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Tower of London

The Peasants' Revolt was an uprising in England in 1381, brought on by economic and social upheaval that had been growing since the Black Death thirty years earlier. The rebels, coming from a wide spectrum of rural society, sought a reduction in the high taxes financing the Hundred Years' War, an end to the system of unfree labour known as serfdom and the removal of the King's senior officials and law courts. Inspired by the radical cleric John Ball and led by Wat Tyler, Kentish rebels entered London on 13 June. They destroyed the Savoy Palace and set fire to law books and buildings in the Temple. The following day, the fourteen-year-old King Richard acceded to most of the rebels' demands, including the abolition of serfdom; meanwhile, the Lord Chancellor and the Lord High Treasurer were killed in the Tower of London (pictured). On 15 June Richard met Tyler and the rebels at Smithfield, but violence broke out and Tyler was killed by the king's party. A London militia then dispersed the rebel forces and Richard rescinded his previous grants to the rebels. Troubles extended as far as East Anglia, Yorkshire and Somerset, but most of the rebel leaders were tracked down and executed, and at least 1,500 rebels were killed. (Full article...)

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Illustration of a giant mouse lemur from 1868

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Arthur Phillip

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A light-grey circle with a dark-grey outline that encircles three smaller circles, the top left being blue, the top right red, and the bottom green, all on a white background

Baryons are composite particles made of three quarks, as opposed to mesons, which are composite particles made of one quark and one antiquark. Baryons and mesons are both hadrons, which are particles composed solely of quarks or both quarks and antiquarks. Until a few years ago, it was believed that some experiments showed the existence of pentaquarks – baryons made of four quarks and one antiquark. The particle physics community as a whole did not view their existence as likely by 2006 and, by 2008, considered evidence to be overwhelmingly against the existence of the reported pentaquarks. Since baryons are composed of quarks, they participate in the strong interaction. The most famous baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe. Each baryon has a corresponding antiparticle known as an antibaryon in which quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks. For example, a proton is made of two up quarks and one down quark (diagram pictured), while its corresponding antiparticle, the antiproton, is made of two up antiquarks and one down antiquark. (Full list...)

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Artificial cranial deformation

The skull of a proto-Nazcan person (c. 200-100 BC), which has been artificially shaped. In the proto-Nazcan culture, this was achieved by binding a cushion to an infant's forehead and a board to the back of the head, creating an elongated shape. It is unknown why this was done; theories suggest that this was meant to create an ethnic identity, form the individual into a social being, or illustrate social status.

Photograph: Didier Descouens

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