List of major crimes in the United Kingdom

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Further information: Unsolved murders in the UK

This is a list of major crimes in the United Kingdom that garnered significant media coverage and/or led to changes in legislation.

List of crimes[edit]


Date Name Location Summary
1812 The assassination of
Spencer Perceval
London, England Shot by John Bellingham. Only British Prime Minister to have been assassinated.
1978 The assassination of
Abd ar-Razzaq an-Naif
London, England Abd ar-Razzaq an-Naif was Prime Minister of Iraq in 1968. He was assassinated on 9 July 1978, in London. His gunman was quickly captured and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1979; Naif was reportedly killed on the order of Saddam Hussein.
1978 The assassination of
Georgi Markov
London, England Markov was a Bulgarian dissident writer assassinated on 11 September 1978, in London. A micro-pellet containing ricin was fired into his leg via an umbrella wielded by someone with probable links to the Bulgarian secret police.
2006 The assassination of
Alexander Litvinenko
London, England Litvinenko was a Russian dissident and ex-agent, poisoned with radioactive polonium-210 on 1 November 2006, and who died 22 days later. His killer(s) remain unknown, but a link with Russia's Federal Security Service is suspected.

Child Killers/Killings[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1860 Eastbourne manslaughter 1 Eastbourne, England 15-year-old Reginald Cancellor died at the hands of his teacher, Thomas Hopley. Hopley used corporal punishment with the stated intention of overcoming what he perceived as stubbornness on Cancellor's part, but instead beat the boy to death. The case became an important legal precedent regarding the use of corporal punishment in schools.
1867 The murder of Fanny Adams 1 Alton, Hampshire, England Fanny Adams was a young English girl murdered by solicitor's clerk Frederick Baker in Alton, Hampshire.
1953 Teddington towpath murders 2 Notting Hill, London, England 2 girls went missing in Teddington and were found the next day, having been murdered and raped. After the country's biggest manhunt at the time, Alfred Charles Whiteway was arrested and charged. He was found guilty at his subsequent trial and hanged. The case was described at the time as "one of Scotland Yard's most notable triumphs in a century".[1]
1968 The Mary Bell case 2 Newcastle upon Tyne, England Mary Flora Bell was convicted in December 1968 of the manslaughter of two boys, Martin Brown (aged four years) and Brian Howe (aged three years) earlier that year. Bell was ten years old at the time of one of the killings, and eleven at the time of the other. She was sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to a special approved school, being released from custody in 1980.
1973 The David McGreavy case 3 Worcester, England David McGreavy was a lodger in the home of his friends, Clive and Elsie Ralph. While minding the Ralphs' three small children, Paul (age 4), Dawn (age 2) and Samantha (age 8 months), McGreavy murdered all three children. After killing the children, he mutilated their bodies with a pickaxe and impaled the bodies outside on the spikes of a wrought iron fence. McGreavy, called the "Monster of Worcester" in the press, later pled guilty to all three murders and was sentenced to multiple life terms with minimums of 20 years.
1978 The Carl Bridgewater Case 1 Wordsley, West Midlands, England The body of 13-year-old paperboy Carl Bridgewater was found in the house of a local elderly couple who had been out for the day. It was presumed by police that Bridgewater had disturbed a burglar while delivering a newspaper to their home and was dragged into their livingroom where he was killed with a shotgun blast to the head. The following year, a group of men - widely referred to in the press as the Bridgewater Four - were convicted of the crime, three for murder and a fourth for manslaughter. The defendant convicted of manslaughter subsequently died in prison but the three convicted of murder were released in 1997 when they convictions were quashed on appeal. Nobody else has ever been charged.
1983 The Murder of Colette Aram 1 Keyworth, Nottinghamshire England Colette Aram, a 16-year-old trainee hairdresser who was abducted, raped and strangled as she walked from her home to her boyfriend's house in Keyworth, Nottinghamshire, on 30 October 1983. The killer, Paul Stewart Hutchinson, was finally brought to justice more than 25 years later, receiving a life sentence for murder in January 2010.
1993 The Murder of James Bulger 1 Walton, Merseyside, England Two-year-old James Patrick Bulger was killed in February 1993 by two 10-year-old boys, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, after luring him away from a shopping centre to a nearby railway line where they violently tortured and beat him before leaving him on a railway track to die of his injuries. After the discovery of Bulger's body two days later, Venables and Thompson were found guilty of murder in November of that year and sentenced to be detained indefinitely. They spent eight years in custody before being released on life licence. Venables was recalled to prison in early 2010 for breaching his licence conditions.
1994 The Murder of Daniel Handley 1 London, England Nine-year-old Daniel Handley was lured away near his West London home in October 1994 and murdered by homosexuals Timothy Morss and partner Brett Tyler. They were sentenced to life imprisonment in May 1996 after admitting the murder in court. They had sexually abused him before murdering him and abandoning his body near Bristol, where it was found five months later. The trial judge described the pair as "vultures" and recommended they should never be set free. After their trial, it was revealed that both had convictions for sexual offences against children. When the pair, along with two others, received 50-year tariffs imposed by Home Secretary David Blunkett in 2002, this was overturned within 24 hours by the European Court of Human Rights.
1996 The Michael Stone Killings 2 Kent, England Michael Stone was convicted in October 1998 of the July 1996 murder of Lin Russell and her six-year-old daughter Megan, who were killed in a hammer attack. He was also convicted of attempting to murder Mrs Russell's nine-year-old daughter Josie, who suffered serious head injuries in the attack. He has continued to assert his innocence since his conviction two years later. His original conviction was overturned on appeal but a second trial resulted in another verdict of guilty in 2002 after another prisoner claimed that Stone had confessed to the killings while on remand in jail. His most recent appeal, in 2004, also failed.
2000 The Murder of Victoria Climbié 1 London, England In February 2000 in London, England, an eight-year-old Ivorian girl Victoria Adjo Climbié (2 November 1991 – 25 February 2000) was tortured and murdered by her guardians, who were found guilty of murder and jailed for life the following year. Her death led to a public inquiry and produced major changes in child protection policies in England.
2000 The murder of Sarah Payne 1 East Preston, West Sussex, England Sarah Payne, a seven-year-old girl from Surrey, is abducted and murdered by convicted paedophile Roy Whiting in West Sussex. He was found guilty of her murder in December 2001 and sentenced to life imprisonment with the judge saying that it was a rare case in which a life sentence should mean life. The trial judge's recommendation has since been replaced by a 40-year minimum term set by the High Court, which means that Whiting cannot be considered for parole unless he lives to be at least 82. At the end of Whiting's murder trial, it had been revealed that he already had a previous conviction for abduction and indecent assault on an eight-year-old girl in 1995.
2000 The murder of Damilola Taylor 1 Peckham, London, England While on his way from Peckham Library, 10-year-old Nigerian-born Damilola Taylor was found with a cut to his left thigh and bled to death within a half hour before arriving at a local hospital. Four teenagers were tried for murder in 2002 but cleared. A second trial in 2006 saw two other suspects - brothers Ricky and Gavin Preedie - found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to eight years in prison, but both were released within four years.
2001 The Torso in the Thames case 1 River Thames, London, England The discovery of a human torso floating in the River Thames on September 21, 2001 was eventually revealed to be the remains of a recently arrived Nigerian boy, between the ages of four and seven. Although the child is thought to be a victim of a ritual killing, the London Metropolitan Police Service have yet to apprehend those responsible. The identity of the torso has never been established.
2001 The Murder of Danielle Jones 1 East Tilbury, Essex, England The murder of Danielle Jones was an English murder case where no body was found and the conviction relied upon forensic authorship analysis of text messages sent on the victim's mobile phone. Danielle Sarah Jones was last seen alive on 18 June 2001, when she was 15 years old. Her body has never been found, but within five months of her last being seen alive, police were able to charge her uncle Stuart Campbell with her murder. He was found guilty in December 2002 and sentenced to life imprisonment for murder as well as 10 years for abduction. After the trial, controversy arose when it was revealed Campbell had prior convictions for indecent assault on other girls of similar ages. The use of forensic authorship analysis of text messages in the case provoked research into its use in other cases. Police also found bloodstained stockings, which had traces of DNA belonging to Campbell and his niece, in the loft of Campbell's house in Essex. This helped convince the police that Danielle Jones had been murdered, and that Stuart Campbell had killed her, even though her body had not been recovered.
2002 The Soham murders 2 Soham, Cambridgeshire, England Two ten-year-old girls, Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman, were murdered by local school caretaker Ian Huntley after luring them into his home on 4 August 2002. The search for the two girls was one of the longest undertaken by British authorities. Their bodies were found two weeks after their disappearance and Huntley was jailed for life for the murders in December 2003. In September 2005, his minimum term was set at 40 years by the High Court, meaning that he cannot be considered for parole until at least 2042 and the age of 68. His partner, Maxine Carr, had been found guilty of perverting the course of justice and received a prison sentence of three-and-a-half years. She was released under a new identity in May 2004.
2002 The Murder of Amanda Dowler 1 Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, England 13-year-old Amanda Dowler went missing on her journey home from school. Her body was discovered six months later in Yateley, Hampshire. The investigation gained national media coverage and was the largest investigation undertaken by Surrey police. Levi Bellfield, who had been convicted of two other murders and an attempted murder (all committed after Amanda's disappearance) in February 2008, was found guilty of the murder in June 2011 and received an additional life sentence. Shortly after Bellfield's trial, it was revealed that her mobile phone had been hacked by News of the World reporters while she was missing, and they had deleted text messages from her inbox, giving her parents false hope that she was still alive. These revelations, along with numerous other phone-hacking allegations, contributed to the newspaper's closure. Rupert Murdoch, owner of the News of the World, later awarded the Dowler family £3million in compensation.
2003 The Murder of Jodi Jones 1 Dalkeith, Midlothian, Scotland Jody Jones was a fourteen-year-old school girl who was murdered by teenage her boyfriend, Luke Mitchell whilst walking down a footpath to meet him after coming out of school. She was brutally attacked and stabbed. He was subsequently jailed for life.
2004 The Murder of Kriss Donald 1 Glasgow, Scotland Kriss Donald was a 15-year-old boy abducted, torturted and murdered by a gang in a racist attack. Daanish Zahid became the first person in Scotland to be convicted of racially motivated murder in relation to the attack. Imran Shahid, Zeeshan Shahid, and Mohammed Faisal Mushtaq were also given life sentences. Zahid Mohammed received a 5-year sentence for abduction.
2007 The Death of Baby P 1 London Borough of Haringey, North London, England Peter Connelly (also known as "Baby P", "Child A" and "Baby Peter") was an English 17-month-old boy who died in London after suffering more than 50 injuries over an eight-month period, during which he was repeatedly seen by Haringey Children's services and NHS health professionals. Baby P's real first name was revealed as "Peter" on the conclusion of a subsequent trial of Peter's mother's boyfriend on a charge of raping a two-year-old. His full identity was revealed when his killers were named after the expiry of a court anonymity order on 10 August 2009. His mother has since been released from prison. The case caused shock and concern among the public and in Parliament, partly because of the magnitude of Peter's injuries, and partly because Peter had lived in the London Borough of Haringey, North London, under the same child care authorities that had already failed ten years earlier in the case of Victoria Climbié. This had led to a public enquiry which resulted in measures being put in place in an effort to prevent similar cases happening.
2007 The Murder of Sophie Lancaster 1 Bacup, Rossendale, Lancashire, England Sophie Lancaster was the victim of a brutal attack along with her boyfriend, Robert Maltby, while walking through Stubbylee Park in the Bacup area of Rossendale, Lancashire. She later died in hospital as a result of her injuries. The police said the attack may have been provoked by the couple wearing gothic fashion and being members of the goth subculture. Two teenagers were later sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder.
2007 The Murder of Rhys Jones 1 Liverpool, England The murder of 11-year-old Rhys Milford Jones occurred on 22 August 2007 in Liverpool, England, when he was fatally shot in the neck. An 18-year-old, Sean Mercer, received a life sentence for the murder in December 2008 and the trial judge recommended he should not be considered for parole for at least 22 years.
2008 The Murder of Ben Kinsella 1 Islington, London, England Ben Michael Kinsella, was a 16-year-old English student at Holloway School. Kinsella was murdered by a gang of black men in Islington, London after an argument in which he was described as "blameless". The significant media attention around his murder (the 17th stabbing death of a teenager in London during 2008) led to a series of anti-knife crime demonstrations, a raised profile for the government's anti-knife crime maxim "Operation Blunt 2" and a review and change of UK knife crime sentencing laws. The members of the gang, all in their teens of twenties, were later jailed for life. His sister, Brooke Kinsella, an actress whose credits include a role on EastEnders in the early 2000s, has since been at the centre of a media campaign against knife crime.
2010 The Murder of Tia Rigg 1 Manchester, England Tia Rigg was a 12-year-old girl who was murdered by her uncle, John Maden, who had an 'obsessive interest' in pornography depicting paedophilia, rape and torture. On 3 April 2010, Maden called Tia's mother on the pretext of having Tia come over to his house and babysit his 10-year-old daughter. When Tia arrived at Maden's home, he drugged her with Olanzapine, a powerful antipsychotic tranquilliser. He then inflicted a 'horrific catalogue of sexual injuries' on Tia before stabbing her in the stomach and strangling her with a ligature made from a guitar string. Maden then dialled 999 to admit the killing. He admitted to the operator that he had killed his niece, and when asked why stated 'because I felt like it'. He was promptly arrested and charged with rape and murder. He pleaded guilty on 4 October 2010 and was sentenced to life and was told that, due to the sheer depravity of his crime and the agony and terror Tia must have suffered, he should never be released.
2012 The Allenton house fire 6 Allenton, Derby, Derbyshire, England The Allenton house fire occurred on 11 May 2012 in 18 Victory Road, a residential street in Allenton, Derby, Derbyshire, England. Six siblings were killed in the fire. The parents of the children, Mick and Mairead Philpott, were later arrested and charged with murder, along with their friend Paul Mosley. In December 2012 their charges were downgraded to manslaughter. On 2 April 2013, Mick Philpott and Paul Mosley were found guilty by unanimous verdicts, while Mairead Philpott was found guilty by majority verdict. Mosley was jailed for 11 years and the Philpotts both received life sentences.
2012 The Murder of Tia Sharp 1 New Addington, London Borough of Croydon, England Tia Sharp was a 12-year-old English girl who was reported missing from the home of her grandmother, Christine Sharp, in New Addington, on 3 August 2012. When police discovered her body in the loft of the house seven days later, they arrested Christine Sharp and Stuart Hazell on suspicion of murder. Hazell is Christine Sharp's partner and the former boyfriend of Tia's mother, Natalie. Hazell was charged with Tia's murder and five days into his trial at the Old Bailey, changed his plea to guilty. He was sentenced to life imprisonment with a 38-year minimum term. It is believed that Hazell had become 'sexually fixated' with Tia, and that he smothered or strangled her when she said she was going to tell her mother after he tried to make sexual advances towards her.
2012 The Murder of April Jones 1 Machynlleth, Powys, Wales April Jones, a five-year-old girl from Machynlleth, Powys, Wales, disappeared on the evening of 1 October 2012, after being sighted willingly getting into a vehicle near her home. Her disappearance generated a large amount of press coverage, both nationally and internationally. Five days after she was last seen, a local man, Mark Bridger, was charged with April's abduction and murder. He was found guilty of all charges on 30 May 2013. He was sentenced to life imprisonment with a recommendation that he should never be released. April's body has never been found, but police found skull fragments and blood in Bridger's home, which was matched to April Jones and indicated that she had suffered "unsurvivable injuries" at the hands of 47-year-old Bridger.
2012 The Murder of Daniel Pelka 1 Coventry, West Midlands, England Pełka, 4, died of a head injury. His mother, Magdalena Łuczak (27), and her partner, Mariusz Krężołek (33), both Polish nationals were found guilty of the murder on 31 July 2013. On 2 August 2013, both Łuczak and Krężołek were jailed for life for Pelka's murder and were told they must serve a minimum of 30 years. Łuczak and Krężołek starved the child, beat him, locked him in a room, force-fed him salt and waterboarded him. He weighed only one stone three pounds - a similar weight of a baby less than a year old - when he died. A serious case review is underway, as Social Services failed to act sufficiently on complaints from individuals, including staff at Daniel Pelka's school, who were concerned that he was being deprived of food.
2014 The Murder of Alice Gross 1 Hanwell, London, England Alice Gross was a 14-year-old English girl from Hanwell, west London who went missing on 28 August 2014. The search for her was the largest deployment of Metropolitan Police officers in a search operation since the 7 July 2005 London bombings, involving 600 officers from eight forces. Two men were arrested on suspicion of murdering her; both were later released without charge. The prime suspect is Latvian convicted murderer Arnis Zaļkalns, who went missing from Ealing, London, on 3 September. On 1 October, police launched a murder inquiry after the body of Alice Gross was found in the River Brent the night before. On 4 October, police announced that they had found the body of Arnis Zalkalns in dense woodland in Boston Manor Park. The cause of his death was hanging.

