List of roads in Metro Manila

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Manila's arterial road network
Highway system
Highways in the Philippines

This list of roads in Metro Manila summarizes the major thoroughfares and the numbering system currently being implemented in Metro Manila, Philippines. Metro Manila's arterial road network consists of National Roads, the Circumferential Roads, and the Radial Roads, as well as the other major roads connecting the cities of Manila, Quezon, North and South Caloocan, Valenzuela, Malabon, Navotas, Pasay, Parañaque, Las Piñas, Taguig, Marikina, Pasig, Mandaluyong, Makati, Pateros and San Juan as well as the surrounding provinces.[1][2]

List of numbered routes[edit]

Simplified map of radial (solid and colored lines) and circumferential (dashed and gray lines) roads in Metro Manila

The first road numbering system in the Philippines was adopted in 1930 by the administration of President Manuel Quezon, and was very much similar to U.S. Highway numbering system. Portions of it are 70 roads labeled Highway 1-Highway 60. Some parts of the numbering system are Admiral Dewey Boulevard (Highway 1), Calle Manila (Highway 50) and 19 de Junio (Highway 54).

In 1945, the Metropolitan Thoroughfare Plan was submitted by Quezon City planners Louis Croft and Antonio Kayanan which proposed the laying of 10 Radial Roads, which purposes in conveying traffic in and out of the City of Manila to the surrounding cities and provinces, and the completion of 6 Circumferential Roads, that will act as beltways of the city, forming altogether a web-like arterial road system.[3] The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) is the government agency that deals with these projects.[1]

The Jose Rizal Memorial Monument in Rizal Park is the Kilometer Zero of all the roads in the City of Manila.

The road numbering for Radial Roads are R(Radial Road)-1 up to R-10. The radial roads never intersect one another and they do not intersect circumferential roads twice; hence they continue straight routes leading out from the city of Manila to the provinces. The numbering is arranged in a counter clockwise pattern, where in the southernmost is R-1 and the northernmost is R-10. The Circumferential Roads are numbered C(Circumferential Road)-1 to C-6. The innermost beltway in the city is C-1, while the outermost is C-6.

Radial roads[edit]

There are ten (10) radial roads that serves the purpose of conveying traffic in and out of the city of Manila to the surrounding cities of the metropolis and to the provinces, numbered in a counter clockwise pattern.[4] All radial roads starts at kilometre zero, which is, the Jose Rizal Memorial Monument in Rizal Park.[5][6]

