Maitreya

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This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. For other uses, see Maitreya (disambiguation).
Maitreya Buddha
KushanMaitreya.JPG
Bodhisattva Maitreya from the 2nd Century Gandharan Art Period
Sanskrit मैत्रेय (Maitreya)
Pāli Metteyya
Burmese အရိမေတ္တေယျ [ʔəɹḭmèdja̰]
Chinese 彌勒菩薩 (Mílè Púsa)
Japanese 弥勒菩薩 (Miroku Bosatsu)
Korean 미륵보살 (Mireuk Bosal)
Mongolian ᠮᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠷᠢ᠂ ᠠᠰᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠣ;
Майдар, Асралт;
Mayidari, Asaraltu
Shan ဢရီႉမိတ်ႈတေႇယႃႉ
Sinhala මෛත්‍රී බුදුන් (Maithree Budun)
Thai พระศรีอริยเมตไตรย (Phra Sri Araya Mettrai)
Tibetan བྱམས་པ་
Vietnamese Di-lặc (Bồ Tát)
Information
Venerated by Theravada, Mahayana, Vajrayana
Attributes Great Benevolence
Preceded by Gautama Buddha
Portal icon Buddhism portal

Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pāli), Maithree (Sinhala), Jampa (Tibetan) or Di-Lặc (Vietnamese), is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva.

Maitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradition is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the historic Śākyamuni Buddha. The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya refers to a time when the Dharma will have been forgotten by most on Jambudvipa. It is found in the canonical literature of all major Buddhist schools (Theravāda, Mahāyāna, Vajrayāna), and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an event that will take place when the Dharma will have been mostly forgotten on Earth.

Origins[edit]

The name Maitreya (Metteyya in Pāli) is derived from the Sanskrit word maitrī (Pāli: mettā) meaning "loving-kindness", which is in turn derived from the noun mitra (Pāli: mitta) in the sense of "friend".

Metteyya is mentioned in the Cakavatti (Sihanada) Sutta (Digha Nikaya 26) of the Pali Canon. He appears in no other sutta in the Pali Canon, and this has cast doubt as to the sutta's authenticity. Most of the Buddha's sermons are presented as having been presented in answer to a question, or in some other appropriate context, but this sutta has a beginning and ending in which the Buddha is talking to monks about something totally different. This leads Gombrich to conclude that either the whole sutta is apocryphal, or that it has at least been tampered with.[1]

The Bodhisattva Maitreya (water bottle on left thigh), art of Mathura, 2nd century AD.

Maitreya is sometimes represented seated on a throne Western-style, and venerated both in Mahāyāna and non-Mahāyāna Buddhism. Some have speculated that inspiration for Maitreya may have come from the ancient Indo-Iranian deity Mithra. The primary comparison between the two characters appears to be the similarity of their names. According to a book entitled The Religion of the Iranian Peoples, "No one who has studied the Zoroastrian doctrine of the Saoshyants or the coming saviour-prophets can fail to see their resemblance to the future Maitreya.[2]

Paul Williams claims that some Zoroastrian ideas like Saoshyant influenced the beliefs about Maitreya, such as "expectations of a heavenly helper, the need to opt for positive righteousness, the future millennium, and universal salvation". Possible objections are that these characteristics are not unique to Zoroastrianism, nor are they necessarily characteristic of the belief in Maitreya.

It is also possible that Maitreya Buddha originated with the Hindu Kalki, and that its similarities with the Iranian Mithra have to do with their common Indo-Iranian origin.

In the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, in the first centuries CE in northern India, Maitreya was the most popular figure to be represented, together with the Buddha Śākyamuni. In China, in the 4th–6th Centuries "Buddhist artisans used the names Shakyamuni and Maitreya interchangeably... indicating both that the distinction between the two had not yet been drawn and that their respective iconographies had not yet been firmly set"[3] An example is the stone sculpture found in the Qingzhou cache dedicated to Maitreya in 529 CE as recorded in the inscription (currently in the Qingzhou Museum, Shandong). The religious belief of Maitreya apparently developed around the same time as that of Amitābha, as early as the 3rd century CE.[4]

Characteristics[edit]

A 9th-century CE Srivijayan art bronze Maitreya from South Sumatra, a stupa adorn his crown.