Individual Murders[edit]

19th century[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1823 The Radlett murder 1 Radlett, England William Weare was shot and his throat cut by John Thurtell, the son of the mayor of Norwich. The body was disposed of in a pond in Elstree. 17 books were written about it in the following year.
1840 The murder of Lord William Russell 1 London, England Russell's Swiss valet, François Courvoisier, murdered Russell after being accused of theft. Russel was the uncle of future prime minister Lord John Russell. A provincial doctor, Robert Blake Overton, wrote to the latter suggestioning checking for fingerprints but the suggestion, though followed up, did not lead to routine use of fingerprinting by the police for another 50 years.[2]
1856 The trial of William Palmer 1+ Rugeley, England Doctor who was convicted of one murder and suspected of more in one of the most notorious cases of the 19th century. The Central Criminal Court Act 1856 was passed to allow him to have a fairer trial in London rather than in his home town.
1886 The Pimlico Mystery 1 Pimlico, London, England Following the suspicious death of Thomas Edwin Bartlett, his wife Adelaide was charged with murder. It was found that Bartlett's stomach contained a fatal quantity of chloroform, although this had not caused any damage to his throat or windpipe. Adelaide Bartlett was later acquitted, possibly because the prosecution were unable to explain the death, or how she could have committed the crime.
1897 The murder of William Terriss 1 London, England Terriss, a famous actor, was stabbed to death by a deranged fellow actor, Richard Archer Prince, outside the Adelphi Theatre, where Terriss was appearing.


Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1910 The Dr. Hawley
Harvey Crippen
1 Holloway, London, England Hawley Harvey Crippen, an American-born doctor, used his position in a London pharmaceutical company to poison his wife before fleeing the country with his mistress. However, due in part to the newly developed wireless communication, Crippen was apprehended by Scotland Yard detectives on board the SS Montrose shortly before its scheduled arrival in Quebec.
1929 Podmore Case 1 Southampton, England During a murder investigation regarding the discovery of the body of Vivian Messiter, an insurance agent for the Wolf's Head Oil Company, pathologist Sir Bernard Spilsbury used early forensic techniques to conclusively prove guilt and convict William Henry Podmore.
1931 The Vera Page Case 1 Notting Hill, London, England In yet another case investigated by Sir Bernard Spilsbury, the body of Vera Page was found after she had been raped and strangled. Although Percy Orlando Rush was named as a prime suspect, no one was charged with Page's murder and it remains unsolved.
1934 Brighton trunk murders 2 Brighton, England Two unrelated, although similar murders took place in Brighton. A dismembered woman was found in an unclaimed trunk at a local railway station in June 1934. A second body was discovered later that year, following the disappearance of local prostitute Violet Kaye. When police conducted a house-to-house search near the railway station, her body was found in a trunk in the possession of her boyfriend Tony Mancini. Mancini had since fled the area. He was eventually apprehended by authorities, but was found not guilty.
1935 The Francis Rattenbury murder 1 London, England Rattenbury was murdered in his sitting room by blows to the head with a carpenter's mallet. His wife confessed, but chauffeur George Percy Stoner admitted to the housekeeper that it was actually he who had carried out the deed.
1946 The Thomas John Ley case
(The Chalk Pit Murderer)
1 Wimbledon, London, England While residing in London, former Australian politician Thomas John Ley abducted the supposed lover of his mistress, barman John McMain Mudie, with the help of two other men. They tortured him before dumping his body in a Surrey chalkpit. Ley and accomplice Lawrence John Smith were arrested soon after, and sentenced to death. Both men's sentences were commuted with Smith sentenced to life imprisonment, while Ley was declared insane and sent to Broadmoor Hospital, where he died within months. Investigators were able to amass substantial evidence among his belongings as well as forensic evidence to convict him.


Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1955 The Ruth Ellis case 1 Hampstead, London, England Ruth Ellis, a London nightclub manager, shot and killed her fiance David Blakely outside a Hampstead public house on 10 April 1955. She surrendered to police upon their arrival. Despite evidence of the involvement of another lover, Desmond Cussen, she was tried and convicted of murder for which she would be the last woman to be executed in the United Kingdom, later in 1955.
1961 The James Hanratty case
(The A6 Murder)
1 Clophill, Bedfordshire, England In August 1961, an unidentified man abducted scientist Michael Gregsten and his mistress Valerie Storie. The man forced them to drive him around suburban North London before having them stop at a lay-by on the A6 where he shot the pair. Storie survived the attack but was left paralysed. A police investigation led to the eventual arrest of car thief James Hanratty. Although later convicted of the murder, the Hanratty case has since been disputed. Hanratty was hanged in April 1962, one of the last people to be executed in Britain before the abolition of the death penalty three years later.
1974 The Lord Lucan case 1 London, England Lord Lucan's nanny Sandra Rivett was found beaten to death in the basement of Lucan's London home. Lucan subsequently disappeared and was never found, despite a large-scale manhunt. He was officially identified as the murderer in an inquest in 1975 and declared dead in 1999, although his body has never been found and it has never been established when, how or where exactly he died.
1974 The Stephen Downing case 1 Bakewell, Peak District, Central England The Stephen Downing case involved the conviction and imprisonment in 1974 of a 17-year-old council worker, Stephen Downing, for the murder of a 32-year-old legal secretary, Wendy Sewell, in the town of Bakewell, Derbyshire. Following a campaign by a local newspaper, his conviction was overturned in 2002, after Downing had served 27 years in prison; he had been ineligible to apply for parole at an earlier stage as he had always denied the murder. The case is thought to be the longest miscarriage of justice in British legal history, and attracted worldwide media attention[4] as the "Bakewell Tart" murder.
1975 The Murder of Lesley Molseed 1 Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England Lesley Susan Molseed (born Lesley Susan Anderson) was an eleven-year-old schoolgirl from Turf Hill, who was murdered on 5 October 1975 on Rishworth Moor between Rochdale and Ripponden in West Yorkshire. Stefan Ivan Kiszko, a 23-year-old local tax clerk of Ukrainian and Slovenian parentage, served 16 years in prison after he was wrongly convicted of her sexual assault and murder. He died in 1993, aged only 41, shortly after being released when his conviction was quashed. The circumstances of his ordeal was described by one MP as "the worst miscarriage of justice of all time" [1]. Ronald Castree, a retired local taxi driver, was eventually found guilty of the crime on 12 November 2007 and jailed for life.
1979 The Murder of Teresa de Simone 1 Southampton, England One of the longest cases of a miscarriage of justice in British history. A three-year police investigation resulted in the arrest of Sean Hodgson, a pathological liar who confessed to numerous crimes, including ones he could not have committed and crimes that did not appear to have happened. Hodgson was sentenced to life imprisonment after being found guilty of the murder in 1982. After serving 27 years he was exonerated and released in 2009. DNA analysis of semen samples from the original crime scene showed that they could not have been his. In 2009, on the basis of DNA from his exhumed body, police named a deceased man, David Lace, as the likely killer. Lace had confessed to police in 1983 that he had killed de Simone but officers refused to believe him. Lace committed suicide in 1988.
1986 The murder of Linda Cook 1 Portsmouth, England Portsmouth barmaid Linda Cook was murdered in 1987 and Michael Shirley, an 18-year-old Royal Navy sailor, wrongly convicted of the crime. His conviction was eventually quashed in 2003 by the Court of Appeal after DNA recovered was proven not to be his. It was the first occasion in which the Criminal Cases Review Commission supported an appeal on the basis of newly available DNA evidence.
1991–1992 The Michael Sams case 1 N/A Michael Sams a rapist, kidnapper, extortionist and murderer who murdered 18-year-old Leeds woman Julie Dart on 9 July 1991 and then kidnapped Birmingham estate agent Stephanie Slater on 22 January 1992, though he later let her go. In July 1993, he was sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of Julie and the abduction of Stephanie. Sams had originally denied murdering Dart but later confessed. Sams had denied the charges in court but confessed to police in prison three days after he was found guilty. He remains in prison more than 20 years later.
1992 The Rachel Nickell murder case 1 Wimbledon Common, London England Rachel Nickell was the victim of a sexual assault and murder on Wimbledon Common, London, on 15 July 1992, witnessed by her two-year-old son Alex. She was stabbed 49 times. On 18 December 2008, Robert Napper pleaded guilty to Nickell's manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility. Colin Stagg had originally been charged with the murder in August 1993 but cleared a year later.
1993 The murder of Stephen Lawrence 1 Eltham, London, England A Jamaican-born architecture student, Stephen Lawrence, and a friend are attacked by a group of white males and stabbed to death while waiting for a bus in Eltham, an area in south-east London. Although several people were arrested for the attack, none was brought to trial due to lack of evidence. Two local men in their thirties, who had both been teenagers at the time of the killing and were among those originally arrested, were eventually found guilty of the murder in January 2012 and jailed for life.
1999 The Jill Dando Murder 1 Fulham, West London, England Jill Dando, a television presenter for the British Broadcasting Corporation and host of Crimewatch, was murdered by an unknown gunman outside her home in West London. After a high profile investigation by the Metropolitan Police, neighbour Barry George was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment in June 2001. In July 2008 he was acquitted after the jury found the police's case too weakly founded. Nobody else has ever been charged in connection with the murder.


