Major non-NATO ally

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Major non-NATO Ally
United States in greenMajor Non-NATO ally in orange
United States in green
Major Non-NATO ally in orange
Headquarters Washington, D.C
Type Military alliances together with the United States
Members
Leaders
 -  President Barack Obama
 -  Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel
Establishment 1989

Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to close allies who have strategic working relationships with US Armed Forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). While the MNNA status does not automatically include a mutual defense pact with the United States, it does confer a variety of military and financial advantages that otherwise are not obtainable by non-NATO countries.

History[edit]

MNNA status was first created in 1989 when section 2350a, otherwise known as the Nunn Amendment, was added to Title 10 (Armed Forces) of the United States Code by Congress.[1] It stipulated that cooperative research and development agreements could be enacted with non-NATO allies by the Secretary of Defense with the concurrence of the Secretary of State. Initial MNNAs were Australia, Egypt, Israel, Japan, and South Korea.

In 1996 major non-NATO allies received additional military and financial benefits when section 2321k was added to Title 22 (Foreign Relations) of the U.S. Code (also known as section 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961), which added MNNAs to many of the same exemptions from the Arms Export Control Act that were enjoyed by NATO members. It also authorized the President to designate a nation as an MNNA thirty days after notifying Congress.[2] When enacted, the statute designated Australia, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, New Zealand, and South Korea as major non-NATO allies.

U.S.-New Zealand strategic and military cooperation suffered a setback after the breakdown of the ANZUS alliance in 1984 over nuclear ship entry. The designation of New Zealand as an MNNA reflected the warming of relations between the two. In June 2012 New Zealand signed a partnership arrangement with NATO further strengthening and consolidating relations.

In 2014, a bill was introduced to the United States Congress to grant major non-NATO ally status to Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.[3]

Benefits[edit]

Nations named as major non-NATO allies are eligible for the following benefits:

  • entry into cooperative research and development projects with the Department of Defense (DoD) on a shared-cost basis
  • participation in certain counter-terrorism initiatives
  • purchase of depleted uranium anti-tank rounds
  • priority delivery of military surplus (ranging from rations to ships)
  • possession of War Reserve Stocks of DoD-owned equipment that are kept outside of American military bases
  • loans of equipment and materials for cooperative research and development projects and evaluations
  • permission to use American financing for the purchase or lease of certain defense equipment
  • reciprocal training
  • expedited export processing of space technology
  • permission for the country's corporations to bid on certain DoD contracts for the repair and maintenance of military equipment outside the United States

List of MNNAs[edit]

The following countries have been designated as major non-NATO allies of the United States (in order of their appointment):

Named by George H. W. Bush[edit]

South Korean soldiers and a US officer monitor the Korean Demilitarized Zone

Named by Bill Clinton[edit]

Named by George W. Bush[edit]

Named by Barack Obama[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Title 10, section 2350a of U.S. Code
  2. ^ a b 22 U.S.C. § 2321k
  3. ^ S.2277 - Russian Aggression Prevention Act of 2014
  4. ^ a b c d e Hillary Clinton flies into Kabul as U.S. declares Afghanistan major non-NATO ally
  5. ^ Scott Stearns (2012-07-07). "Afghanistan Designated Major US Ally During Clinton Visit to Kabul". Voanews.com. Retrieved 2014-01-31. 
  6. ^ ... represents our recognition of the importance of Argentina's leadership and cooperation in the field of international peacekeeping, notably during Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, in Haiti, in its role in supervising the peace between Peru and Ecuador, and in nearly a dozen other international peacekeeping efforts ...
  7. ^ "Bahrain Joins Iran in Opposing Strike". Fox News. Associated Press. August 18, 2002. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Bush 'upgrades' Philippines". CNN. May 20, 2003. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  9. ^ Despeignes, Peronet (October 20, 2003). "U.S. wants APEC agenda to include security issues". USA Today. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  10. ^ "US tightens military relationship with Kuwait". Associated Press. January 15, 2004. Retrieved July 7, 2012.  (subscription required)
  11. ^ "US rewards Morocco for terror aid". BBC News. June 4, 2004. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  12. ^ http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/papers10/paper959.html South Asia Analysis Group[dead link]
  13. ^ "Hillary Clinton says Afghanistan 'major non-Nato ally'". BBC News. July 7, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2012. 
  14. ^ http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2012/08/196675.htm[dead link]