One mention of the prophecy of Maitreya is in the Sanskrit text, the Maitreyavyākaraṇa (The Prophecy of Maitreya). It implies that he is a teacher of meditative trance sadhana and states that gods, men and other beings:

will lose their doubts, and the torrents of their cravings will be cut off: free from all misery they will manage to cross the ocean of becoming; and, as a result of Maitreya's teachings, they will lead a holy life. No longer will they regard anything as their own, they will have no possession, no gold or silver, no home, no relatives! But they will lead the holy life of oneness under Maitreya's guidance. They will have torn the net of the passions, they will manage to enter into trances, and theirs will be an abundance of joy and happiness, for they will lead a holy life under Maitreya's guidance. (Trans. in Conze 1959:241)

General description[edit]

Maitreya is typically pictured seated, with either both feet on the ground or crossed at the ankles, on a throne, waiting for his time. He is dressed in the clothes of either a Bhiksu or Indian royalty. As a bodhisattva, he would usually be standing and dressed in jewels. Usually he wears a small stupa in his headdress that represents the stupa of the Buddha Sakyamuni's relics to help him identify it when his turn comes to lay claim to his succession, and can be holding a dharmachakra (wheel of life) resting on a lotus. A khata (ceremonial scarf) is always tied around his waist as a girdle. The Stupa on his head was actually seen by disciples when Maitreya received teachings from his master Buddha Shakyamuni as a sign of his outstanding devotion. That is the reason why he is pictured with a Stupa either on his head or in his hands. Also the original Stupa was a crystal one, which stands for the purity of his devotion.

In the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, in the first centuries CE in northern India, Maitreya is represented as a Central Asian or northern Indian nobleman, holding a "water phial" (Sanskrit: Kumbha) in his left hand. Sometimes this is a "wisdom urn" (Sanskrit: Bumpa). He is flanked by his two acolytes, the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu.

Maitreya-samiti was an extensive Buddhist play in Pre-Islamic Central Asia.[5][6] The Maitreyavyakarana (in Sataka form) in Central Asia and Anagatavamsa in South India also mention him.[7][8]

Some Buddhists wished to stay with him after death.[9][10] I-kuan Tao have different descriptions of him.[11][12]

Maitreya's Tuṣita Heaven[edit]

The future Buddha Maitreya, Gandhara, 3rd century CE.

Maitreya currently resides in the Tuṣita Heaven (Pāli: Tusita), said to be reachable through meditation. Śākyamuni Buddha also lived here before he was born into the world as all bodhisattvas live in the Tuṣita Heaven before they descend to the human realm to become Buddhas. Although all bodhisattvas are destined to become Buddhas, the concept of a bodhisattva differs greatly in Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism. In Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who is striving for full enlightenment (Arahantship in Pali), whereas in Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva is one who has already reached a very advanced state of grace or enlightenment but holds back from entering nirvana so that he may help others.

In Mahayana Buddhism, once Maitreya becomes a Buddha, he will rule over the Ketumati Pure Land, an earthly paradise sometimes associated with the Indian city of Varanasi (also known as Benares) in Uttar Pradesh. In Mahayana Buddhism, Buddhas preside over a Pure Land (the Buddha Amitabha presides over the Sukhavati Pure Land, more popularly known as the Western Paradise).[13]

In Theravadin Buddhism, Buddhas are born as unenlightened humans, and are not rulers of any paradise or pure land. Maitreya's arising would be no different from the arising of Shakyamuni Buddha, as he achieved full-enlightenment as a human being, and passed away into parinibbana when the conditions were ripe for his final passing. Orthodox Theravadin doctrine has much less emphasis on deities and Bodhisattvas, and do not view Bodhisattvas to be in an unachievable state.