Date Name Deaths Location Summary
2001 The Murder of Ross Parker 1 Peterborough, England Ross Parker was a 17-year-old white male, murdered in an unprovoked racially motivated attack. The attack occurred in the aftermath of the September 11th Attacks. Three men were all found guilty of his murder in unanimous verdicts and sentenced to life imprisonment.
2003 The Murder of Shafilea Ahmed 1 Great Sankey, Warrington, Cheshire, England Shafilea Iftikhar Ahmed was a British girl, who was murdered by her parents when she was seventeen years old.
2005 The Murder of Sally Anne Bowman 1 Croydon, South London, England Sally Anne Bowman was violently murdered and raped near her home in Croydon, South London, just two weeks after her 18th birthday. Mark Dixie, who was arrested the following year following a DNA match, was found guilty of the murder in February 2008 and sentenced to life imprisonment with a recommended minimum term of 34 years.
2006 The Murder of Tom ap Rhys Pryce 1 Kensal Green, London, England Thomas Mervyn "Tom" ap Rhys Pryce was a 31-year-old British lawyer who was robbed and murdered by two teenagers as he made his way home in Kensal Green, northwest London, England, on the evening of 12 January 2006. The two, Donnel Carty and Delano Brown, were jailed for life later that year.
2006 The Murder of Nisha Patel-Nasri 1 Wembley, North London, England Nisha Patel-Nasri was a Metropolitan Police special constable and business owner who was stabbed to death outside her Wembley, north London home on Thursday 11 May 2006 before midnight. Her widower, Fadi Nasri, was arrested on Tuesday 27 February 2007 as a suspect. On Wednesday 28 May 2008 he was found guilty of organising her murder.
2007 The Murder of Garry Newlove 1 Warrington, Cheshire, England Garry Newlove, a 47-year-old sales manager, died after being beaten outside his Warrington home by a group of teenagers who were under the influence of alcohol. Former Chief Constable Peter Fahy called for the legal age of buying alcohol to increase to the age of 21 as a result of his murder. His widow Helen Newlove condemned the Government for failing to get to grips with youth disorder afterwards. Newlove had gone outside to confront a gang of youths who were vandalising his car. He died in hospital two days later. Three teenagers were found guilty of the murder and received life sentences with minimum terms of between 12 and 17 years in February 2008.
2008 New Cross double murder 2 Sterling Gardens, New Cross in South East London, England Two French research students, Laurent Bonomo and Gabriel Ferez, were murdered in Sterling Gardens, New Cross in South East London, England. The victims, who were apparently playing computer games when attacked, were bound and stabbed more than 240 times. Dano Sonnex and Nigel Farmer were later found guilty of the murders and jailed for life.
2010 2010 Northumbria Police manhunt 2 Northumberland, England Moat, armed with a sawn-off shotgun, shot three people two days after being released from prison: his ex-girlfriend Samantha Stobbart, her new partner Chris Brown, and police officer David Rathband. Brown was killed, while Stobbart was badly injured and Rathband was blinded; he died nearly two years later in an apparent suicide, having never regained his sight. After six days on the run, Moat was recognised by police leading to a standoff. After nearly six hours of negotiation, Moat shot himself dead.
2010 The Murder of Joanna Yeates 1 Hampshire, England Yeates went missing in December 2010 after an evening out with colleagues. Following intensive police enquiries, her body was discovered on Christmas Day 2010 in Failand, North Somerset. She had been strangled. The case dominated news coverage in the UK around the Christmas period. The police initially arrested Yeates's landlord but Vincent Tabak, a 32-year-old Dutch neighbour of Yeates, was arrested in January 2011. He admitted manslaughter but this plea was rejected by the prosecution and the jury found him guilty of murder in October 2011 and he was jailed for life.
2012 The Murder of Gemma McCluskie 1 Regent's Canal, Hackney, London, England

McCluskie, an actress whose credits had included a minor role in EastEnders more than 10 years earlier, went missing from her East London flat, where she lived with her brother Tony, on 1 March 2012. The headless torso of a woman was recovered from Regent's Canal in Hackney on 6 March. On 9 March the police announced that the body had been identified as McCluskie. On 10 March, a 35-year-old male was formally charged with her murder. On 10 September, police found a head in the same stretch of canal. The Metropolitan Police confirmed the head was McCluskie's two days later. On 28 September, Tony McCluskie, Gemma's brother, accepted responsibility for the death of the actress but only admitted manslaughter. However, he was later convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.

2013 The Murder of Lee Rigby 1 Woolwich, London, England On the afternoon of 22 May 2013, a British Army soldier, Drummer (Fusilier) Lee Rigby of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers, was attacked and killed by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London. Rigby was off duty and walking along Wellington Street when he was attacked. Two men ran him down with a car, then used knives and a cleaver to stab and hack him to death. Both are British of Nigerian descent, raised as Christians, who converted to Islam. On 19 December 2013, both of the attackers were found guilty of Rigby's murder. On 26 February 2014 they were both sentenced to life imprisonment: Adebolajo was given a whole life order and Abebowale was ordered to serve at least 45 years in prison.

Major Scandals[edit]

Hospital scandals[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1988-1995 Alder Hey organs scandal 0 Alder Hey Children's Hospital,
Liverpool, England
The Alder Hey organs scandal involved the unauthorised removal, retention, and disposal of human tissue, including children’s organs, during the period 1988 to 1995. During this period organs were retained in more than 2,000 pots [this is a UK term of art for plastic formalin-filled containers of various sizes which are used to store tissues in pathology labs] containing body parts from around 850 infants. These were later uncovered during a public inquiry into the organ retention scandal.

The scandal led to the Human Tissue Act 2004, which overhauled legislation regarding the handling of human tissues in the UK and created the Human Tissue Authority.

1990-1995 Bristol heart scandal 30-35 Bristol Royal Infirmary,
Bristol, England
The Bristol heart scandal occurred in England from 1990 till 1995. At the Bristol Royal Infirmary, between 30-35 babies dying at high rates after cardiac surgery. An inquiry found "staff shortages, a lack of leadership, because it was 'simply not up to the task' and found 'an old boy's culture' among doctors, a lax approach to safety, secrecy about doctors' performance and a lack of monitoring by management". The scandal resulted in cardiac surgeons leading efforts to publish more data on the performance of doctors and hospitals.
2004-2013 Furness General Hospital scandal 11+ Furness General Hospital,
Cumbria, England
The Furness General Hospital scandal involves an ongoing investigation by Cumbria Constabulary and a number of other government and public bodies into the deaths of several mothers and newborn babies during the 2000s at Furness General Hospital.
2004-2007 Stafford Hospital scandal 1,200+ Stafford Hospital,
Stafford, England
The Stafford Hospital scandal concerns poor care and high mortality rates amongst patients at the Stafford Hospital, Stafford, England, in the late 2000s. The Hospital has now been renamed County Hospital. The hospital was run by the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, and supervised by the West Midlands Strategic Health Authority.

Police Misconduct[edit]

Deaths in Police Custody[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1969 The Death of David Oluwale 1 Leeds, England David Oluwale was an African immigrant to Britain whose death in 1969 was the first known incident of racist policing allegedly leading to the death of a black person. It is one of the few times in contemporary British history that police officers involved in brutality that allegedly led to the death of a suspect have received criminal sentences.
1979 The Death of Blair Peach 1 Southall, Middlesex, England Clement Blair Peach was a New Zealand-born teacher who died during an anti-racism demonstration in Southall, Middlesex, England. A campaigner and activist against the far right, in April 1979 Peach took part in an Anti-Nazi League demonstration in Southall against a National Front election meeting in the town hall and was knocked unconscious.

He died the next day in hospital from head injuries that he sustained. An inquest jury returned a verdict of death by misadventure in May 1980. Peach's girlfriend, Celia Stubbs, continued to campaign for many years for a public inquiry into his death. The Metropolitan Police Service reached an out-of-court settlement in 1989 with Peach's brother. The Metropolitan Police reports into the death of Blair Peach, identifying the probable responsibility of one of their own officers, were made available to the public on 27 April 2010.

1983 The Death of Colin Roach 1 Stoke Newington police station,
London, England
Colin Roach was a 21-year-old black British man who died from a gunshot wound inside the entrance of Stoke Newington police station, in the London Borough of Hackney, on 12 January 1983. Amid allegations of a police cover-up, the case became a cause célèbre for civil rights campaigners and black community groups in the United Kingdom. Prior to Roach's death, Hackney Black People's Association had been calling for a public inquiry into policing in the area, alleging that there existed a culture of police brutality, wrongful detention of black people, racial harassment, and racially motivated "stopping and searching." Ernie Roberts, the MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington, said that there had been "a complete breakdown of faith and credibility in the police" in the area and the Commission for Racial Equality called for a full inquiry into both the death of Roach and the policing in Hackney generally. In June 1983 a coroner's jury returned a majority verdict of suicide. INQUEST, the United Kingdom pressure group founded following the death of Blair Peach at the hands of a police officer in April 1979, was highly critical of the coroner's directions to the jury, and said that he had wrongly pointed them towards a verdict of suicide.
1985 The Death of Henry Foley 1 Southport, Merseyside, England Henry Foley was a 67 year old retired bus driver from Southport, Merseyside who died from injuries inflicted by a police officer whilst in custody. Sergeant Alwyn Sawyer, his assailant, was convicted of manslaughter, the most recent case of a British police officer to be convicted of killing of someone in custody.
1994 The Death of Richard O'Brien 1 Dulwich, South London, England Richard O'Brien was an Irish market trader who died while being arrested by the London Metropolitan police. He was reported to have been placed face down in a police van by five or six officers, and held there, despite saying he was unable to breathe. It also led to an historic decision in the High Court when for the first time in England a Judicial Review required the Crown Prosecution Service to reassess their decision not to prosecute. It prompted an inspection and investigation by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture, to the abolition of the Police Complaints Authority and to an inquiry by Judge Gerald Butler QC into the work of the Crown Prosecution Service.

None of these momentous events, however, led to anyone standing trial for, or being disciplined for, anything relating to the death of Shiji Lapite.

1994 Death of Oluwashijibomi Lapite 1 Stoke Newington police station,
London, England
Oluwashijibomi "Shiji" Lapite was a 34 year-old Nigerian asylum seeker. Married to Olamide Jones and the father of two young children he died in the back of a police van shortly after being detained by two officers from Stoke Newington police station in London, England.

The inquest verdict of unlawful killing was the second in three months on a man in police custody and it triggered fresh controversy about the use of neck holds by police when controlling suspects.

