Young, Maicon's first professional club was Fluminense, due to his speed, he rapidly received the nickname Maicon "Bolt", in reference to the sprinter Usain Bolt. Partner of Fred in Fluminense's attack, Maicon got famous for his nice passes for Fred to score and was probed by many teams in the end of 2009. On 10 March 2010, Maicon joined Lokomotiv Moscow in 4.5 year contract, and would wear number 90. In 2009, Fluminense also sold 50% rights of Maicon along with other players in different ratio to Traffic Group.
Defending the Brazilian national under-20 football team, Maicon played an essential role in the team's victory against Germany for the quarter-finals of the 2009 FIFA U-20 World Cup in Egypt. The score was 1–0 for Germany by the 76th minute, when Brazilian coach Rogério Lourenço replaced Boquita by Maicon. Having been only 12 minutes on the field, Maicon scored a goal and brought the match to a draw. Within the first minute of injury time, Maicon scored again. The 2–1 victory against Germany allowed Brazil to proceed to the semifinals.