Main Building (University of Texas at Austin)
The Main Building in the foreground, c. 1980
|Location||110 Inner Campus Drive, Austin, Texas
|Roof||307 ft (94 m)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Paul Philippe Cret|
The Main Building (known colloquially as The Tower) is a structure at the center of the University of Texas at Austin campus in Downtown Austin, Texas, United States. The Main Building's 307-foot (94 m) tower has 28 floors (30, if the carillon room above the clock mechanism is counted), and is one of the most recognizable symbols of the University and the city.
The old Victorian-Gothic Main Building served as the central point of the campus' forty-acre site, and was used for nearly all purposes beginning in 1882. However, by the 1930s, discussions arose about the need for new library space, and the Main Building was razed in 1934 over the objections of many students and faculty. All that remains of the Old Main Building are its old carillon bells (called the "Burleson Bells"), which are now exhibited as part of a permanent display outside the university's Bass Concert Hall. The modern-day Main Building and tower were constructed in its place.
Originally, the University planned to use the tower as a library space, using a dumbwaiter system to carry books from the upper floors to the students requesting them on the second floor. Library employees were stationed every other floor and students on the ground floor filled out paper book request slips, which were sent upstairs by pneumatic tube, similar to bank tellers. The books were sent down to the students using an 18-story dumbwaiter. This proved ineffective, and the dumbwaiter was removed to place network and other computer cabling in the same shaft. The building now mainly contains administrative offices, though it does still house a three-floor life sciences library and the Miriam Lutcher Stark Library of early and significant editions of English Romanticist works. Two separate sets of elevators serve the building; one in the front, one in back. Several professors' offices and department offices are located near the top of the Tower. In the floors above the stacks and below the offices, several floors contain the university herbarium (Plant Resources Center). U.S. Census data analysis is compiled and analyzed on some of these floors. Lastly, two secure elevators provides access to the entire 27 floors of the Tower while an elevator on the 27th floor provides access to the 28th floor Observation Deck. There is also a book elevator in the stacks. It is extremely small and can barely fit two people. the shape of the elevator allows it to be used as a dumb waiter for book carts. Due to the size a person and book cart can not ride together. A book cart can be wheeled into the lift, the user can select the floor and then take the adjacent stair case to where they dispatched the elevator. The book elevator serves floors 2 - 17 however only floors 4 5 and 6 are accessible to the public.
The 307-foot (94 m) tower was designed by Paul Philippe Cret. Completed in 1937, the Main Building is located in the middle of campus. At the top of the tower is a carillon of 56 bells, the largest in Texas. The carillon is played weekly by student carillonneurs.
During World War II, an air raid siren built by the chief communications engineer for the University, Jack Maguire, was placed on top of the tower to notify Austin residents of incoming air attack. As there was never an air attack on the city, this siren was only tested and never truly used. The decommissioned siren was superseded by 4 electronic warning sirens that were installed in early 2007.
On August 1, 1966, Charles Joseph Whitman, an architectural engineering student at the university, barricaded himself in the observation deck of the tower of the Main Building with a scoped Remington 700 deer rifle and various other weapons. In a 96-minute stand-off, Whitman killed 16 Austin residents and wounded many more. Police and armed citizens climbed up the tower to the observation deck and shot Whitman to death.
On November 11, 1998, the Board of Regents of the UT system approved the recommendation of Student Association leaders and of then-president Larry Faulkner to reopen the tower observation deck to visitors. After the installation of security and safety measures, the observation deck reopened to the public in 1999.
Additionally, the observation deck was closed in 2002 and 2003, due to the attacks of September 11, 2001, and was reopened in 2004 with added security.
The tower usually appears illuminated in white light in the evening, but is lit in various color schemes for special occasions, including athletic victories and academic accomplishments, such as commencement, preferably white and orange. To mark more somber events, such as the passing of a former president of the university, the tower remains darkened with an eerie grey glow through the night.
Carl J. Eckhardt Jr., head of the Physical Plant in 1931, supervised the construction of the Main Building Tower. Eckhardt devised a lighting system to take advantage of its commanding architecture to announce university achievements. Beginning in 1937, orange lights were used to symbolize important events at the University; by 1947, standard guidelines for using the orange lights were created, and these have been updated since. Today there are many different options for lighting, including a darkened tower to signify solemn occasions. An orange tower with office windows lit to form the numeral "1" is used for national championships in NCAA sporting events.
During Gone To Texas (a freshman ceremony) and commencement ceremonies, the tower windows are lit up to form the year (e.g. a 12 for the Class of 2012) of the class at the ceremony.
- "UT Tower Shooting: Interview with Cheryl Botts Dickerson". News8Austin. Retrieved February 19, 2008.[dead link]
- The Carillon The University of Texas. Accessed March 29, 2006.
- Turner, Tommy. "Tower Sounds Air Raid". The Daily Texan. November 17, 1942. Accessed January 19, 2006.
- "Federal Signal’s CampusAlert System Installed at the University of Texas at Austin". FederalWarningSystems.com. May 1, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- Beach, Patrick. "Drawn to the edge", Austin American-Statesman, September 12, 1999. Accessed November 15, 2009.
- Board of Regents Meeting Minutes November 1998. Accessed March 29, 2006.
- Tower Tours Offer Glimpse of UT History The Daily Texan. August 10, 2004 Accessed March 29, 2006.
- Tower Tours Schedule Fall 2005 The Texas Union. Accessed December 1, 2005.
- University approves new policy for lighting UT Tower On Campus. Accessed December 1, 2005.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- University's collection of news articles concerning the Main Building
- Lighting the Tower, an account of Carl J. Eckhardt Jr.'s work
- Littlefield Fountain, including placement with the Old Main Building
- Photos of Old Main
- Early 20th Century illustrations of University of Texas buildings.