Radial roads of Metro Manila
Name Image Route City(s) Road(s) Length Description Refs
Radial Road 1 Manila–Cavite Expressway City of ManilaCavite Makati
Las Piñas
Bacoor, Cavite
Kawit, Cavite
Rosario, Cavite
Tanza, Cavite
Naic, Cavite
41.5 kilometres or 25.8 miles Radial Road 1 connects the City of Manila to the province of Cavite, officially starting at the junction of Padre Burgos Street and Bonifacio Drive, just in front of Rizal Park. The road skirts the coastline of Manila Bay as Roxas Boulevard and later, after crossing NAIA Road, as the Manila-Cavite Expressway. The road will keep skirting the coastline until it ends in a junction with the Governor's Drive in Naic, Cavite, spanning 41.5 kilometres (25.8 mi) from Rizal Park to Cavite. [3]
Radial Road 2 The Manila City Hall, overlooking Taft Avenue City of ManilaBatangas Pasay
Las Piñas
Bacoor, Cavite
Imus, Cavite
Dasmariñas, Cavite
Silang, Cavite
Tagaytay, Cavite
64.2 kilometres or 39.9 miles The road lies parallel to Radial Road 1, connecting the City of Manila to Cavite and Batangas. The road starts from the Lagusnilad Underpass in front of the National Museum in Ermita. The road, as Taft Avenue, will follow a straight route, and after crossing EDSA in Pasay, becomes E. Quirino Avenue. E. Quirino Avenue serves as the main road in the suburbs of Las Piñas and Parañaque, until it becomes the Aguinaldo Highway after crossing the Molino Boulevard in Bacoor, Cavite. Aguinaldo Highway serves as the main thoroughfare in the Province of Cavite, ending in the Tagaytay Rotunda, and becoming the Tagaytay-Talisay Road, which ends in front of the Taal Lake. The Manila LRT Yellow Line follows the route of R-2 from Padre Burgos Street to EDSA. [7]
Radial Road 3 STAR tollway in Batangas City of ManilaBatangas Pasay
Las Piñas
San Pedro, Laguna
Calamba, Laguna
Tanauan, Batangas
Carmona, Cavite
Santo Tomas, Batangas
Batangas City, Batangas
96 kilometres or 60 miles The entire road is an expressway, except for its northern end starting from its junction with C5. It is jointly operated by the Skyway Operation and Management Corporation (SomCo) and the Citra Metro Manila Tollways Corporation (CMMTC). Although the kilometer zero of the road is at Rizal Park, the road officially starts from the junction of South Luzon Expressway and Quirino Avenue. The road will follow a straight route from Paco, Manila to Santo Tomas, Batangas, wherein it becomes the Southern Tagalog Arterial Road or the STAR Tollway. The STAR Tollway connects Sto. Tomas to the Batangas Port in Batangas City. [8]
Radial Road 4
City of ManilaRizal Makati
Taytay, Rizal
  • Pasig Line
  • Kalayaan Avenue
  • Elisco Road
  • Highway 2000 Phase 1
  • Taytay Diversion Road
23.5 kilometres or 14.6 miles The road itself is incomplete. It starts from the junction of Pedro Gil Street and Quirino Avenue in Santa Ana, Manila, and it will enter Makati before ending in a junction with Zodiac Street. A logical continuation of the road starts from the junction of EDSA and Gil Puyat Avenue. The road again ends in a dead end in Kalawaan, Pateros. The continuation of the road starts from the east bank of the Manggahan Floodway, as Highway 2000. Highway 2000 becomes the Taytay Diversion Road after crossing Road 1 in Taytay, Rizal. The proposed Pasig River Expressway is also labeled R-4. The road currently spans 23.5 kilometres (14.6 mi). [9]
Radial Road 5 Shaw Boulevard City of ManilaRizal Mandaluyong
Cainta, Rizal
Antipolo, Rizal
70.1 kilometres or 43.6 miles Radial Road 5 starts from the upper banks of the Pasig River, parallel to Radial Road 4 on the lower banks. The road will enter Mandaluyong and will become an important thoroughfare in the industrial downtown of Pasig and the Ortigas Center. The road will eventually become the Manila East Road, the main transportation corridor of the Province of Rizal. [10]