Activity of Maitreya in the current age[edit]

Main article: Maitreya-nātha
Statue of Maitreya Buddha in Patan Museum

In Mahayana schools, Maitreya is traditionally said to have revealed the Five Treatises of Maitreya through Asanga. These important texts are the basis of the Yogachara tradition and constitute the majority of the Third Turning of the Wheel of Dharma.

Future coming of Maitreya[edit]

32 metre (110 ft) statue of Maitreya Buddha in Nubra Valley, Ladakh, India, facing down the Shyok River towards Pakistan.

Maitreya will be the fifth Buddha of the present kalpa[clarification needed] (aeon) and his arrival will occur after the teachings (dharma) of the Buddha are no longer practiced.

His coming is characterized by a number of physical events. The oceans are predicted to decrease in size, allowing Maitreya to traverse them freely. Maitreya will then reintroduce "true" dharma to the world.

His arrival signifies the end of the middle time, the time between the fourth Buddha, Gautama Buddha, and the fifth Buddha, Maitreya, which is viewed as a low point of human existence. According to the Cakkavatti Sutta: The Wheel-turning Emperor, Digha Nikaya 26 of the Sutta Pitaka of the Pāli Canon), Maitreya Buddha will be born in a time when humans will live to an age of eighty thousand years, in the city of Ketumatī (present Benares), whose king will be the Cakkavattī Sankha. Sankha will live in the palace where once dwelt King Mahāpanadā, but later he will give the palace away and will himself become a follower of Maitreya Buddha.[14]

The scriptures say that Maitreya will attain bodhi in seven days (which is the minimum period), by virtue of his many lives of preparation for Buddhahood (similar to those reported in the Jataka stories of Shakyamuni Buddha).

At this time a notable teaching he will start giving is that of the ten non-virtuous deeds (killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views) and the ten virtuous deeds (the abandonment of: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views).

The Arya Maitreya Mandala, founded by Lama Anagarika Govinda is based on the idea of the future coming of Maitreya.

Pali sources say that beings in Maitreya's time will be much bigger than during the time of Sakyamuni. In one prophecy his disciples are contemptuous of Mahakasyapa, whose head is no larger than an insect to them. Buddhas robe barely covers two fingers making them wonder how tiny Buddha was. Mahakasyapa is said to be small enough in comparison to cremate in the palm of Maitreya's hand.[15]

Nichiren Buddhism and Maitreya as metaphor[edit]

Statue of Maitreya Buddha at Wat Intharawihan, Bangkok

According to the Lotus Sutra of Nichiren Buddhism, all persons possess the potential to reveal an innate Buddha nature during their own lifetimes, a concept which may appear to contradict the concept of Buddha as savior or messiah.

Although Maitreya is a significant figure in the Lotus Sutra, the explanation of Nichiren is that Maitreya is a metaphor of stewardship and aid for the Bodhisattvas of the Earth, as written in the Lotus Sutra:

Moreover...all the bodhisattvas, Bodhisattva Maitreya....will guard and protect the votaries of the Lotus Sutra, so one may indeed rest assured.[16]

In much of his writing, Nichiren mentions the traditional Buddhist views on Maitreya but explains that the propagation of the Eternal Dharma of the Lotus Sutra was entrusted by Shakyamuni to the Bodhisattvas of earth:

The Buddha did not entrust these five characters to Maitreya, Medicine King, or the others of their group. Instead he summoned forth the bodhisattvas....from the great earth of Tranquil Light and transferred the five characters to them.[17]

Thus, each individual can embody the character of the Maitreya because he is a metaphor for compassion:

The name Maitreya means ‘Compassionate One’ and designates the Votaries of the Lotus Sutra.[18]

Non-Buddhist views[edit]

