Durga

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For other uses of "Durga", see Durga (disambiguation).
"Mahishasuramardini" redirects here. For the radio programme of All India Radio, see Mahisasuramardini (radio programme).
"Jagadamba" redirects here. For the upcoming Indian film, see Jagadamba (film).
Durga
Goddess of Victory of Good over Evil
Durga Mahisasuramardini.JPG
Devanagari दुर्गा
Sanskrit Transliteration Durga
Affiliation Devi, Mother Goddess,Divine Mother, Original manifested form of Mother Adi-Parashakti, Goddess Shakti, manifestation of Mahashakti
Abode Forest of Madamba Kadamba
Mantra Om Durgaye Namaha / Om Aim Hreem Kleem Durga Devi Namaha
Weapon trident, discus,
Scimitar, lasso,
Conch shell, Mace, Bow and arrow, spear, sword (longsword), shield, bell, pink lotus flower, battle-axe, thunderbolt, elephant goad, snake, rod, spade, vajra, goblet, hammer weapon, iron weapon, weapon made out of thorns, javelin, dagger
Consort Shiva
Mount lion or tiger

Durga (Hindustani pronunciation: [ˈd̪ʊrɡaː]; Sanskrit: दुर्गा), meaning "the inaccessible"[1] or "the invincible", is the most popular incarnation of Devi and one of the main forms of the Goddess Shakti in the Hindu pantheon.[2] Durga is the original manifested form of Mother Adi-Parashakti. Durga is Adi-Parashakti herself. The Devi Gita, declares her to be the greatest Goddess. Thus, she is considered the supreme goddess and primary deity in Shaktism, occupying a place similar to Lord Krishna in Vaishnavism. According to Skanda Purana, the goddess Parvati accounted the name "Durga" after she killed the demon Durgamaasura. Goddess Parvati is considered to be the complete incarnation of Adi Parashakti or Goddess Durga, with all other goddesses being her incarnations or manifestations. Adi Parashakti or Mahadevi, the supreme power, is called Durga Shakti as per Devi-Mahatmya. Adi Parashakti or Devi Durga is a Hindu concept of the Ultimate Shakti or Mahashakti, the ultimate power inherent in all Creation. This is especially prevalent in the Shakta denomination within Hinduism, which worships the Goddess Devi in all her manifestations. She is Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati in her mild form; Goddess Kali and Goddess Chandi in her wrathful form. Durga is also called Padmanabha-Sahodari and Narayani, the sister of Lord Vishnu. According to Shaivism and Shaktism She is supreme, but to bring back lord Shiva in Sansar, she took birth as human form (Sati and Parvati) to marry Shiva.. Durga gave birth to his first child called Kalki.

Origins and development[edit]

Ramprasad Chanda writes the following about the development of Durga from primitive goddess to her current form: [3]

"...it is possible to distinguish two different strata – one primitive and the other advanced. The primitive form of Durga is the result of syncretism of a mountain-goddess worshiped by the dwellers of the Himalaya and the Vindhyas, a goddess worshiped by the nomadic Abhira shepherd, the vegetation spirit conceived as a female, and a war-goddess. As her votaries advanced in civilization the primitive war-goddess was transformed into the personification of the all-destroying time (Kali), the vegetation spirit into the primordial energy (Adya Sakti) and the saviouress from “samsara” (cycle of rebirths) , and gradually brought into line with the Brahmanic mythology and philosophy."