Radial Road 6 Magsaysay Boulevard City of ManilaQuezon Quezon City
Cainta, Rizal
Antipolo, Rizal
Taytay, Rizal
Infanta, Quezon
88.6 kilometres or 55.1 miles Radial road 6 starts from the junction of Mendiola Street and Ayala Boulevard. The road will serve as an important thoroughfare in Santa Mesa, Manila, and will enter the New Manila District of Quezon City after crossing G. Araneta Avenue and becomes Aurora Boulevard. The boulevard will enter the Dictrict of Cubao in Quezon City and will serve as the main thoroughfare in Araneta Center. The road becomes Marikina–Infanta Highway (Marcos Highway) after crossing Katipunan Avenue. The highway will then pass through the cities of Pasig and Marikina and transverse the province of Rizal. The road would continue further and will end in a dead end in Infanta, Quezon. The MRT Line 2 follows the route of R-6 from Legarda Street in San Miguel, Manila to Marcos Highway in Santolan, Pasig. The road spans 88.6 kilometres (55.1 mi) long. [11]
Radial Road 7 Commonwealth Avenue City of ManilaBulacan Quezon City
San Jose del Monte, Bulacan
Norzagaray, Bulacan
53.6 kilometres or 33.3 miles Radial Road 7 starts from Quiapo, Manila. The road will follow a direct route to Quezon City. After crossing the Quezon City Memorial Circle, it becomes Commonwealth Avenue, the widest road in the Philippines. The route then follows Regalado Highway in Fairview, Quezon City, and it ends in a junction with Quirino Highway in the Neopolitan Business Park in Lagro. The road drives north to Bulacan, until it ends with a junction with Fortunato Halili Avenue. The currently under construction North Luzon East Expressway or the R-7 Expressway is a continuation of this road. [12][13]
Radial Road 8 Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway City of ManilaTarlac Quezon City
Meycauayan, Bulacan
Bocaue, Bulacan
Balagtas, Bulacan
Santa Rita, Pampanga
San Fernando, Pampanga
Angeles, Pampanga
Tarlac City, Tarlac
122.0 kilometres or 75.8 miles Radial Road 8 starts from Quezon Bridge in Quiapo, Manila. The road will follow a direct route northwards, becoming the North Luzon Expressway after crossing EDSA. The road becomes SCTEX after crossing MacArthur Highway in the Paradise Ranch in Clark Freeport Zone, Angeles, Pamapanga. [14][15]
Radial Road 9 MacArthur Highway City of ManilaBenguet 24 Town and Cities, between the City of Manila and Baguio. For the complete list, see Maharlika Highway. 213.0 kilometres or 132.4 miles The Radial Road 9 consists of the northern portion of the Pan-Philippine Highway or AH-26.(R-2 takes the southern portion) The LRT-1 follows the route of R-9 from Manila to Gracepark, Caloocan. R-9 starts as the Rizal Bridge from Padre Burgos Street. It follows a straight northward route parallel to R-8. The road becomes MacArthur Highway after crossing the Monumento Roundabout in Gracepark, Caloocan. The road officially ends in the road diversion in Baguio where it diverges into Kennon Road, Marcos Highway/Aspiras-Palispis Highway and the Pan-Philippine Highway [16]
Radial Road 10 Roxas Bridge, the start of R-10 City of ManilaBataan Quezon City
Obando, Bulacan
Malolos, Bulacan
Macabebe, Pampanga
Lubao, Pampanga
Bagac, Bataan
Balanga, Bataan
  • Radial Road 10
  • Marcos Road
  • Manila–Bataan Coastal Road
105.0 kilometres or 65.2 miles The Radial Road 10 is currently a 9.7 kilometres (6.0 mi) long highway from Tondo, Manila to C-4 Road. There was a proposed project of extending it to Bataan, as the Manila-Bataan Coastal Road. The project has long since died, but the top local government chiefs of Central Luzon led by RDC Chair and San Fernando City Mayor Oscar Rodriquez, and Zambales Governor Hermogenes Ebdane, Jr. revived the project and approved the CLIP for 2011 to 2016 in the recent 6th RDC meeting in Balanga. [17]