The concept of Maitreya was elaborated within Theosophy during the last few decades of the 19th century. However, the Theosophical Maitreya was explained and developed differently from the original Buddhist concept. In Theosophical texts Maitreya has multiple aspects signifying not just the future Buddha, but similar concepts from other religious or spiritual traditions.[19]

In early 20th century, leading Theosophists became convinced that an appearance of the Maitreya as a so-called World Teacher was imminent. A South Indian boy, Jiddu Krishnamurti, was thought to be destined as the "vehicle" of the soon-to-manifest Maitreya; however the manifestation did not happen as predicted, and did not fulfil Theosophists' expectations.[20]

Since the growth of the Theosophical movement in the 19th century, and influenced by Theosophy's articulations on the Maitreya, non-Buddhist religious and spiritual movements have adopted and reinterpreted the concept in their doctrines. Share International, which equates Maitreya with the prophesied figures of multiple religious traditions, claims that he is already present in the world, but is preparing to make an open declaration of his presence in the near future. They claim that he is here to inspire mankind to create a new era based on sharing and justice.[21]

In the beginning of the 1930s, the Ascended Master Teachings placed Maitreya in the "Office of World Teacher" until 1956, when he was described as moving on to the "Office of Planetary Buddha" and "Cosmic Christ" in their concept of a Spiritual Hierarchy.

Some Muslim scholars who studied Buddhist texts believe that Maitreya is "Rahmatu lil-'alameen" (Mercy for The Worlds), which is the name for the prophet Muhammad as it is said in the Qur'an.[22] According to the research on the book Antim Buddha - Maitreya scholars have surmised that Maitreya Buddha is Muhammad.[23] After examining the Buddhist texts researchers concluded that Muhammad had been the last and final awakened Buddha to come into existence long after the current teachings.[24]

The 19th-century Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is believed in by the members of the Ahmadiyya Community (the faith he brought) as fulfilling expectations regarding the Maitreya Buddha.[25]

Bahá'ís believe that Bahá'u'lláh is the fulfillment of the prophecy of appearance of Maitreya.[26][27] Bahá'ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá'u'lláh's teachings on world peace.[26]

Maitreya claimants[edit]

Close-up of a statue depicting Maitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh, India. Depictions of Maitreya vary among Buddhist sects.
Seated Maitreya, Korean, 4-5th century CE. Guimet Museum.
The monk Budai as an incarnation of Maitreya

Since his death, the Chinese monk Budai (Hotei) has been popularly regarded as an incarnation of the bodhisattva Maitreya. His depiction as the Laughing Buddha continues to be very popular in East Asian culture.[dubious ]

While a number of persons have proclaimed themselves to be Maitreya over the years following the Buddha’s parinirvana, none have been officially recognized by the sangha and Buddhists. A particular difficulty faced by any would-be claimant to Maitreya's title is the fact that the Buddha is considered to have made a number of fairly specific predictions regarding the circumstances that would occur prior to Maitreya's coming; such as that the teachings of the Buddha would be completely forgotten, and all of the remaining relics of Sakyamuni Buddha would be gathered in Bodh Gaya and cremated.[dubious ]

The following list is just a small selection of those people who claimed or claim to be the incarnation of Maitreya. Many have either used the Maitreya incarnation claim to form a new Buddhist sect or have used the name of Maitreya to form a new religious movement or cult.