According to those well conversant with the veda and Vedanta, it was first used in 1876 and the supreme soul is identified with knowledge,pure and divine, and His Maya(delusion) is religion. The delusion of the supreme soul is otherwise called Shakti (power). From this power, generates all forms of knowledge of the world and it is accepted as vital cause of creation, existence and destruction. Mahamaya i.e. the power of Mahashakti (The Supreme Power) plays a vital role in creating the three qualitative shapes. Mahashakti, the Supreme power, is called Durga Shakti. This abstract power has been imagined by the Hindus as Durga Shakti. By the help of the Supreme soul (Adi Purusha) and the Supreme Power (Adyashakti), three other shapes have been created from the Supreme Power. They are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, and from the supreme power the shapes created are Maha Saraswati, Maha Laxmi and Mahakali. Maha Saraswati is well known as Brahmani, Mahalaxmi as Vaishnavi and Mahakali as Maheswari. Durga Shakti is the original cause of all the present or past worldly occurrences. Durga Shakti is called as Adhyashakti, Paramatma Shakti or Ati Prakrutika Shakti. She is creating and controlling other two powers: Natural and General. Natural Power is called as Atma Shakti, Prakrutika Shakti, Pancha Mahabhuta Shakti etc. This Shakti creates and controls the General Energy. General Energies are called Jada Shakti or Tamashakti. By the blessings of Durga Shakti, the mother of the Universe, man is able to get his emancipation or salvation and indulge in enjoyments in performance of his daily activities. So Vyasadev, the eminent poet of "Devi Bhagwat", has aptly described "Rudrahinam Vishnuhinam na vadanti janastatha Shaktihinam Yathasarbe probodhanti Naradhamam". The powerless persons are despised as mean persons. So, by being devoted to the Supreme, we should be strong and powerful by her grace.

Worship[edit]

Main article: Durga Puja
A 51 seconds sample of Durga Puja Mantra recited in Sanskrit.

Problems playing this file? See media help.
Maa Durga
A traditional Durga idol at a pandal in Kolkata.

The four-day-long (Saptami to Dashami) Durga Puja is the biggest annual festival in Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand and Nepal, where it is known as Dashain. It is celebrated likewise with much fervour in various parts of India, especially the Himalayan region, but is celebrated in various forms throughout the Hindu universe.

The day of Durga's victory is celebrated as Vijayadashami (Bihar, Bengali), Dashain (Nepali) or Dussehra (Hindi) – these words literally mean "the Victory on the Tenth (day)".[4]

In Andhra Pradesh she is also worshipped as Kanaka Durgammathalli,where there is also famous temple for Goddess Kanaka Durga in Indrakeeladri,Vijayawada.She is also known by the name of Bhavani.

In Kashmir she is worshipped as shaarika (the main temple is in Hari Parbat in Srinagar).

The actual period of the worship however may be on the preceding nine days (Navaratri) followed by the last day called Vijayadashami in North India or five days in Bengal (from the sixth to tenth day of the waxing-moon fortnight).[5] Nine aspects of Durga known as Navadurga are meditated upon, one by one during the nine-day festival by devout Shakti worshippers. Durga Puja also includes the worship of Shiva, who is Durga's consort (Durga is an aspect of Goddess Parvati), in addition to Lakshmi, Saraswati with Ganesha and Kartikeya, who are considered to be Durga's children.[6] Worship of mother nature is done, through nine types of plant (called "Kala Bou"), including a plantain (banana) tree, which represent nine divine forms of Goddess Durga.[7] In South India especially, Andhra Pradesh Dussera Navaratri is also celebrated and the goddess is dressed each day as a different devi – Saraswati, Parvati, Lakshmi etc. – for the nine days.

In North India, the tenth day, is celebrated as Dussehra, the day Rama emerged victorious in his battle against the demon, Ravana – gigantic straw effigies of Ravana are burnt in designated open spaces (e.g. Delhi's Ram Lila grounds), watched by thousands of families and little children.

In Mysore (which originated from Mahishasooru) in Karnataka, she is worshipped as Chamundeshwari, the patron goddess of the city during Dussehra (Dasara).

In Gujarat it is celebrated as the last day of Navaratri, during which the Garba dance is performed to celebrate the victory of Mahishasura-mardini, Durga.

The Goddess Durga is worshipped in her peaceful form as Maha Gauri, The Fair Lady, Shree Shantadurga also known as Santeri, is the patron Goddess of Goa. She is worshipped by all Goan Hindus.