Circumferential roads[edit]

There are six (6) circumferential roads around the City of Manila that acts as beltways for the city. Two runs inside the City of Manila Proper, while three runs outside the City of Manila. Another circumferential road, the C-6, will run outside Metro Manila and is under construction.

Circumferential roads of Metro Manila
Name Image Route City(s) Road(s) Length Description Refs
Circumferential Road 1 City of Manila 5.9 kilometres or 3.7 miles Circumferential Road 1 or C-1 is a route that runs inside the City of Manila proper, passing through the Tondo, Binondo, Quiapo and Ermita districts. It starts from the North Port as Recto Avenue and becomes P. Casal Street after crossing R-6. The road crosses the Pasig River as Ayala Boulevard, which ends in Taft Avenue and enters Rizal Park as Finance Drive, which merges into the southern part of Padre Burgos Street, which ends in a junction with Roxas Boulevard.
Circumferential Road 2 C-2 Road in Pandacan City of Manila 10.0 kilometres or 6.2 miles The C-2 Road starts from Tondo, Manila, passing through Binondo, Sampaloc, Pandacan and Paco Districts. It starts from R-10, becomes Tayuman Street in the Sampaloc district, then continues on as Arsenio H. Lacson Avenue after passing A. Mendoza Street. It crosses the Pasig River, then becomes President Quirino Avenue, which continues on until it reaches R-1 (Roxas Boulevard), passing through the Paco and Malate districts. [18]
Circumferential Road 3 Ayala Avenue in Makati NavotasPasay Navotas
Quezon City
San Juan
21.7 kilometres or 13.5 miles The C-3 Road is a route that lies outside the City of Manila. It starts as the C-3 Road in Navotas, and becomes 5th Avenue after entering Caloocan. It becomes Sergeant E. Rivera Avenue after crossing A. Bonifacio Street, and becomes G. Araneta Avenue after crossing the Kaingin Road in Quezon City. The road ends shortly after entering San Juan, only resuming at the junction of J.P. Rizal Avenue and South Avenue. South Avenue becomes Ayala Avenue after crossing Chino Roces Avenue. The route is rerouted to Gil Puyat Avenue after Ayala Avenue enters the Ayala Triangle, an important industrial landmark in Makati. The proposed Metro Manila Skybridge will bridge the missing segment of the road. [19]
Circumferential Road 4 The EDSA-Quezon Avenue Flyover MalabonPasay Malabon
Quezon City
28.1 kilometres or 17.5 miles The C-4 Road starts from Malabon. It becomes Letre Road, then becomes Samson Road after entering Caloocan. After crossing the Monumento Roundabout, the C-4 Road becomes EDSA, the most important thoroughfare in the metropolis. With 2.34 million vehicles and almost 314,354 cars passing through it and its segments everyday, the road is also the most congested and busiest highway in the metropolis. The road ends Mall of Asia roundabout in Pasay. The MRT-3 follows the route of C-4, from North Avenue to Taft Avenue. [20][21]
Circumferential Road 5 C-5 Road near Bonifacio Global City in Taguig Malabon-Parañaque Malabon
Quezon City
  • Mindanao Avenue
  • Congressional Avenue
  • Luzon Avenue
  • Tandang Sora Avenue
  • Katipunan Avenue
  • Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue
  • E. Rodriguez Jr. Avenue
  • Carlos P. Garcia Avenue
  • C-5 Road Extension
55.0 kilometres or 34.2 miles Several arising controversies regarding an expressway MCTEP, properties of Sen. Manny Villar, and the constant squatter demolishing issues in Quezon City causes the C-5 Road, although complete, have less than half of the length, only 32.5 kilometres (20.2 mi), be functional. The road officially starts from Letre Road, but it only starts from the NLEX Segment that crosses the North Luzon Expressway and becomes Mindanao Avenue. The road will follow the route of Congressional Avenue and Luzon Avenue, crossing Commonwealth Avenue and becoming Tandang Sora Avenue, which becomes Katipunan Avenue after crossing C.P. Garcia Avenue in the University of the Philippines campus. The road will follow the route of Col. Bonny Serrano Avenue, which becomes C.P. Garcia Avenue after entering Pasig. The road ends in South Luzon Expressway. A continuation of the road currently provides no access, which starts from Merville, Parañaque to Coastal Road in Las Piñas. [22]
Circumferential Road 6
Marilao, Bulacan-Bacoor, Cavite Marilao, Bulacan
Meycauayan, Bulacan
San Jose del Monte, Bulacan
Cainta, Rizal
Antipolo, Rizal
Taytay, Rizal
San Pedro, Laguna
Dasmariñas, Cavite
Bacoor, Cavite
49.1 kilometres or 30.5 miles The Bulacan-Rizal-Manila-Cavite Regional Expressway is a superhighway currently under construction. It will act as a beltway of Metro Manila, so that buses and other transportation vehicles coming from the southern provinces going to the northern provinces would not need to pass through Metro Manila, thus lessening traffic in the metropolis. Its northern terminus is MacArthur Highway and the southern terminus is in Bacoor, Cavite. [23]

