Mahmudiya District has approximately 550,000 inhabitants, about 82 percent of them Shia and the rest Sunni. This ratio is the result of the Iraqi Civil War of 2006-2007, when the Shias of Yousofiya and Iskandaria moved to Mahmudiya, and the Sunnis of Mahmudiya sought refuge in the other two cities. Most of the inhabitants live in rural areas.
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