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|Sultan Abu'l Fath Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah I|
|Occupation||Sultan of Gujarat|
Sultan Abu'l Fath Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah I, popularly known as Mahmud Begada (reigned May 25, 1458 –November 23, 1511) was the most prominent sultan of Gujarat. He was the great-grandson of Ahmad Shah I, the founder of the Muzaffarid dynasty, and of the city of Ahmedabad (Ahmed Aabad) in the present-day state of Gujarat, India. He was known to be quite religious. By his conquests, he expanded the territory of the Gujarat Sultanate to its maximum till its conquest of Malwa, and ruled for 43 years. He titled himself, Sultân al-Barr, Sultân al-Bahr, 'Sultan of the Land, Sultan of the Sea'.
One of his initial conquests was an attempt to quash the Khichi Chauhan Rajputs who held the Pavagadh fort. The young Sultan, after laying siege for 20 months, conquered the fort on 21 November 1484. He then transferred his capital to Champaner which he completely rebuilt at the foothills of the Pavagadh fort, calling it Muhammadabad. It took 23 years to build the town. The town finally succumbed to attacks from the Mughal Empire Humayun in 1535.
Sultan Begada also built a magnificent Jama Masjid in Champaner, which ranks amongst the finest architectural edifices in Gujarat. It is an imposing structure on a high plinth with two tall minarets 30 m tall, 172 pillars and seven mihrabs. The central dome, the placement of balconies and carved entrance gates with fine stone jalis. Other Champaner structures attributed to the Begada period are the Kevada Masjid, Citadel Jahanpanah, Shahar ki Masjid, the customs house, Nagina Masjid, Bava Man's Masjid, Khajuri Masjid, Ek Minar Masjid, and the Lila Gumbaz.
The Sultan is also credited with capturing the island of Bombay from the Koli (fisherman) tribe, they were vassal of Bahmani Sultanate, before one of his descendants Bahadur Shah, handed the island over to the Portuguese in 1535.
He laid the foundation of the city of Mustafabad (now Junagadh) in 1479 A.D. Strong embankments were raised along the river, and the city was adorned with a palace, handsome buildings and extensive gardens.
The Sultan was ambitious and contacted the Ottoman Empire and the Sultan of Cairo to obtain reinforcements for a Muslim conquest of India. It is during his reign that the famous Battle of Diu took place.
Some European adventurers circulated popular tales about the him under the erroneous name Turk Mahmud Shah I ("Begada"), "the Poison Sultan," and those became the source for the English satirist Samuel Butler's seventeenth-century lines: "The Prince of Cambay's daily food/ Is asp and basilisk and toad".
He is believed to have died in the year 1511 because of failing health. He died at the age of sixty-six.