  • In 613 the monk Xiang Haiming claimed himself Maitreya and adopted imperial title.[28]
  • In 690 Empress Wu inaugurated the Second Zhou dynasty, proclaimed herself an incarnation of the future Buddha Maitreya, and made Luoyang the "holy capital." In 693 she replaced the compulsory Dao De Jing in the curriculum temporarily with her own Rules for Officials.[29]
  • Gung Ye, a Korean warlord and king of short-lived state of Taebong during the 10th century, claimed himself as living incarnation of Maitreya and ordered his subjects to worship him. His claim was widely rejected by most Buddhist monks and later he was dethroned and killed by his own servants.
  • Lu Zhong Yi, the 17th patriarch of I-Kuan Tao, claimed to be an incarnation of Maitreya.
  • L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the belief systems Dianetics and Scientology, suggested he was "Metteya" (Maitreya) in the 1955 poem Hymn of Asia. Numerous editors and followers of Hubbard claim that in the book's preface, specific physical characteristics said to be outlined—in unnamed Sanskrit sources—as properties of the coming Maitreya; properties which Hubbard's appearance supposedly aligned with.
  • Samael Aun Weor - stated in The Aquarian Message that "the Maitreya Buddha Samael is the Kalki Avatar of the New Age." The Kalkian Avatar and Maitreya Buddha, he claimed, are the same "White Rider" of the book of Revelation.
  • Adi Da was suggested by his devotees to be Maitreya: "an All-Surpassing God-Man yet to come -- a final Avatar, the ultimate Messiah, a consumate Prophet or Enlightened Sage, a Spiritual Deliverer who will appear in the 'late-time', the 'dark' epoch when humanity is lost, apparently cut off from Wisdom, Truth and God. Buddhists call that Expected One 'Maitreya'." [30]
  • Raël's (Claude Vorilhon's) Maitreya claims [1] center on the content of the Agama Sutra (Japanese: Agon Sutra),[31] supposedly a very ancient text written by Buddha himself, but which has been deemphasized or forgotten by the majority of Buddhist cultures.[32] Raël has claimed directly to people attending Asia Raëlian Church seminars, that someone born in France, a country which is often symbolized by the cock (or rooster), west of the Orient, meets the criteria of the Maitreya. Rael himself claims to be this individual.[33]

Maitreya sects in China[edit]

Pre-Maitreyan Buddhist messianic rebellions[edit]

Southern and Northern Dynasties[edit]

  • 515: The Mahayana Rebellion. In the late summer of that year, the renegade monk Faqing 法慶 married a nun and formed a sect in the Northern Wei province of Jizhou 冀州 (in the southern part of today’s Hebei province) with the assistance of a local aristocrat named Li Guibo 李歸伯. The sect was named the Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle", in reference to Mahayana Buddhism), and Li Guibo was given the titles of Tenth-stage Bodhisattva, Commander of the Demon-vanquishing Army, and King who Pacifies the Land of Han by Faqing.
Using drugs to send its members into a killing frenzy, and promoting them to Tenth-Stage Bodhisattva as soon as they killed ten enemies, the Mahayana sect seized a prefecture and murdered all the government officials in it. Their slogan was "A new Buddha has entered the world; eradicate the demons of the former age", and they would kill all monks and nuns in the monasteries that they captured, also burning all the sutras and icons. After defeating a government army and growing to a size of over 50,000, the rebel army was finally crushed by another government army of 100,000. Faqing, his wife, and tens of thousands of his followers were beheaded, and Li Guibo was also captured later and publicly executed in the capital city Luoyang.
The Fozu Tongji (Comprehensive Records of the Buddha), a chronicle of Buddhist history written by the monk Zhipan in 1269, also contains an account of the Mahayana Rebellion, but with significant deviations from the original account, such as dating the rebellion to 528 rather than 515.[34]
  • 516: The Moonlight Child Rebellion. Toward the end of that year, another sect was discovered by local authorities in Yanling. A man named Fa Quan and his associates were claiming that an eight-year-old child Liu Jinghui was a Bodhisattva called the Moonlight Child (yueguang tongzi pusa; 月光童子菩萨), and that he could transform into a snake or a pheasant. They were arrested and sentenced to death on suspicion of seditious intent, but Jinghui had his sentence commuted to banishment on account of his youth and ignorance.[34]
  • 517: Early in the spring of that year, surviving remnants of the Mahayana rebels regrouped and mounted a sudden attack on the capital of Yingzhou province, which lay just northwest of their original base in Bohai prefecture. They were repelled only after a pitched battle with an army of slaves and attendants led by Yuwen Yan, the son of the provincial governor, and nothing more is known of their fate.[34]

Although a "new Buddha" was mentioned, these rebellions are not considered "Maitreyan" by modern scholars.[34] However, they would be a later influence on the rebel religious leaders that made such claims. Therefore, it is important to mention these rebellions in this context.