Other major roads[edit]

Many other streets in the metropolis are considered major roads:

Quirino Highway near the boundary of North Caloocan and Quezon City.
Batasan Road-Commonwealth Underpass.
Ortigas Center in Pasig

Capital District[edit]

  • Juan Luna Street (Escolta Street to C-3)
  • Tomas Mapua Street (Santa Cruz District, Rizal Avenue to Pasig River)
  • Yuesco Road (Calupang to SM)
  • V.G.Cruz Street (Dimasalang to Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard)
  • S.H.Loyola Street (Sampaloc District, Maytimas to Recto Avenue)
  • Piy Margal Street (Abad Santos Avenue to G.Araneta Avenue)
  • P.Florentino Street (Abad Santos Avenue to G.Araneta Avenue)
  • Blumentritt Road (Sampaloc District Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard to Rizal Avenue)
  • A.Maceda Street (Rizal Avenue to G.Tuazon)
  • G.Tuazon Street (Quezon Avenue-Recto Avenue via Rizal Avenue)
  • Soriedad Street (D.Tuazon to V.G.Cruz)
  • Bambang Street (Quezon Boulevard to Abad Santos)
  • Lacson Avenue (Sampaloc District)
  • Victorino Mapa Street (Sta. Mesa District)
  • Quirino Avenue (Nagtahan Bridge to Pres. M. Roxas Boulevard)
  • United Nations Avenue (Pres. E. Quirino Ave. Extension to Pres. M. Roxas Boulevard)
  • San Marcelino Street (Natividad Almeda-Lopez to San Andres Street)
  • Padre Faura Street (Ermita District)
  • Magsaysay Boulevard (Sta. Mesa District)
  • A. Mabini Street (P. Ocampo Sr. Street to T.M. Kalaw Sr. Street)
  • Padre Burgos Street (Downtown Manila)
  • Road 10 (Port Area)
  • Bonifacio Drive (Delpan Bridge to P. Burgos)
  • General Luna Street (Intramuros to Pedro Gil)
  • Pedro Gil Street (Paco and Sta. Ana District)
  • D. Romualdez Sr. Street (Ermita District)
  • Natividad Almeda-Lopez Street (Ermita District)
  • Finance Road (Downtown Manila)
  • Ayala Boulevard (Downtown Manila)
  • Quintin Paredes Street (Binondo District)
  • Reina Regente Street (Binondo District)
  • Ongpin Street (Manila Chinatown)
  • Quezon Boulevard (Quiapo District)
  • Tayuman Street (Juan Luna to Yuseco)
  • Dimasalang Road (Sampaloc District)
  • Laon Laan Strret (Sampaloc District)
  • Dapitan Street (Sampaloc District)
  • M. De La Fuente Street (Sampaloc District)
  • Maria Orosa Avenue (Downtown Manila)
  • J. Nakpil Street (Ermita)
  • M.H. Del Pilar Street (Ermita)
  • J. Bocobo Street (Ermita)
  • Adriatico Street (Ermita)
  • Jose Laurel Street (San Miguel)
  • Arlegui Street (San Miguel)
  • Raon Street
  • Carriedo Street
  • Escolta Street
  • Echague Street
  • Villalobos Street
  • Bilibid Viejo Street
  • Ocampo Street
  • Mendiola Street
  • Kalaw Avenue
  • Legarda Street
  • Zobel Roxas Street
  • Abad Santos Avenue

Eastern Manila District[edit]




Quezon City[edit]