1998 The Death of Christopher Alder 1 Queen's Gardens Police Station,
Kingston upon Hull, England
Christopher Alder was a trainee computer programmer and former British Army paratrooper who had served in the Falklands War and was decorated for his service with the Army in Northern Ireland. He died while in police custody at Queen's Gardens Police Station, Kingston upon Hull, in April 1998. The case became a cause célèbre for civil rights campaigners in the United Kingdom. He had earlier been the victim of an assault outside a nightclub and was taken to Hull Royal Infirmary where, possibly as a result of his head injury, staff said his behaviour was "extremely troublesome. He was escorted from the hospital by two police officers who arrested him to prevent a breach of the peace.

On arrival at the police station Alder was "partially dragged and partially carried," handcuffed and unconscious, from a police van and placed on the floor of the custody suite. Officers chatted between themselves and speculated that he was faking illness. Twelve minutes later one of the officers present noticed that Alder was not making any breathing noises and although resuscitation was attempted, he was pronounced dead at the scene. The incident was captured on the police station's closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras.

A coroner's jury in 2000 returned a verdict that Alder was unlawfully killed. In 2002 five police officers were tried, charged with manslaughter and misconduct in public office, but they were cleared on the orders of the judge. In 2006 an Independent Police Complaints Commission report concluded that four of the officers present in the custody suite when Alder died were guilty of the "most serious neglect of duty". In November 2011 the government formally apologised to Alder's family in the European Court of Human Rights, admitting that it had breached its obligations in regard to preserving life and ensuring no one is subjected to inhuman or degrading treatment. They also admitted that they had failed to carry out an effective and independent inquiry into the case.

1999 The Death of Roger Sylvester 1 Tottenham, London, England Roger Sylvester was a mentally ill man who died after being detained outside his home in Tottenham, London, by eight Metropolitan police officers. It was reported that his neighbours had complained to police of a disturbance after Sylvester had started banging on his own front door, naked.

Police detained Sylvester under the Mental Health Act, then took him to St Ann's Hospital, Haringey, where he fell into a coma while being restrained on the floor of a padded room by six officers while being assessed by medical staff. He died at Whittington Hospital, Islington, 8 days later without regaining consciousness.

2008 The Death of Sean Rigg 1 Brixton police station,
South London, England
Sean Rigg was a 40-year old black British musician and music producer who suffered from paranoid schizophrenia. He died on 21 August 2008 while in police custody at the entrance to Brixton police station, South London, England. The case became a cause célèbre for civil rights and justice campaigners in the United Kingdom, who called for "improvement and change on a national level" regarding deaths in police custody and the police treatment of suspects with mental health issues.
2009 The Death of Ian Tomlinson 1 Cornhill, City of London, England Ian Tomlinson was a newspaper vendor who collapsed and died in the City of London on his way home from work, after being struck by a police officer during the 2009 G-20 summit protests. An inquest found that he had been unlawfully killed. Simon Harwood, a constable with London's Metropolitan Police Service, was found not guilty of manslaughter, but was dismissed from the police service for gross misconduct.
2012 The Death of Anthony Grainger 1 Greater Manchester, England Anthony Grainger was shot and killed by an armed Greater Manchester Police officer in Cheshire on 3 March 2012. At the time, Grainger was unarmed. In January 2014 the Crown Prosecution Service announced that they would be prosecuting Chief Constable Peter Fahy under health and safety legislation over the shooting.

Police Corruption Scandals[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1989 The Hillsborough Cover up Scandal 96 Hillsborough Stadium,
Sheffield, England
The Hillsborough scandal took place when a crush resulted in the deaths of 96 people and injuries to 766 others occurred on 15 April 1989 during the 1988–89 FA Cup semi-final match between Liverpool F.C. and Nottingham Forest at Hillsborough Stadium, Sheffield, England. It remains the worst stadium-related disaster in British history, and one of the world's worst football disasters. The incident has since been blamed primarily on the police for letting too many people enter the stadium, however the Police went and blamed the deaths on the supporters claiming they were drunk at the time. It has since emerged that the Police forged documents and lied to inquiries to try and shift the blame.
2012 Plebgate 0 Downing Street, London, England "The Plebgate" (or "Plodgate", "Gategate") scandal in the United Kingdom concerns an altercation between Conservative MP Andrew Mitchell, the Government Chief Whip at the time (who later resigned because of the incident), and the police, which took place on 19 September 2012. It gained notoriety initially for the conduct claimed of Mitchell and again two months later when, subsequent to Mitchell's resignation, CCTV and other evidence was revealed which appeared to call into question some of the evidence against Mitchell.

Leaked police logs, later apparently backed up by eyewitness evidence, suggested that Mitchell had sworn at police officers on duty at Downing Street and called them "plebs" (a pejorative word signifying someone of low social class) when they refused to open the main gate for him as he attempted to leave with his bicycle. Mitchell apologised but denied using the words claimed and in particular calling police officers "plebs". However, finding his position untenable amid the media storm surrounding the incident, he resigned from office a month later.

Multiple Murders[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1865 The Edward William Pritchard case 2(+) Glasgow, Scotland English doctor who was hanged for murdering his wife and mother-in-law by poisoning. He was also suspected of the murder of a servant but was never tried for it.
1915 The George Joseph Smith case
(Brides in the Bath Murderer)
3 Leicester, East Midlands, England George Joseph Smith, a con artist and polygamist, murdered three of his wives before being arrested and executed on 13 August 1915.
1951–1952 The John Thomas Straffen case 3 Bath, Somerset, Broadmoor, England John Thomas Straffen who was the longest-serving prisoner in British legal history. Straffen killed two young girls in the summer of 1951. He was found to be unfit to plead and committed to Broadmoor Hospital; during a brief escape in 1952 he killed again. This time he was convicted of murder and sentenced to death. Reprieved because of his mental state, he had his sentence commuted to life imprisonment and he remained in prison until his death more than 55 years later.
1966 The Shepherd's Bush Murders 3 Shepherd's Bush, West London, England Three plainclothes police officers of the Metropolitan Police's CID Division are killed while questioning three criminals parked near Wormwood Scrubs Prison.
1970–1974 The Ronald Jebson Murders 3 Epping Forest
Greater London. England
Ronald Jebson killed Susan Blatchford (11), and Gary Hanlon (12). Their bodies were discovered in a copse on Lippitts Hill, after they went missing from their homes in Enfield, north London, in March 1970. 30 years after the murders, Jebson confessed to the crimes and was already serving a life sentence for the 1974 murder of 8-year-old Rosemary Papper.
1985 The White House Farm murders 5 Near Tolleshunt D'Arcy,
Essex, England
The White House Farm murders took place near the English village of Tolleshunt D'Arcy, Essex, on 7 August 1985, when Nevill Bamber, a farmer and magistrate, his wife June, their adoptive daughter, Sheila Caffell, and her six-year-old twin sons, were shot and killed during the night inside the Bambers' farmhouse. After the murders, the ex-girlfriend of Nevill and June's adoptive son, Jeremy Bamber — the only surviving member of the immediate family—told police that Bamber had implicated himself. The prosecution argued that, motivated by a large inheritance, he had killed the family and placed the gun in his unstable sister's hands to make it look like a murder-suicide, which the police had originally treated the crime as, and which had been widely reported in the media immediately afterwards.
1993–2004 The Peter Bryan case 3 East London, England Peter Bryan is a cannibal who committed several murders between 1993 and 2004.
2011 The Ding Family murders 4 Wootton, Northamptonshire
The 2011 murder of the Ding family occurred in Wootton, a suburb of Northampton, England, in late April. Four members of the Ding family—Professor Jifeng "Jeff" Ding, his wife Helen Chui and their daughters Xing and Alice—were found murdered at their home in Wootton at 6:00 pm on Sunday, 1 May 2011. They were thought to have been murdered two days earlier between about 3:00 pm and 4:00 pm on Friday, 29 April 2011—the day of the Royal Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton and an additional Public Holiday in the United Kingdom. Northamptonshire Police named Anxiang Du, a businessman from Coventry who had been involved in a legal dispute with the Ding family, as the prime suspect in the case. Du fled the murder scene in the Ding's rented car; he drove to London and travelled to Paris by coach. He continued through France, Spain and finally to Morocco, prompting a worldwide manhunt. He lived in a partly built block of flats for 14 months before he was arrested and extradited to the UK. Du was tried at Northampton Crown Court in November 2013. He was found guilty of the murders and was sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum term of 40 years.

