Maiduguri, also called Yerwa by its locals, is the capital and the largest city of Borno State in north-eastern Nigeria. It is popularly called "Home of Peace". The city sits along the seasonal Ngadda River which disappears into the Firki swamps in the areas around Lake Chad. Maiduguri was founded in 1907 as a military outpost by the British and has since grown rapidly with a population exceeding 1 million by 2007.
The region was home to the Kanem-Bornu Empire for centuries. Maiduguri actually consists of two cities: Yerwa to the West and Old Maiduwuri to the east. Old Maiduwuri was selected by the British as their military headquarters while Yerwa was selected at approximately the same time by Shehu Abubakar Garbai of Borno to replace Kukawa as the new traditional capital of the Kanuri people.
Maiduguri is estimated to have a population of 1,197,497 by 2009 as of 2007. Its residents are mostly Muslim including Kanuri, Hausa, Shuwa, Bura, Marghi, and Fulani ethnic groups. There is also a considerable Christian population.
Maiduguri is home to three markets which include an ultra modern "Monday market" that has a spectacular satellite image view. There is an ancient museum and is served by the Maiduguri International Airport.The city has one of the best layouts in Nigeria. The values of land and properties are expensive in Maiduguri. A survey of property markets in Nigeria (2009) positioned Maiduguri as the third most expensive for buying and renting in the country next to Abuja and Lagos. Maiduguri is the principal trading hub for northeastern Nigeria. Its economy is largely based on services and trade with a small share of manufacturing. The city lies at the end of a railway line connecting Port Harcourt, Enugu, Kafanchan, Kuru, Bauchi, and finally Maiduguri.
Maiduguri has one of the best-equipped universities and hospitals in Nigeria. The University of Maiduguri attracts foreign students from neighbouring countries especially Cameroun and Niger Republic. The College of medical sciences is amongst the top 5 best medical schools in Nigeria. Other higher intitutions include Ramat polytechinic, College of agric and College of education.
Sports and Leisures 
It is home to the El-Kanemi Warriors, a football team and the city has an active local football league. The Kyarimi park is the oldest and largest zoo in Nigeria. The zoo attracts thousands of visitors per year. The city is within a short driving distance to picnic areas in Alo lake and Zambiza game reserve.
Communal violence 
Several times since the mid-1960s, Maidugri has witnessed outbreaks of large scale ethnic or religious violence. Ethnic and political rivalries caused rioting between rival political supporters in 1966 and 1974, while members of religious sects led intercomunal violence in 1982 and 2001. On 18 February 2006, riots related to the Prophet Muhammad cartoons published by the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten left at least 15 people dead, and resulted in the destruction of approximately 12 churches. Soldiers and police quelled the riots, and the government temporarily imposed a curfew.
Maiduguri was also a scene of major religious violence throughout Northeast Nigeria committed by an Islamist group, Boko Haram, in July 2009, leaving over 700 people dead.
See also 
- "Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- "The World Gazetteer". Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- Monday market
- "NigeriaFirst.org: Revamping the Nigerian Railway". Archived from the original on 2006-12-16. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- Eclipse triggers Nigeria riot. Barnaby Phillips, BBC. Wednesday, 10 January 2001.
- Nigerian Toll Put at 452 In Religious Riots. REUTERS, New York Times. November 1, 1982.
- "Al Jazeera: Fifteen killed in Nigerian cartoon riots". Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- "ReliefWeb: Nigeria's northeast state imposes curfew after religious crisis". Retrieved 2007-04-06.
- Maiduguri: The jewel in the Sahara. IKENNA EMEWU. Daily Sun (Nigeria) Saturday, August 7, 2004.
- "Maiduguri." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. accessed 03 Apr. 2009
- Nigeria's Borno state adopts Sharia. Barnaby Phillips, BBC. Saturday, 19 August 2000.
- Rupert Kawka (ed), Ibrahim Walad, Frauke Jäger, Rupert Kawka et al. From Bulamari to Yerwa to Metropolitan Maiduguri. Interdisciplinary Studies on the Capital of Borno State, Nigeria. Series: Westafrikanische Studien Volume 24. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, Cologne (2002) ISBN 978-3-89645-460-7