  • Batasan Road (Batasan Hills, Quezon City)
  • Batasan-San Mateo Road (Batasan Road in Quezon City to San Mateo, Rizal)
  • Calle Industria (Pasig to C5)
  • Col. Bonny Serrano Road "formerly called Santolan Road" (Katipunan Avenue to Ortigas Avenue)
  • Greenmeadows Avenue (C5 to Ortigas Avenue)
  • White Plains Avenue (Temple Drive to EDSA)
  • Roosevelt Avenue (Quezon Avenue to EDSA in Quezon City)
  • Del Monte Avenue (San Francisco Del Monte district of Quezon City)
  • Mayon Avenue (La Loma district of Quezon City)
  • Banawe Avenue (Santa Mesa Heights of Quezon City)
  • Maria Clara Street (G. Araneta Avenue to Quezon Boulevard)
  • N.S. Amoranto Avenue "formerly called Retiro" (G. Araneta Avenue to A. Maceda Avenue)
  • Cordillera Street (Sta. Mesa Heights)
  • North Avenue (Project 6 district of Quezon City)
  • Timog Avenue (Laging Handa district of Quezon City) (Timog is Tagalog for South)
  • East Avenue (Diliman district of Quezon City)
  • West Avenue (Project 7 district of Quezon City)
  • Gilmore Avenue - Near Broadway Centrum (New Manila district of Quezon City)
  • Doña Hemady Avenue - (N. Domingo to E. Rodriguez Sr. Blvd.)
  • Broadway Avenue - (New Manila District)
  • Agham Road (East to North Avenue in Quezon City)
  • Litex Road (Commonwealth Avenue to Rodriguez, Rizal)
  • Kamuning Road (EDSA to Tomas Morato in Quezon City)
  • Kamias Road (EDSA to Kalayaan Avenue)
  • D. Tuazon Avenue (Sgt. Rivera to E. Rodriguez, Sr. Avenue in Quezon City)
  • Tomas Morato (ABS-CBN Compound in South Triangle to E. Rodriguez, Sr. Avenue in Quezon City)
  • Granada Street (Gilmore Street to Ortigas Avenue)
  • Eulogio Rodriguez, Sr. Avenue (Welcome Rotunda to Cubao district of Quezon City)
  • Visayas Avenue (Quezon Memorial Circle to Tandang Sora Avenue in Quezon City)
  • Regalado Highway (Commonwealth Avenue to Quirino Highway in Fairview, Quezon City)
  • Regalado Avenue (North Fairview District)
  • Mindanao Avenue (Regalado to Commonwealth Avenue-not the C-5 Road Mindanao Avenue)
  • Don A. Roces Avenue (Quezon Avenue to Tomas Morato in Quezon City)
  • Kalayaan Avenue (Elliptical Road to Kamuning Road)
  • Zabarte Road (Quirino Highway to Caloocan)
  • Belfast Avenue (Pasong Putik District)
  • Gen. Luis Street (Susano Road -NLEX)
  • Susano Road (Novaliches)
  • Ascension Avenue (Lagro District)
  • Balete Drive (New Manila District)

San Juan[edit]

  • Connecticut Street (EDSA to Ortigas "Greenhills")
  • Annapolis Street (EDSA to Greenhills)
  • Pinaglabanan Street
  • N. Domingo (V. Mapa Boulevard to Gregorio Araneta Avenue)

CAMANAVA District[edit]


  • Samson Road
  • Letre Road
  • 11th Avenue
  • 10th Avenue
  • 5th Aveue
  • 4th Avenue
  • A.Mabini
  • Malaria Road (Quirino Highway to Zabarte Road)
  • Langit Road (N Caloocan District)
  • Zabarte Road (N Caloocan District)
  • Susano Road (N Caloocan District - from Quezon City Boundary to Zabarte Road)
  • Camarin Road (N Caloocan District)
  • Bagumbong Road (N Caloocan District)
  • Deparo Road (N Caloocan District)


  • Maysan Road (NLEX to MacArthur Highway)

Southern Manila District[edit]

Las Piñas[edit]