In Maharashtra, Tulja Bhavani and Ambabai are worshipped as Mahishasur Mardini, who is the patron goddess of the land. Bhavani is known as Tulaja, Amba, Renuka, Yamai Saptshrungi and Jogai in different places of Maharashtra. She is the inspirational goddess of Raja Shivaji. As per legends, Bhavani appeared after Shivaji prayed to her and blessed him to be able to make Hindustan or the then India (ruled by the Mughals) independent – the kingdom he established eventually became the Hindu Pad Padshahi (sometimes also called the Maratha Empire), which comprised all the land ruled by the Mughals and brought India back under Hindu sovereignty.

In Bangladesh also, the four-day long Sharadiya Durga Puja (Bengali: শারদীয়া দুর্গা পুজো, ‘autumnal Durga worship’) is the biggest religious festivals for the Hindus and celebrated across the country with Vijayadashami being a national holiday.

The prominence of Durga Puja increased gradually during the British Raj in Bengal.[8] After the Hindu reformists identified Durga with India, she became an icon for the Indian independence movement.[9]

Western references[edit]

Some early Western accounts refer to a deity known as Deumus, Demus or Deumo. Western (Portuguese) sailors first came face to face with the murti of Deumus at Calicut on the Malabar Coast and they concluded it to be the deity of Calicut. Deumus is sometimes interpreted as an aspect of Durga in Hindu mythology and sometimes as deva.

It is described that the ruler of Calicut (Zamorin) had a murti of Deumus in his temple inside his royal palace.[10][11] The temple was two paces wide in each of the four sides and three paces high, with a wooden door covered with gods carved in relief. At the centre of the temple, there was a metal idol of Deumus placed in a seat, which was also made of metal.

Western accounts also describe the ruler of Calicut worshiping an ultimate god called Tamerani ("Tamburan"). The accounts also describes a misunderstood form of the "hook-swinging" ritual once commonly performed as part of some popular Hindu religious festivals.

Notable temples of Durga[edit]

In India[edit]

Durga, Mahishasuramardini Cave Temple,700AD, Pallava dynasty, Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu
Durga sculpture, Orissa, British Museum[12]
Durga Hoysala sculpture.
Andhra Pradesh
Assam
Bihar
Delhi
Goa
Gujarat
  • [13] Arasuri Ambaji Temple in Gujarat
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu
Karnataka
Kerala

[14]

Maharashtra
Odisha
Rajasthan
Tamil Nadu
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal

Outside India[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Durga,". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 7 October 2009. 
  2. ^ http://www.sanatansociety.org/hindu_gods_and_goddesses/durga.htm#.U1-IhlfznYQ
  3. ^ McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls: Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516791-0. Pp. 214.
  4. ^ Esposito, John L.; Darrell J. Fasching; Todd Vernon Lewis (2007). Religion & globalization: world religions in historical perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-19-517695-2. 
  5. ^ Parmita Borah (2 October 2011). "Durga Puja – a Celebration of Female Supremacy". EF News International. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  6. ^ Kinsley, David (1988). Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06339-2. p. 95.
  7. ^ "Kolabou". Bangalinet.com. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  8. ^ "Article on Durga Puja". 
  9. ^ "Article on Durga Puja". Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  10. ^ Jörg Breu d. Ä. zugeschrieben, Idol von Calicut, in: Ludovico de Varthema, 'Die Ritterlich und lobwürdig Reisz', Strassburg 1516. (Bild: Völkerkundemuseum der Universität Zürich
  11. ^ A briefe collection and compendious extract of straunge and memorable thinges, gathered out of the Cosmographye of Sebastian Munster, wherein is made a plaine description of diuers and straunge lawes, rites, maners and properties of sondrye nations, and a short report of straunge histories of diuers men, and of the nature and properties of certaine fovvles, fishes, beastes, monsters, and sondry countryes and places, published in London in 1574 by Tomas Marshe
  12. ^ "Stone sculpture of Durga Mahishasuramardini". British Museum. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  13. ^ Ambaji
  14. ^ http://www.durgadevitemplevengoor.com/contact_us.php
  15. ^ http://wikimapia.org/811725/NAVA-DURGA-MANDIR

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]