Maitreyan rebellions[edit]

Further information: Mileism

Sui Dynasty[edit]

  • 610: On the first day of the Chinese New Year, dozens of rebels dressed in white, burning incense and holding flowers proclaimed their leader as Maitreya Buddha and charged into the imperial palace through one of its gates, killing all the guards before they were themselves killed by troops led by an imperial prince. A massive investigation in the capital (Chang'an) implicated over a thousand families.[34]
  • 613: A skilled magician named Song Zixian claimed to be Maitreya in Tang County (northwest of Yingzhou), and allegedly could transform into the form of Buddha and make his room emit a glow every night. He hung a mirror in a hall that could display an image of what a devotee would be reincarnated as: a snake, a beast or a human being. Nearly a thousand "from near and far" joined his sect every day, and he plotted to first hold a Buddhist vegetarian banquet, or wuzhe fohui, and then attack the emperor who was then touring Yingzhou. The plot was leaked, and Song was arrested and executed, along with over a thousand families of his followers.[34]
  • 613: The monk Xiang Haiming claimed to be Maitreya in Fufeng prefecture (western Shaanxi) and led a rebellion. The elite of the Chang’an area hailed him as dasheng, or holy man, because they had auspicious dreams after following him, and his army swelled to several tens of thousands before he was defeated by government troops.[34]

Tang Dynasty[edit]

  • 710: Wang Huaigu declared, "The Shakyamuni Buddha has declined; a new Buddha is about to appear. The House of Li is ending, and the House of Liu is about to rise".[28]

Song Dynasty[edit]

  • 1047: Army officer Wang Ze led a revolt of Buddhists expecting Maitreya; they took over the city of Beizhou in Hebei before they were crushed.[35] The Song Dynasty government declared Maitreya Sects to be "heresies and unsanctioned religions". Tens of thousands of Maitreya Sect followers were killed.[36]

Yuan and Ming Dynasty[edit]

  • In 1355, Han Shantong's son, Han Lin'er (韓林兒), was proclaimed "Emperor of the Great [Latter] Song" (大宋, referring to the dead Song Dynasty) (1355-1368?) by Liu Futong. Liu Futong claimed Han Lin'er was a direct descendent of the Zhao royal family who ruled the Song Dynasty. After Liu Futong's death, Zhu Yuanzhang took up command of the Red Turban Rebellion and later assassinated Han Lin'er to become Emperor Hongwu of the Ming Dynasty. (See History)
According to Beijing University,[37]

This suggests that the Ming Dynasty was named after the White Lotus figures of the "Big and Little Bright Kings".

Qing Dynasty[edit]

Maitreya and disciples, in Budai form, as depicted at the Feilai Feng grottos near Lingyin Temple in China
The Yi He Tuan (義和團), often called in English the "Society of Harmonious Fists" was a 19th-century martial-sect inspired in part by the White Lotus Society. Members of the "Harmonious Fists" became known as "Boxers" in the west because they practiced Chinese martial arts.
  • 1899: The Boxer Rebellion (義和團之亂). Chinese rebellion from November 1899 to September 7, 1901 against foreign influence in such areas as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final years of the Qing Dynasty. By August 1900, over 230 foreigners, tens of thousands of Chinese Christians, an unknown number of rebels, their sympathizers and other innocent bystanders had been killed in the chaos. The uprising crumbled on August 14, 1900 when 20,000 foreign troops entered the Chinese capital, Peking (Beijing).

Albeit not in the name of Maitreya, both rebellions were perpetrated solely or in part by the White Lotus Society, a rebellious Maitreya sect.