  • Tramo Street (Aurora Boulevard) (Andrews Avenue to EDSA)
  • Arnaiz Avenue "formerly called Libertad Street/Pasay Road"
  • NAIA Road (Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard to NAIA - 2 in Pasay)
  • Ninoy Aquino Avenue - Location of NAIA - 1 (NAIA Road in Pasay to Dr. Santos Avenue in Parañaque)
  • Domestic Road - in front of Domestic Terminal (Airport Road or Andrews Avenue to NAIA Road in Pasay)
  • Airport Road (Roxas Boulevard to NAIA 3 Entrance Rotonda in Pasay)
  • Andrews Avenue (Roxas Boulevard to SLEX in Pasay located in front of Terminal 3)
  • Macapagal Boulevard - The main major road in Reclamation Area (Gil Puyat Avenue in Pasay to Pacific Avenue in Parañaque)
  • Harrison Avenue


  • B. Morcilla Street (Pateros town proper)
  • M. Almeda Street (from Gen. Luna Street, Taguig to R. Jabson Street, Pasig City)
  • P. Rosales Street (going to Tipas area, Taguig)
  • J.P. Rizal Avenue Extension (also Guadalupe-Pateros Road, going to Guadalupe, Makati City)


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b DPWH Philippines. "DPWH Philippines". Retrieved April 2012. 
  2. ^ URPO. "3rd Urpo". Retrieved April 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Tolentino, N. "The major roads of Metro Manila". The major roads of Metro Manila. Retrieved June 4, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Metro Manila Roads". Retrieved April 2012. 
  5. ^ Maranga, Mark Anthony (2010). "Kilometer Zero: Distance Reference of Manila". Philippines Travel Guide. Retrieved February 28, 2011. 
  6. ^ Manila City Government. "Manila Map". Retrieved April 2012. 
  7. ^ Philippine Star. "Philippine Roads". Retrieved April 2012. 
  8. ^ "South Metro Manila Skyway Project". Skyway Operation and Management Corporation (SomCo). Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  9. ^ El-Hifnawi, Baher; Jenkins, Glenn. "Pasig River Expressway". Kingston, Canada: Queen’s University. Retrieved May 16, 2013. 
  10. ^ Habagat Central. "Baras Rizal and Beyond Manila East Road". Retrieved June 15, 2012. 
  11. ^ Fullerton, Laurie (1995). Philippines Handbook. Moon Publications.  Marcos Highway, Retrieved June 2012
  12. ^ Doy Cinco. Commonwealth Avenue, the Killer Highway "Commonwealth Avenue, the Killer Highway". Retrieved April 2012. (Tagalog)
  13. ^ DPWH Philippines. "R-7 Expressway to be Built over Quezon Avenue". Retrieved June 2012. 
  14. ^ Marciano R. de Borja, Basques in the Philippines, University of Nevada Press, 2005, p. 132, accessed 20 January 2011
  15. ^ "North Luzon Expressway". Retrieved July 2, 2012. 
  16. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica (1983). Pan Philippine Highway. United States of America: Britannica. 
  17. ^ "RDC Allots P8.7 Billion For Manila-Bataan Coastal Highway". August 19, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2013. 
  18. ^ Citiatlas Metro Manila. Asiatype, Inc.,. 2002. p. 183. ISBN 9719171952. 
  19. ^ Manila Bulletin. "Skybridge". Retrieved May 2012. 
  20. ^ Philippine Daily Inquirer (July 7, 2009). "Inquirer Headlines: EDSA". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 9, 2012. 
  21. ^ Jao-Grey, Margarte (December 27, 2007). "Too Many Buses, Too Many Agencies Clog Edsa". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. Retrieved December 28, 2007. 
  22. ^ Flores, Asti (February 17, 2013). "MMDA, DPWH name the C-5 Road as an alternate route for EDSA overhaul". GMANews. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Will C-6 road remain a metropolis dream?". Manila Times. 2006-03-16. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 

External links[edit]