Mahón

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Mahon)
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Mahon (disambiguation).
Mahón
Maó (Catalan)
Mahón (Spanish)
Municipality
Maó-Mahón (official name since 2012)
Mahon Harbour
Mahon Harbour
Flag of Mahón
Flag
Mahón is located in Spain
Mahón
Mahón
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 39°52′N 4°18′E / 39.867°N 4.300°E / 39.867; 4.300
Country Spain
Autonomous community Balearic Islands
Province Balearic Islands
Judicial district Mahon
Government
 • Mayor Vicenç Tur i Martí (PSOE)
Area
 • Total 117.20 km2 (45.25 sq mi)
Elevation 72 m (236 ft)
Population (2009)
 • Total 29,125
 • Density 250/km2 (640/sq mi)
Demonym maonèsmaonesa (ca)
mahonésmahonesa (es)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 07700-07714
Website Official website

Maó-Mahón,[1] sometimes written in English as Mahon (Catalan: Maó [məˈo], Spanish: Mahón [maˈon]) is a municipality, capital city of the island Menorca, and seat of the Island Council of Menorca. The city located on the eastern coast of the island, which is part of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands, Spain. Mahon has the second deepest natural harbour in the world:[citation needed] 5 km (3.1 mi) long and up to 900 metres (2,953 feet) wide. The water is deep but it remains mostly clear due to it being slightly enclosed.

Its population in 2009 was estimated to be 29,495 inhabitants.[2]

History[edit]

The name's origin is attributed to the Carthaginian general Mago Barca, brother to Hannibal, who is thought to have taken refuge there in 205 BC. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became part of the Eastern Empire; it suffered raids from Vikings and Arabs, until the Islamic Caliphate of Córdoba conquered it in 903.

Mahon was captured in 1287 from the Moors by Alfonso III of Aragon and incorporated into the Kingdom of Majorca, a vassal kingdom of the Kingdom of Aragon. Its harbour, one of the most strategically important in the western Mediterranean, was re-fortified.

In 1535, the Ottomans under Hayreddin Barbarossa attacked Mahon and took 6,000 captives as slaves back to Algiers, in the Sack of Mahón.

1890 map of Mahon and surrounding region

British rule[edit]

Menorca was captured in 1708 by a joint British-Dutch force on behalf of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, during the War of the Spanish Succession. The British saw the island's potential as a naval base and sought to take full control. Its status as a British possession was confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During the island's years as a British dependency, the capital was moved from Ciutadella de Menorca to Mahon, which then served as residence for the governor, the most famous being General Richard Kane. During this period the natural harbour leading to the town and surrounding settlements were sometimes collectively known as "Port Mahon" (see map left).[3]

The island was lost to the French in 1756 following the naval Battle of Minorca and the final Siege of Fort St Philip, which took place several miles from the town. After their defeat in the Seven Years' War, France returned the island to the British in 1763. In a joint Franco-Spanish effort and following a long five month invasion, the British surrendered the island again in 1782; It was transferred to Spain in 1783 as part of the Peace of Paris. The British recaptured the island in 1798, during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British and the French tried (and failed) to end hostilities between themselves with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Both nations agreed to cede or withdraw from certain territories, with the Island of Menorca passing to the Spanish, with whom it has remained since.

20th Century[edit]

During the Spanish Civil War, the island remained loyal to the Republic, but was captured by the Nationalists in 1939. During the battle to recapture the islands from the republicans, Mahon was bombed by Italian and Spanish Nationalist bomber planes.

Modern era[edit]

Historic centre of Mahon

Today it serves as the seat of the Island Council of Menorca (Consell Insular de Menorca).

Towards the end of the 20th century, the renovation of its historic centre was made possible by income from tourism.

A traditional cheese made on the island (Mahón cheese) is named after the city. Some believe that the origin and name of mayonnaise are found in this Menorcan city.[4] In Spanish mahón is also the name of nankeen, especially the blue cloth.

Traditional coat of arms of Mahon

Notable residents[edit]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Mahon - Menorca Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
14.2
(57.6)
15.5
(59.9)
17.3
(63.1)
21.1
(70)
25.0
(77)
28.4
(83.1)
28.9
(84)
26.1
(79)
22.0
(71.6)
17.7
(63.9)
15.2
(59.4)
20.4
(68.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.7
(51.3)
10.8
(51.4)
12.0
(53.6)
13.7
(56.7)
17.2
(63)
21.1
(70)
24.3
(75.7)
25.0
(77)
22.4
(72.3)
18.7
(65.7)
14.4
(57.9)
12.0
(53.6)
16.8
(62.2)
Average low °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
7.5
(45.5)
8.4
(47.1)
10.0
(50)
13.4
(56.1)
17.2
(63)
20.3
(68.5)
21.1
(70)
18.7
(65.7)
15.4
(59.7)
11.1
(52)
8.9
(48)
13.2
(55.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 59
(2.32)
47
(1.85)
42
(1.65)
48
(1.89)
37
(1.46)
14
(0.55)
3
(0.12)
22
(0.87)
48
(1.89)
81
(3.19)
85
(3.35)
64
(2.52)
599
(23.58)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 7 6 7 7 5 2 1 2 5 8 8 8 66
Mean monthly sunshine hours 148 153 200 222 275 313 352 314 235 192 154 136 2,694
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[5]

Twin towns[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]