Granite rocks can be found in the Bagbahra, Basna and Pithora region. Rocks are predominantly limestone of the Chhattisgarh group contemporary to the Cuddapah group of the Upper Pre-Cambrian age, consisting of limestone layers, shale, sandstone, or quartzite. Neo-granite, dolerite, and quartz in intrusive forms are also found in the district. Hence there is a great scope of intense mining activity.
The district has a tribal population of 28.9%. The tribes living in the district are Bhujia, Binjhwar, Dhanwar, Halba, Kamar, Kanwar, Kharai, Munda, Pardhi, Bahalia, Saur, Saharia, Sonar, Sanwara and Kharwar.