Maianthemum

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Maianthemum
Solomon plume.jpg
Maianthemum racemosum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Asparagaceae
Subfamily: Nolinoideae
Genus: Maianthemum
F.H.Wigg.
Synonyms[1]
  • Smilacina (Desf.)
  • Unifolium Zinn
  • Vagnera Adans.
  • Valentinia Heist. ex Fabr.
  • Polygonastrum Moench
  • Bifolium G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Schreb.
  • Sciophila Wibel.
  • Monophyllon Delarbre
  • Sigillaria Raf.
  • Styrandra Raf.
  • Asteranthemum Kunth
  • Jocaste Kunth
  • Medora Kunth
  • Maia Salisb.
  • Neolexis Salisb.
  • Tovaria Neck. ex Baker
  • Oligobotrya Baker

Maianthemum (Latin Māia "May" and Greek ánthemon "flower"; including former Smilacina) is a genus of rhizomatous, herbaceous, perennial flowering plants, native to the understory of woodlands. It is widespread across much of North America, Europe and Asia.[1][2][3][4]

In the APG III classification system, Maianthemum is placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae (formerly the family Ruscaceae).[5]

Because of genetic similarity, similar fruits, and evidence that the 4-tepal species evolved from a 6-tepal species, the genus Smilacina was combined with Maianthemum in the late 20th century.[6]

Like many lilioid monocots, both Maianthemum and Smilacina were formerly included in the family Liliaceae. The genus has also been placed in the former family Convallariaceae, and resembles the closely related Polygonatum, hence the common name "false Solomon's seal".[2]

Flowers have six tepals, reduced to four in M. canadense, M. bifolium and M. dilatatum.

Species[edit]

Species accepted:

  1. Maianthemum amoenum (H.L.Wendl.) LaFrankie - Honduras, El Salvador, Chiapas, Veracruz
  2. Maianthemum atropurpureum (Franch.) LaFrankie - Sichuan, Yunnan
  3. Maianthemum bicolor (Nakai) Cubey - Korea
  4. Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W.Schmidt - May lily - northern and central Europe and northern Asia from Spain to Kamchatka; China, Japan, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Germany, Italy, Ukraine, etc
  5. Maianthemum canadense Desf. - Canada mayflower, false lily-of-the-valley - much of USA and Canada
  6. Maianthemum comaltepecense Espejo, López-Ferr. & Ceja - Oaxaca
  7. Maianthemum dahuricum (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) LaFrankie - Siberia, Russian Far East, Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, Korea
  8. Maianthemum dilatatum (Alph.Wood) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr. - snakeberry, wild lily-of-the-valley - Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Russian Far East, Alaska, Yukon, British Columbia, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, California
  9. Maianthemum flexuosum (Bertol.) LaFrankie - Chiapas, Central America
  10. Maianthemum formosanum (Hayata) LaFrankie - Taiwan
  11. Maianthemum forrestii (W.W.Sm.) LaFrankie - Yunnan
  12. Maianthemum fusciduliflorum (Kawano) S.C.Chen & Kawano - Tibet, Yunnan, Bhutan, Assam, Myanmar
  13. Maianthemum fuscum (Wall.) LaFrankie - Nepal, Tibet, Yunnan, Bhutan, Assam, Myanmar
  14. Maianthemum gigas (Woodson) LaFrankie - Chiapas, Central America
  15. Maianthemum gongshanense (S.Yun Liang) H.Li - Yunnan
  16. Maianthemum henryi (Baker) LaFrankie - Vietnam, Myanmar, Tibet, southern China
  17. Maianthemum hondoense (Ohwi) LaFrankie - Honshu
  18. Maianthemum × intermedium Vorosch. - Siberia, Russian Far East (M. bifolium × M. dilatatum)
  19. Maianthemum japonicum (A.Gray) LaFrankie - Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, northeastern China
  20. Maianthemum lichiangense (W.W.Sm.) LaFrankie - Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan
  21. Maianthemum macrophyllum (M.Martens & Galeotti) LaFrankie - Veracruz
  22. Maianthemum mexicanum García Arév - Durango
  23. Maianthemum monteverdense LaFrankie - Nicaragua, Costa Rica
  24. Maianthemum nanchuanense H.Li & J.L.Huang - Sichuan
  25. Maianthemum oleraceum (Baker) LaFrankie - Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, Myanmar, Tibet, Sikkim, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan
  26. Maianthemum paludicola LaFrankie - Costa Rica
  27. Maianthemum paniculatum (M.Martens & Galeotti) LaFrankie - Central America, central and southern Mexico
  28. Maianthemum purpureum (Wall.) LaFrankie - Tibet, Yunnan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Assam
  29. Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link - false Solomon's-seal - widespread across forested regions of USA and Canada; also Chihuahua
  30. Maianthemum robustum (Makino & Honda) LaFrankie - Honshu
  31. Maianthemum salvinii (Baker) LaFrankie - Chiapas, Guatemala
  32. Maianthemum scilloideum (M.Martens & Galeotti) LaFrankie - Mexico, Guatemala
  33. Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link - starry Solomon's-seal widespread across most of northern and Western United States; much of Canada; Chihuahua
  34. Maianthemum stenolobum (Franch.) S.C.Chen & Kawano - Sichuan, Gansu, Hubei
  35. Maianthemum szechuanicum (F.T.Wang & Tang) H.Li - Sichuan, Yunnan
  36. Maianthemum tatsienense (Franch.) LaFrankie - Bhutan, Assam, Myanmar, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan
  37. Maianthemum trifolium (L.) Sloboda - three-leaf Solomon's-seal, false mayflower Siberia, Russian Far East, Korea, Manchuria, Alaska, much of Canada, northeastern and north-central United States
  38. Maianthemum tubiferum (Batalin) LaFrankie - Gansu, Hubei, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan
  39. Maianthemum yesoense (Franch. & Sav.) LaFrankie - Japan

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ a b RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  3. ^ Flora of China, Vol. 24 Page 217, 舞鹤草属 wu he cao shu, Maianthemum F. H. Wiggers, Prim. Fl. Holsat. 14. 1780.
  4. ^ Flora of North America, Vol. 26 Page 206, Maianthemum F. H. Wiggers, Prim. Fl. Holsat. 14. 1780.
  5. ^ Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x 
  6. ^ "Maianthemum". Flora of North America. 

See also[edit]