Murdered Police Officers[edit]

Date Name Location Summary
1940 The Death of Jack Avery Hyde Park, London, England War Reserve Constable Jack William Avery was a war reserve police officer who was murdered in Hyde Park, London, on 5 July 1940, having served less than one year with the Metropolitan Police Service. Avery was stabbed in the groin by Frank Stephen Cobbett, after Avery approached him having been advised by a member of the public that Cobbett was acting suspiciously. 42-year-old Cobbett, of no fixed address, was originally sentenced to death for murder, but after an appeal served fifteen years penal servitude for manslaughter instead. In 2007 Ian Blair, then Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, unveiled a memorial to Avery close to the place where he was attacked in Hyde Park.
1952 The Derek Bentley and
Christopher Craig
Croydon, Surrey, England Derek Bentley and Christopher Craig were arrested by the Metropolitan Police following a shootout with police in which one constable was killed and another wounded. Although Craig shot and killed the constable, his accomplice Derek Bentley was charged with the murder and hanged.
1959 The shooting of Detective Sergeant Raymond Purdy Kensington London, England German petty criminal Guenther Podola shot Purdy while fleeing arrest. Podola was the last man executed in Britain for killing a policeman.
1966 The Shepherd's Bush Murders Shepherd's Bush, West London, England Three plainclothes police officers of the Metropolitan Police's CID Division are killed while questioning three criminals parked near Wormwood Scrubs Prison.
1969 The Linwood bank robbery Linwood, near Glasgow, Scotland A bank robbery in Linwood, near Glasgow, in 1969, where three police officers were shot in the aftermath, including two fatally, and two officers were later awarded George Medals. The lead robber, Howard Wilson, served 32 years in prison for the robbery, the murder of two police officers and the attempted murder of a third; he was paroled in 2002.
1971 The death of Gerry Richardson Blackpool, Lancashire, England Gerald Irving Richardson, GC was a police officer in the Lancashire Constabulary and one of the highest-ranking officers to be murdered in the line of duty in Great Britain. He was posthumously awarded the George Cross in 1972.
1975 The Murder of Stephen Tibble West Kensington, London, England PC Stephen Andrew Tibble, QPM, (1953 – 26 February 1975) was a police officer in London's Metropolitan Police Service. During a chase through central London, Tibble was fatally shot by Liam Quinn, a member of the Provisional Irish Republican Army.
1984 The shooting of WPC Yvonne Fletcher St. James's Square, London, England Yvonne Fletcher, a young police officer, was one of 12 people hit by bullets fired from the Libyan embassy in London while she was policing a demonstration outside. She died on her way to hospital.
1981 The Death of Kenneth Howorth London, England Kenneth Robert Howorth, GM, was a British explosives officer with London's Metropolitan Police Service who was killed whilst attempting to defuse a bomb planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army in Oxford Street.
1984 The Murder of Brian Bishop Frinton-on-Sea, Essex, England PC Brian John Bishop was a police officer who was shot in the head by an armed robber in Frinton-on-Sea, Essex, on 22 August 1984, four months after the murder of WPC Yvonne Fletcher. He died from his injuries five days later in a London hospital.
1985 The Murder of Keith Blakelock Broadwater Farm, London, England PC Keith Blakelock, a London Metropolitan Police constable, was killed on 6 October 1985 during rioting on the Broadwater Farm housing estate in Tottenham, north London. The violence broke out after a local black woman died of heart failure during a police search of her home the previous day. It took place against a backdrop of unrest in several English cities, including Liverpool and other districts of London, and a breakdown of relations between the police and black communities.
1993 The Death of Hugh Moore Bushey, Hertfordshire, England Commander Hugh John Moore, QPM, was a police officer in the City of London Police who died from heart failure on 4 December 1993, eleven days after a violent struggle with a man who he had attempted to arrest.
1997 The Death of Nina Mackay Straford, East London WPC Nina Alexandra Mackay was a police officer in London's Metropolitan Police Service who was fatally stabbed on 24 October 1997 by a paranoid schizophrenic man she was attempting to arrest. She is the only female police officer in Great Britain to have been stabbed to death while on duty and her killing was the first of a female officer since the murder of Yvonne Fletcher in 1984.
1999 The Death of Phillip Walters Ilford, East London, England PC Phillip John Walters was a police officer in London's Metropolitan Police Service who was shot dead while investigating a domestic disturbance in Ilford, east London, on 18 April 1995. Walters responded to reports of a domestic disturbance at a flat in Empress Avenue, Ilford, with his colleague Sergeant Derek Shepherd, who he had partnered in the job for the eighteen months since he entered service. Upon arrival, the pair discovered three men beating the male occupant of the property; it later transpired that they were hired to beat the man who was the former boyfriend of a woman. As the suspects attempted to escape, one produced a Smith & Wesson handgun and shot Walters in the chest as he was tackled by the officer. The bullet penetrated Walters' heart and he died later in hospital.
1999 The Murder of Raja Ahmed Miles Platting, Manchester, England PC Raja Bashrat Ahmed was a police officer serving with Greater Manchester Police who was murdered when his motorcycle was deliberately rammed into the path of a moving lorry.
2003 The Death of Ged Walker Bulwell, Nottingham, England PC Gerald "Ged" Walker was a police dog handler with Nottinghamshire Police who was killed in the line of duty in Bulwell, Nottingham. On 7 January 2003, PC Walker was dragged 100 yards and fatally injured by a stolen taxi as he reached into the vehicle to attempt to remove the keys from the ignition. He died in hospital two days later from serious head injuries. Walker is survived by his widow and two children. In December 2003, 26-year-old drug addict David Parfitt was convicted of PC Walker's manslaughter and sentenced to thirteen years in prison. He had been on licence at the time of the incident for a previous robbery offence.
2004 The Death of Michael Swindells Birmingham, England DC Michael Swindells, QGM, was a British police officer who was stabbed to death on 21 May 2004 in Birmingham whilst attempting to arrest a suspect who had earlier threatened members of the public with a knife.
2005 The Murder of Sharon Beshenivsky Bradford, West Yorkshire, England

Sharon Beshenivsky was the 89th police officer and the sixth female officer to die in the line of duty in England and Wales, the second female officer to be fatally shot (the first was Yvonne Fletcher in an incident involving the Libyan Embassy in 1984), and the first female officer to die in an ordinary gun crime. Beshenivsky was a West Yorkshire Police constable shot dead by a criminal gang during a robbery in Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. Another police officer, PC Teresa Millburn, was also shot in the incident, receiving serious wounds to the chest. PC Millburn had joined the force less than two years earlier. Closed-circuit television cameras in Bradford tracked a car rushing from the scene and used an automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) system to trace its owners. Six men were later found guilty of killing WPC Beshenivsky and sentenced to life imprisonment.

2007 The Murder of Jonathan Henry Bedfordshire, England Jonathan Henry was a British police officer who was murdered in Luton, Bedfordshire, whilst on duty and responding to reports of a stabbing in the town centre.
2012 The Murder of Nicola Hughes and Fiona Bone Mottram in Longdendale, Tameside, Greater Manchester, England WPC Nicola Hughes and WPC Fiona Bone were two Greater Manchester police constables killed during a "routine call" in response to a burglary in Mottram in Longdendale, on the edge of the Hattersley housing estate, in Tameside, Greater Manchester on 18 September 2012. Hughes and Bone had completed three and five years of service at the time of their deaths, respectively. It was the first time two female officers were killed on duty in the United Kingdom. Chief Constable Sir Peter Fahy called the killings "cold blooded murder". Dale Cregan admitted murdering both officers, as well as two other men in an unrelated incident earlier in 2012, and was sentenced to life imprisonment the following year.

Organised crime[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1965–1966 The Kray-Richardson Gang War 8 London, England A gang war between the Kray twins and the Richardsons resulted in the gangland slayings of several underworld figures, including Frank Mitchell and George Cornell.
1968 The Krays 8 London, England Jack "the Hat" McVitie, a small-time drug dealer and an associate of the Krays, was attacked and stabbed to death by Reggie Kray after being invited to a private party. Although McVite's body was never found, Reggie and Ronnie Kray were arrested with other members of their organization with the Krays being sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum of 30 years. Ronnie Kray died in prison in March 1995 from a heart attack, while Reggie Kray was released on compassionate grounds just over a month before his death from cancer five years later.


Date Name Location Summary
1963 The Great Train Robbery Ledburn, Buckinghamshire,
After using railway signals to stop a Royal Mail freight train en route to London, Bruce Reynolds leads a 15-man group to storm the train and successfully escaped with £2.3 million. However, because the culprits left their fingerprints behind, police were able to trace thirteen of the robbers to their safehouse in Oakley, Buckinghamshire. Several members of the group, Ronnie Biggs, Ronald "Buster" Edwards and Charlie Wilson, managed to escape from prison soon after their trial. Biggs returned to Britain in 2001 after spending more than 30 years on the run, but was returned to prison for eight years before being released due to ill health in 2009. He died in December 2013.
1983 Brink's-MAT robbery Heathrow Airport England 6 armed robbers broke into the Brink's-MAT warehouse in Heathrow Airport and got away with £26 million in gold bullion with the inside help of security guard Anthony Black.
2000 The Millennium Dome raid Greenwich, London, England On 7 November 2000, a criminal gang attempted to steal the flawless 777 carats (155.4 g) Millennium Star diamond valued at over 200 million pounds, from an exhibition at the Millennium Dome in Greenwich, London. Five men were later sentenced on various different robbery charges.
2004 The Northern Bank robbery Belfast, Northern Ireland £26.5 million is stolen from the Donegall Square headquarters of Northern Bank by a large armed gang.
2006 The Securitas depot robbery Tonbridge, Kent, England The largest cash robbery in British history, netting £53,116,760 in cash. The majority of the suspects were arrested.
2009 The Graff Diamonds robbery Bond Street, London Two men wearing prosthetic make-up steal £40 million (US$65 million) of gems in an armed robbery on Graff Diamonds, a jewellery store in Bond Street, London.
2015 The Hatton Garden safe deposit burglary Hatton Garden
London, England
In April 2015, the Hatton Garden Safe Deposit Company, an underground safe deposit facility in London's Hatton Garden area, was burgled. The burglary occurred during a period in which both the Easter Bank Holiday and Passover coincided. The police first announced that the facility had been burgled on 7 April, and reports based on CCTV footage state that the attack on the facility commenced on April 2. The theft is being investigated by the Flying Squad, a branch of the Specialist, Organised & Economic Crime Command within London's Metropolitan Police Service.