Alternative persona[edit]

There was a sage of the same name in the epic Mahabharata. His lineage is unknown. He came to the court of Hastinapura to advise Duryodhana to restore the kingdom of the Pandavas, a little while after the sons of Pandu had gone into exile, having been defeated at dice.

However, Duryodhana didn't even bother to listen to the sage, and showed his disrespect all too plainly. Incensed, the sage cursed him and said, "Fourteen years hence, you shall be destroyed in battle by the Pandavas, along with your kinsmen and all that you hold dear. Bheema shall dispatch you to the abode of Yama, by breaking your thighs with the mace." Some hold that the curse of this sage played a major part in encompassing the destruction of the Kauravas.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, pages 83-85.
  2. ^ Tiele, p. 159.
  3. ^ Angela Falco Howard et al., Chinese Sculpture, Yale University Press, 2006, p. 228
  4. ^ 中國早期的彌勒信仰
  5. ^ 古代维吾尔语说唱文学《弥勒会见记》
  6. ^ The Maitreya-samiti and Khotanese
  7. ^ 刘震:从百颂体《弥勒授记经》来看中印及周边的文化交流
  8. ^ The Teaching of the Elders - Thera-vada: 'Anagatavamsa Desana
  9. ^ 兜率龜鏡集
  10. ^ 兜率龟镜集续编 序
  11. ^ 彌勒救苦經
  12. ^ 博文_澄净明空_新浪博客
  13. ^ 《彌勒上生經》與《彌勒下生經》簡介
  14. ^ Vipassana.info, Pali Proper Names Dictionary: Metteyya
  15. ^ John S. Strong (2007). Relics of the Buddha. p. 220. 
  16. ^ "SGI Library Online - The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin". Sgilibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  17. ^ "SGI Library Online - The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin". Sgilibrary.org. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  18. ^ The Record of Orally Transmitted Teachings p 143.Translated by Burton Watson
  19. ^ Leadbeater, Charles W. (2007) [originally published 1925. Adyar, India: Theosophical Publishing House]. The Masters and the Path (reprint ed.). New York: Cosimo Classics. ISBN 978-1-60206-333-4. The Theosophical Maitreya features prominently in the entire work. Some instances pertinent here: pp. 4–5, 10, 31-32, 34, 36, 74; "Part IV: The Hierarchy" pp. 211–301. As it did with practically every major religious, philosophical, and cultural tradition, Theosophy ascribed additional occult or esoteric significance to many Buddhist concepts. In the Theosophical Spiritual Hierarchy the Maitreya is currently high in the ranks of the so-called Masters of the Ancient Wisdom where he also holds the Office of the World Teacher. According to Theosophical writers he has had a number of manifestations or incarnations in the physical plane, and he has been further identified with Christ; Besant, Annie & Leadbeater, Charles W. (1913). Man: How, Whence, and Whither; a record of clairvoyant investigation. Adyar, India: Theosophical Publishing House. pp. 339, 520. OCLC 871602. Presumed prior Maitreya incarnations.
  20. ^ Lutyens, Mary (1975). Krishnamurti: The Years of Awakening. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-18222-1. Biography (partial) of Jiddu Krishnamurti, the presumed "vehicle" of the Maitreya in the 20th century, describes the events in some detail.
  21. ^ Official Share International Website
  22. ^ (Russian) http://www.islam.ru/vera/polojenie/proroki/nemonoteist/
  23. ^ Dr. Ved Prakash Upaddhay - Sanskrit Prayag University, Muhammad in the Hindu Scriptures pg 36 - 44
  24. ^ Prof. Ashit Kumar Bandhopaddhay, Sanskrit Academy Howrah
  25. ^ Review of Religions March 2002, Vol. 97, No. 3, pg. 24
  26. ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1995). Buddhism And The Baha'i Faith: An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith for Theravada Buddhists. Oxford: George Ronald. pp. 50–52. ISBN 0-85398-384-4. 
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