Makaton is a language programme designed to provide a means of communication to individuals who cannot communicate efficiently by speaking. The Makaton language programme has been effectively used with individuals who have cognitive impairments, autism, Down syndrome, specific language impairment, multisensory impairment and acquired neurological disorders that have negatively affected the ability to communicate, including stroke patients.
The name "Makaton" is derived from the first letters of the names of the three people: Margaret Walker, speech therapist and researcher who designed Makaton, and two psychiatric hospital visitors who assisted from the Royal Association for Deaf people named Katharine Johnston and Tony Cornforth.
Makaton is a registered trade mark of The Makaton Charity which was established in 2007. The original trademark application for Makaton was filed in the UK on August 28, 1979 with registration approved as from that date under UK trade mark registration no. 1119745.
In 2004 the Oxford English University Press included Makaton as a common usage word in the Oxford English Dictionary. The entry states 'Makaton, n. Brit. A proprietary name for: a language programme integrating speech, manual signs, and graphic symbols, developed to help people for whom communication is very difficult, esp. those with learning disabilities.'
The Makaton Language Programme uses a multimodal approach to teach language and literacy skills, through a combination of speech, signs, and graphic symbols used concurrently, or, only with speech with signs, or, only with speech with graphic symbols as appropriate for the student's needs. It consists of a Core Vocabulary of roughly 450 concepts that are taught in a specific order (there are 8 different stages). For example, stage 1 involves teaching vocabulary for immediate needs, like 'eat' and 'drink'. Later stages contain more complex and abstract vocabulary such as time and emotions. Once basic communication has been established, the student can progress in their language use, using whatever modes are most appropriate. Also, although the programme is organised in stages, it can be modified and tailored to the individual's needs. In addition to the Core Vocabulary, there is a Makaton Resource Vocabulary of over 7,000 concepts which are illustrated with signs and graphic symbols.
Original research was conducted by Margaret Walker in 1972/73, and resulted in the design of the Makaton Core Vocabulary based on functional need. This research was conducted with institutionalised deaf cognitively impaired adults resident at Botleys Park Hospital, Chertsey, Surrey (closed in 2008). The aim was to enable them to communicate using signs from Sign Language. Fourteen deaf and cognitively impaired adults participated in the pilot study, and all were able to learn to use manual signs; improved behaviour was also noted. Shortly after, the Core Vocabulary was revised to include both children and adults with severe communication difficulties (including individuals who could hear), and was used in many schools throughout the UK in order to stimulate communication and language. In the early stages of development, Makaton used only speech and manual signs (without symbols). By 1985, work had begun to include graphic symbols in the Makaton Language Programme and a version including graphic symbols was published in 1986. The Core Vocabulary was revised in 1986 to include additional cultural concepts. The Makaton Vocabulary Development Project(MVDP) was founded in 1976 by Margaret Walker, who worked in a voluntary capacity as Director until her retirement in October 2008. The first Makaton training Workshop was held in 1976 and supporting resources and further training courses were, and continue, to be developed. In 1983 the MVDP became a Charitable Trust and in 2007 changed its status to become the Makaton Charity.
The Makaton Core Vocabulary is adapted for use in different countries; signs from each country's deaf community are used, along with culturally relevant Makaton symbols. For example, in the United Kingdom, Makaton uses signs from British Sign Language (BSL); the signs are mainly from the London and South East England regional dialect Makaton is used extensively throughout the UK, but has also been adapted for use in over 40 countries, including Poland, Australia, New Zealand, France, Germany, Portugal, Greece, Kuwait and Japan.
Training and resources
The Makaton Charity:
- Delivers training to over 30,000 parents, carers and professionals
- Develops and produces a wide range of resources (books, DVDs and computer based resources)
- Provides a free family advisory service for information, advice and support for parents, family members and professionals working with children.
- Beukelman, David R.; Mirenda, Pat. (2005). "Symbols and rate enhancement". Augmentative alternative communication : supporting children adults with complex communication need. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub. Co. pp. 65–67. ISBN 978-1-55766-684-0. OCLC 59817863.
- Grove, Nicola; Walker, Margaret (1990). "The Makaton Vocabulary: Using manual signs and graphic symbols to develop interpersonal communication". Augmentative and Alternative Communication 6 (1): 15–28. doi:10.1080/07434619012331275284.
- Prevost, Patricia A. Le (2009). "Using the Makaton Vocabulary in early language training with a Down's baby: a single case study". Journal of the British Institute of Mental Handicap (APEX) 11 (1): 28–29. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3156.1983.tb00091.x.
- Sheehy, K. and Duffy, H. "Attitudes to Makaton in the ages of integration and inclusion" (pdf). International Journal of Special Education, 24(2), pp. 91–102. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "The Makaton Charity". Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- "MAKATON - UK00001119745". Intellectual Property Office - By number results. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Walker,M (1977) Teaching Sign Language to Deaf Mentally Handicapped Adults (A Practical Account and an Experimental Evaluation) in IMS Conference Proceedings 3, Language and the Mentally Handicapped (pp3-25)Kidderminster: British Institute of Mental Handicap
- Byler, Judy Kay (2007). "The Makaton Vocabulary: An Analysis based on Recent Research". British Journal of Special Education 12 (3): 109–116. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8578.1985.tb00622.x.
- Walker M, Armfield A (September 1981). "What is the Makaton vocabulary?". Spec Educ Forward Trends 8 (3): 19–20. PMID 6458105.
- Elton, Frances and Squelch, Linda London and South East Regional Signs. Lexisigns (2009), http://www.lexisigns.co.uk
- Harrison, D. and Virden, F. (2011). Assistant practitioners lead way. British Journal of Healthcare Assistants, 5(8),409.
- Hooper, Helen; Walker, Margaret (2002). "Makaton peer tutoring evaluation: 10 years on". British Journal of Learning Disabilities 30 (1): 38–42. doi:10.1046/j.1468-3156.2002.00120.x.Hooper,
- Reeves, D. "Applying choices and possibilities". Speech & Language Therapy in Practice, Winter 2011. pp. 4–6. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Rubina Lal. "Effect of alternative and augmentative communication on language and social behavior of children with autism" (pdf). Educational Research and Reviews 2010 academicjournals.org.
- Sellars G (November 2006). "Learning to communicate with children with disabilities". Paediatr Nurs 18 (9): 26–8. doi:10.7748/paed2006.11.18.9.26.c8320. PMID 17111943.