Sex Crimes[edit]

Date(s) Name Location Summary
1960's-1990's Jimmy Savile sexual abuse scandal Various United Kingdom In September and October 2012, almost a year after his death, claims were widely publicised that the radio and television presenter Jimmy Savile had committed sexual abuse, his alleged victims ranging from prepubescent girls and boys to adults. By 11 October 2012 allegations had been made to 13 British police forces, and this led to the setting-up of inquiries into practices at the BBC and within the National Health Service.

On 19 October 2012 the Metropolitan Police Service launched a formal criminal investigation, Operation Yewtree, into historic allegations of child sexual abuse by Savile and other people, some still living, over four decades. It stated that it was pursuing over 400 separate lines of inquiry, based on the claims of 200 witnesses, via 14 police forces across the UK. It described the alleged abuse as being "on an unprecedented scale", and the number of potential victims as "staggering". By 19 December, eight people had been questioned as part of the investigation. The Metropolitan Police stated that the total number of alleged victims was 589, of whom 450 alleged abuse by Savile.

1980's-Present Operation Yewtree Whole United Kingdom Operation Yewtree is a police investigation into sexual abuse allegations, predominantly the abuse of children, against the British media personality Jimmy Savile and others. The investigation, led by the Metropolitan Police Service, started in October 2012. After a period of assessment it became a full criminal investigation, involving inquiries into living people as well as Savile.

On 19 October 2012 the Metropolitan Police reported that more than 400 lines of enquiry had been assessed and over 200 potential victims had been identified. By 19 December, eight people had been questioned; the total number of alleged victims was 589, of whom 450 alleged abuse by Savile. The report of the investigations into the activities of Savile himself was published, as Giving Victims a Voice, in January 2013. Operation Yewtree continued as an investigation into others, some but not all linked with Savile. On 12 March 2015, a spokesman for the Metropolitan Police reported that they had spoken to seventeen people as part of Operation Yewtree.

"Yewtree" was chosen from a list of names which are intended to be neutral and unrelated to each particular case, in a system dating back to the 1980s for operations which are started to handle specific crimes, as opposed to more general, pro-active operations with names connected to their intent.

1997-2013 The Rotherham child sexual
exploitation scandal
Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England The Rotherham Child Sexual Explotiation Scandal was a widespread incident that took place in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England, between 1997 and 2013.Local investigations into the abuse began in the 1990s, although some reports were never finalised or made public by the authorities. In 2010, five men of Pakistani heritage were found guilty of a series of sexual offences against girls as young as twelve. A subsequent investigation by The Times reported that the child sex exploitation was much more widespread, and the Home Affairs Select Committee criticised the South Yorkshire Police force and Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council for their handling of the abuse.
2006-2013 The Oxford sex gang Oxford, England The Oxford sex gang was a group of seven men who preyed on pre-teen and under-age teenage girls in Oxford, England, from 2006 before their arrest and prosecution. In May 2013, they were convicted of sexual offences including rape, conspiracy to commit rape, arranging or facilitating child prostitution, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and procuring a miscarriage. Their victims were "subjected to sexual violence marked out by its sadism: sexual assaults designed to draw blood, multiple rapes, [and] physical attacks in which [they were] choked". As in the similar Rochdale, Rotherham, Derby and Telford prosecutions, all gang members were from Muslim backgrounds, and the girls were white, leading to renewed discussion as to whether the crimes were racially motivated and whether the initial failure to investigate them was linked to the authorities' fear of being accused of racism.

In March 2015, a report revealed that more than 300 people, mostly girls from the city of Oxford, had been groomed and sexually exploited by the gang. It accused the Thames Valley Police of disbelieving the girls and failing to act on repeated calls for help, and Oxfordshire Social Services of failing to protect them despite compelling evidence they were in danger. The report also called for research into why a significant amount of perpetrators of child grooming come from Muslim backgrounds.

2010 The Derby sex gang Derby, England The Derby sex gang was a group of men who sexually abused up to a hundred girls in Derby, England, in one of the most severe cases of sexual abuse in recent times. In 2010, after an undercover investigation by Derbyshire police, members of the group were charged with 75 offences relating to 26 girls. Nine of the 13 accused were convicted of grooming and raping girls between 12 and 18 years old.[3][4] The attacks provoked fierce discussion about race and sexual exploitation.
2012 The Rochdale sex trafficking gang Rochdale, Greater Manchester,
A group of men preyed on under-age teenage girls in Rochdale. The men were convicted of sex trafficking, rape, trafficking girls for sex and conspiracy to engage in sexual activity with a child. 47 girls were identified as victims of child sexual exploitation. The men were all British Pakistanis (except for one from Afghanistan) and the girls were white; this led to national discussion of whether the crimes were racially motivated, or, conversely, whether the early failure to investigate them was linked to the authorities' fear of being accused of racism.
2014 The Bristol sex gang Bristol, England The Bristol sex gang was a large group of Muslim men who committed serious sexual offences against underage teenage girls in Bristol, southwestern England. In November 2014, they were convicted of offences including rape, paying a child for sex, causing or inciting child prostitution, sexual acts with children and sex trafficking. As in the Oxford, Derby, Rochdale, Rotherham and Telford prosecutions, the abused girls were almost all white and the gang were of Muslim heritage, but were Somali rather than Pakistani.
2014-2015 The Peterborough sex abuse case Peterborough, Cambridgeshire
The Peterborough sex abuse case involved groups of men who committed serious sexual offences against under-aged girls, some as young as 12, in the English city of Peterborough, Cambridgeshire. In a series of trials in 2014 and 2015, they were found guilty of rape, child prostitution and trafficking for sexual exploitation, among other offences. The men, who were of Pakistani, Iraqi Kurdish and Slovak Roma heritage, were convicted as a result of Operation Erle, in which Cambridgeshire police investigated sex exploitation in the area following a complaint by a teenaged girl against Mohammed Khubaib, a restaurant-owner in Peterborough. Police had been alerted by the Rotherham and Rochdale child abuse cases to the possibility of widespread abuse taking place.

Serial killings[edit]

19th century[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1827–1828 The Burke and Hare murders 17 Edinburgh, Scotland William Burke and William Hare sold the corpses of 17 victims to provide material for dissection.
1856–1865 The Catherine Wilson murders 1-7 Kirkby, England Nurse who was sentenced to death for killing one patient, but suspected of six other deaths. Described by the judge as "the greatest criminal that ever lived." 20,000 watched her hang at Newgate Gaol.
1865–1873 The Mary Ann Cotton murders 21 England Believed to have murdered up to 21 people, mainly by arsenic poisoning. Many of her victims had married her.[5]
1896 The Amelia Dyer case 247
Reading, Berkshire
London England
Amelia Elizabeth Dyer née Hobley, was the most prolific baby farm murderer of Victorian England. She was tried and hanged for one murder, but there is little doubt she was responsible for many more similar deaths—possibly 400 or more- over a period of perhaps twenty years.
1888 Jack the Ripper 5+ Whitechapel, London, England At least five prostitutes were murdered and mutilated by an unidentified serial killer, dubbed "Jack the Ripper" by the press. The murders eventually stopped and the murderer was never apprehended.


Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1935–1956 John Bodkin Adams 163+ Eastbourne, East Sussex, England Dr John Bodkin Adams was arrested in 1956 for the murder of two women, Edith Alice Morrell and Gertrude Hullett. After a 17-day trial at the Old Bailey that gripped the nation, he was controversially acquitted of the first murder and the second indictment was dropped by the prosecutor, an event the judge later termed "an abuse of process". Adams was struck off for drug offences, lying on cremation forms and fraud. Pathologist Francis Camps suspected Adams of killing 163 patients between 1946 and 1956, though rumours regarding Adams behaviour had started circulating in 1935. The case established the doctrine of double effect, whereby a doctor giving treatment to relieve pain may shorten life. Secondly, due to the publicity surrounding Adams's committal hearing, the law was changed to allow defendants to ask for such hearings to be held in private. Finally, though a defendant had never been required to give evidence in his own defence, the judge underlined in his summing-up that no prejudice should be attached to a defendant not doing so.
1943–1953 The John Reginald Halliday Christie Killings 6-8 Notting Hill, London. England John Reginald Halliday Christie murdered at least six women — including his wife Ethel — by strangling them in his flat at 10 Rillington Place, Notting Hill, London. Christie moved out of Rillington Place in March 1953, and shortly afterwards the bodies of three of his victims were discovered hidden in an alcove in his kitchen. Christie was arrested and convicted of his wife's murder, for which he was hanged in 1953.
1944–1949 The John George Haigh case
(The Acid Bath Murderer)
6-8 London, England John George Haigh murdered six people and disposed of their bodies in drums of sulphuric acid. He then forged documents turning the murder victims' possessions over to himself. Haigh was eventually caught after the disappearance and eventual murder of socialite Henrietta Durand-Deacon, apparently believing the police would be unable to prosecute him without her body.


Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1963–1965 The Moors Murders 5+ Oldham, Lancashire, England Five children were killed in the area of Greater Manchester over a two-year period by serial killers Ian Brady and Myra Hindley. After being turned in by Hindley's brother-in-law David Smith, the two were convicted of murder with Brady sentenced to life imprisonment before being committed to a mental health institution, while Hindley remained in prison until her death in 2002.
1969 The Bible John Murders 3(?) Glasgow, Scotland Three women are found to have been strangled between 1968 and 1969 by an unidentified serial killer known only as Bible John. Although police investigated the murders for over twenty years, the murderer was later identified as Peter Tobin on 4 May 2007.
1973–1978 The Robert Maudsley case
(Hannibal the Cannibal)
4 Robert John Maudsley was a British serial killer responsible for the murders of four people. He committed three of these murders in prison after receiving a life sentence for a single murder in 1975. He was falsely alleged to have eaten part of the brain of one of three men he killed in prison, which earned him the nickname "Hannibal the Cannibal" among the British press.
1975–1981 The Peter Sutcliffe Murders
(Yorkshire Ripper)
13-20+ Yorkshire, England Peter Sutcliffe, known to the press as the "Yorkshire Ripper", murdered seven women in West Yorkshire, as well as up to thirteen others in northern England until his arrest in 1981. Sentenced to life imprisonment, he was imprisoned at Parkhurst Prison until his transfer to Broadmoor Hospital later in the 1980s after he was violently assaulted by another inmate.
1978–1981 The Dennis Nilsen murders 15+ London Dennis Nilsen murdered several men over a period of five years, including foreign students as well as local homeless men and male prostitutes, who were lured to his apartment and strangled before being dismembered.
1982–1986 The Robert Black murders 3(?) Scotland &
North of England
Robert Black is a Scottish serial killer and child molester. He kidnapped, raped and murdered three girls during the 1980s, kidnapped a fourth girl who survived, attempted to kidnap a fifth, and is the suspect in a number of unsolved child murders dating back to 1969 and the 1970s throughout Europe. On December 16, 2009, Black was charged with the murder of Jennifer Cardy, a 9-year-old girl whose body was found at McKee's Dam near Hillsborough, County Down in August 1981. He was initially jailed for life for abducting a seven-year-old girl in July 1990, and police soon found evidence to charge him with the murders of three girls during the 1980s. He was convicted of all three murders in May 1994 and sentenced to a further 10 concurrent terms of life imprisonment, with a recommended minimum term of 35 years.
1991–2006 The Peter Tobin case 3 known Margate, Kent Prior to his first murder conviction, Tobin served ten years in prison for a double rape committed in 1993, following which he was released in 2004. In 2007 he was sentenced to life with a minimum of 21 years for the rape and murder of Angelika Kluk in Glasgow in 2006. Skeletal remains of two further young women who went missing in 1991 were subsequently found at his former home in Margate. Tobin was convicted of the murder of Vicky Hamilton in December 2008, when his minimum sentence was increased to 30 years, and of the murder of Dinah McNicol in December 2009. He is now being investigated for other unsolved cases of murder dating back to the 1960s.
1991 The Beverley Allitt murders
(The Angel of Death)
4 dead & 9 attempted murders Beverley Gail Allitt, dubbed by the media the Angel of Death, is an English serial killer who murdered four children and injured nine others while working as a State Enrolled Nurse (SEN), on the children's ward of Grantham and Kesteven Hospital, Lincolnshire, between February and April in 1991. Her main method of murder was to inject the child with potassium chloride (to cause cardiac arrest), or with insulin (to induce lethal hypoglycemia). She was sentenced to life imprisonment at her trial at Nottingham Crown Court in 1993 and is currently being held at Rampton Secure Hospital.
1994 Fred and Rosemary West case
(The Wests House of Horrors)
12(+?) Gloucester, England Between April 1973 and September 1979, Fred and Rosemary West would lure young women into their home where they were sexually assaulted and murdered. In February 1994 they were arrested after corpses were found buried in the garden and under the house at their Gloucester home. It is speculated that the pair committed further murders between 1980 and 1992, and may have killed a total of around 30 people, but their only known victim after 1980 was their 16-year-old daughter, Heather, who was murdered in 1987 by Fred West, who hanged himself whilst awaiting trial at Winson Green Prison on New Year's Day 1995. On November 22, 1995, Rosemary West was sentenced to life imprisonment and the trial judge recommended that she should never be released. Fred West had committed two murders during the 1960s before he met Rosemary, including that of his wife. Fred's eight-year-old daughter Charmaine is also believed to have died at the hands of Rosemary West while Fred West was serving a prison sentence for theft in late 1970 or early 1971.
1998 The Harold Shipman murders
(Doctor Death)
250+ Hyde, Tameside, England Over a period of three decades, Dr. Harold Shipman murdered approximately 250 people around Greater Manchester and North Yorkshire between 1970 and his arrest in 1998 after he attempted to forge a new will in the name of one of his victims. He was found guilty of 15 murders at his trial in January 2000, and told by his trial judge and a subsequent Home Secretary that his life sentence would mean life. He committed suicide in prison in January 2004, 18 months after an inquiry concluded that he had killed well over 200 people.


Date Name Deaths Location Summary
2006 The Steve Wright killings
(The Ipswich Ripper)
5 Ipswich, Suffolk, England Five women from Ipswich who were working as prostitutes were found murdered around the town in December 2006. Steve Wright, a local forklift truck driver, was charged with five murders just before Christmas and found guilty on all charges in February 2008. He was jailed for life and the trial judge recommended he should never be released. A subsequent appeal against his convictions by Wright was rejected by the High Court.
2013 The Peterborough ditch murders 3 Peterborough. Cambridgeshire, England The Peterborough ditch murders were a series of three murders which took place in the United Kingdom in March 2013. All of the victims were male, and died from stab wounds. The bodies of all three men were discovered dumped in ditches outside Peterborough. The perpetrator of the murders was Joanna Dennehy, a local woman who was later sentenced to life imprisonment, with a recommendation that she never be released.

Spree killings[edit]

Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1987 The Hungerford massacre 17 Hungerford, Berkshire, England 27-year-old farm labourer Michael Ryan went on a rampage in a small rural town in England, shooting people at random (including the fatal shooting of his own mother) with an array of firearms before killing himself.
1996 Dunblane massacre 18 Dunblane, Scotland 43-year-old scout leader Thomas Hamilton murdered 16 children and their teacher at a primary school in Scotland before shooting himself dead.
2010 The Cumbria shootings 13 Copeland Cumbria England The Cumbria shootings were a killing spree that occurred on 2 June 2010 when a lone gunman, local taxi driver Derrick Bird, killed 12 people and injured 11 others before killing himself in the county of Cumbria, North West England.


Date Name Deaths Location Summary
1972 The Bloody Sunday revenge attack 7 Aldershot, England On 22 February 1972 IRA terrorists killed Captain Gerry Weston MBE Royal Army Chaplains Department, 5 civilian women, and a gardener in UK mainland attack of the 16 Btn Parachute Brigade HQ. Facebook page to Friends of Aldershot memorial
1988 The Lockerbie Disaster 270 Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland In one of the worst terrorist attacks of the decade, a London-New York commercial flight Pan Am Flight 103 crashed near Lockerbie, Scotland as the result of a bomb having been planted in the forward cargo hold. A joint investigation by the Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary and the (U.S.) Federal Bureau of Investigation linked the bombing to Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer and the head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines. He was jailed for life in January 2001 with a recommended minimum of 20 years (later increased to 27 years), but was released on compassionate grounds due to terminal cancer in August 2009, and returned to his native Libya, where he died nearly three years later.
2005 The 7 July 2005 London bombings 52 London, England Four suicide bombers detonated high explosives located in camping rucksacks on three underground trains and a double-decker bus, resulting in the deaths of a total of 52 other people.

Other crimes[edit]

Date Name Deaths Type Location Summary
1911 The Siege of Sidney Street 6 Siege East End, London, England A shootout between unarmed London constables and a group of Latvian anarchists left three officers and one anarchist dead. The authorities then laid siege to the anarchists' safehouse, meeting fierce resistance from the three anarchists inside. A fire broke out after a six-hour battle and, while the bodies of two anarchists were found, the third was not located.
2001–2002 The Antoni Imiela case
(The M25 Rapist)
- Rape South East England West German-born Antoni Imiela, attacked and sexually assaulted seven woman in Southeastern England before being captured in 2004.
2005 The Stabbing of
Abigail Witchalls
- Stabbing Surrey, England Abigail Witchalls, a pregnant 26-year-old woman, was left paralysed after being stabbed in front of her young son near their home in Surrey. The police identified a local garden centre worker, Richard Cazaly, as their prime suspect; he died 10 days later after slashing himself with a knife and taking an overdose after travelling to Edinburgh, Scotland.
2009 The Edlington
Attempted Murders
- Attempted Murder Edlington South Yorkshire, England In the village of Edlington, near Doncaster, an 11-year-old boy was found with critical head injuries near to a brickpit, while his nine-year-old nephew was found wandering nearby with knife wounds. Local residents told the media that both boys had been hit with a brick, slashed with a knife, and burned with cigarettes. Two brothers, aged 10 and 11, were each charged with both the attempted murder and robbery of both of the injured boys and later sentenced to indefinite detention.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cullen, Pamela V., A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr. John Bodkin Adams, London, Elliott & Thompson, 2006, ISBN 1-904027-19-9
  2. ^ Alberge, Dalya (9 December 2012). "Vital clue ignored for 50 years". London: Independent. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference Tprowl was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBCconvicted was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Flanders (2011) p.394