability and the measure of protection guaranteed by him, "peaceful" conditions returned to region under his control after a long period of chaos and anarchy. He attended "so admirably … to the job of zamindar, in increasing the value of the country he had subdued, that his expenses so well that for several years he used to save at least half the annual yield of his dominions, despite the big amounts spent on forts, palaces and markets.[89]

As regards the finance of the state, Father Wendel says, "opinions differ on the subject of the treasure and property which he (Suraj Mal) left to his successor. Some estimate it as nine crores, others less. [K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 96] This does not include jewels and other valuables worth a handsome amount. However, according to popular belief the cash in hand with him ranged between 15 to 200 million.[89]

The trade and commerce also thrived owing to the direct and indirect encouragement offered by the administration, Suraj Mal remitted transit duties through his Kingdom. As a result grain became exceedingly cheap.[100] Similar must have been the case with other commodities. If Suraj Mal constructed royal edifices, he did not forget to order the building of markets. Such steps and the peace guaranteed by his benign rule amidst prevailing anarchy attracted the merchants from the outside to the Jat kingdom. Wendel says:

“ I admit willingly that the Jats are rich, that if even today there is any treasure in Hindustan, after all damages caused by Nadir Shah, the Abdali and the Marathas, it is amongst the Jats.”,[citation needed]

See also[edit]

  • Bharatpur
Suraj Mal
Sinsiniwar Jat Dynasty
Born: 1707 Died: 1763
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Badan Singh
Maharaja of Bharatpur
1756–1763 AD
Succeeded by
Maharaja Jawahar Singh

References[edit]

  1. ^ R.C.Majumdar, H.C.Raychaudhury, Kalikaranjan Datta: An Advanced History of India, fourth edition, 1978, ISBN 0-333-90298-X, Page-535
  2. ^ Ras Peeushnidhi and Madhav Vinod in Somnath,4,318
  3. ^ Ganga Singh, op. cit., 256
  4. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.279
  5. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 91-92
  6. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.271
  7. ^ a b c Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, Page-297
  8. ^ PRakash Chandra Chandawat:Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug (1745–1763), Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page-59-60
  9. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page-61
  10. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page-62
  11. ^ Kalika Ranjan Qanungo: History of the Jats
  12. ^ a b Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page-63
  13. ^ a b Patil, Vishwas. Panipat. 
  14. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page-71
  15. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page 84
  16. ^ Taik-e-Ahmadsahi, page-47
  17. ^ a b Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page 85
  18. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page 86
  19. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page 90-92
  20. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 110-118
  21. ^ a b Rajwade, I, p.174
  22. ^ Selections from the Peshwa’s Daftar, New series, ed. and trans. by K.A.Nizami, XXIX 41
  23. ^ Muzaffarnagar Records, Kanha Ram, p.19
  24. ^ Imad. p. 78, 178
  25. ^ a b G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.209
  26. ^ Imad, p. 179-180
  27. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.210
  28. ^ Sardesai, panipat, p.162
  29. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 76
  30. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 78
  31. ^ Supra, ch. Xi f.ns. p 81-92
  32. ^ a b G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.219
  33. ^ H. G. Keene, The Moghul Empire, (London: 1887), p.77-78
  34. ^ Sarkar, Fall, II, p.368, 258
  35. ^ Qanungo, History of the Jats, p.128, 131,133
  36. ^ Owen op.cit., p. 242
  37. ^ Gupta, Panipat, p.151, 251
  38. ^ Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, "Panipat, 1761", p.48
  39. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 79
  40. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 79-80
  41. ^ Panipat, p.156
  42. ^ Fall, II, p.255
  43. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 81
  44. ^ a b c K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 82
  45. ^ Imad, p. 203
  46. ^ Bayan-o-Waqa, MS. p. 293
  47. ^ a b K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 83
  48. ^ Sardesai, Panipat Prakaran, p. 205
  49. ^ Bayan, MS 293
  50. ^ Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992, Page-664
  51. ^ Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Pages 197-200
  52. ^ Jatbandhu Agra, 25 January 2005
  53. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 85
  54. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 86
  55. ^ Qanungo, Jats, 148
  56. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.249
  57. ^ Wendel, p. 49
  58. ^ Waqa, p.198
  59. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.250
  60. ^ a b c G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.248
  61. ^ Nur, 66b
  62. ^ a b c d Siyar, IV, 28
  63. ^ http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Archit/TajM.html
  64. ^ Sarkar, Fall, II, 449
  65. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.251
  66. ^ Nur, 66a-66b
  67. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.253
  68. ^ a b French MS., p. 50
  69. ^ K.R. Qunungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 202-205
  70. ^ a b Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page 234
  71. ^ a b c Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page 235
  72. ^ Bharat Vir, 29 March 1927
  73. ^ Madhav Vinod in Somnath, 318
  74. ^ Siyar, IV,27
  75. ^ a b G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.278
  76. ^ a b c G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.280
  77. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 92
  78. ^ Shah,2
  79. ^ Qanungo, Jats, 220-221
  80. ^ Supra, ch. XII, f.n. 65
  81. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.256
  82. ^ Qanungo, Jats, 287
  83. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.261
  84. ^ Nur, 64b
  85. ^ a b G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.281
  86. ^ Ibid, p.55
  87. ^ K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 97
  88. ^ Qanungo, Jats, 221
  89. ^ a b c d G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.259
  90. ^ Raghubir Singh, Brij., p-192-193
  91. ^ a b c d G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 282
  92. ^ a b Sarkar, Fall, II,469
  93. ^ Nur., 77a
  94. ^ Qanungo, Jats, 172
  95. ^ Panipat, 153
  96. ^ Qanungo, Jats, 65
  97. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.257-258
  98. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 258
  99. ^ G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.281-282
  100. ^ Nur, 83b

External links[edit]