A bowl of makgeolli.
Makgeolli, also known as "makkoli", "makoli" or "makuly (takju)", is an alcoholic beverage native to Korea. It is made from a mixture of wheat and rice, which gives it a milky, off-white color, and sweetness. It is made by fermenting a mixture of boiled rice, wheat and water, and is about 6–8% alcohol by volume. Most makgeolli contains rice currently. However, a few brands contain wheat instead of rice.
It was originally quite popular among farmers, earning it the name nongju (농주 / 農酒), which means farmer liquor. However, it has recently started to become more popular in cities, especially with the younger generations. Dongdongju (동동주) is a drink very similar to makgeolli, and both are commonly imbibed alongside Korean pancakes called pajeon (파전) or bindaetteok (빈대떡).
According to The Poetic Records of Emperors and Kings (Jewangun-gi), written during the Goryeo Dynasty, the first mention of the drink was in the founding story of the Goguryeo during the reign of King Dongmyeong. Many communities in Korea around that time enjoyed the tradition of drinking and dancing all night in special ceremonies. During the Goryeo dynasty, makgeolli was called ihwa-ju (pear blossom alcohol), as the liquor was made during the blossoming of that particular flower.
Commercially, makgeolli is most commonly available in plastic bottles or aseptic box containers. Traditionally, it is served in a large metal or wooden bowl from which individual cups and bowls are filled using a ladle. Korean jars also are a traditional vessel for makgeolli consumption. As it is an unfiltered beverage, makgeolli is generally shaken or stirred before being consumed, as the cloudy white portion tends to settle to the bottom, leaving a pale yellow-clear liquid on top.
Makgeolli is used during ancestral rites in Korea.
Availability and manufacture
In 2011, Importer of Korean residents in Japan started producing makgeolli products, attempting to promote them under the name makkori (マッコリ), the Japanese pronunciation of makgeolli. It has been suggested that this may lead people to mistakenly regard makgeolli as being traditionally Japanese rather than Korean.
To fit consumer tastes, research into standardization to reduce off-flavors and ensure consistency between batches has been applied in modern production. Flavorings such as fruit and ginseng are also sometimes added, along with aspartame, which gives sweetness without adding a fermentable carbohydrate, increasing shelf life and flavor stability in commercial brands. As the result of these efforts, sales have increased.
The Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries announced plans for enhancing the competitiveness of alcoholic beverages on August 26, 2009, which includes plans[clarification needed] for the makgeolli industry.
The winner of a public contest by the Korean Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries for the selection of an English name for makgeolli was "drunken rice", with the Ministry reasoning that foreigners would understand it is a type of liquor made from rice. "Mackohol" and "markelixir" were the runners-up. Nevertheless, an 11-country survey identified Korea rice wine as the term that most easily conveys the idea of makgeolli. Some netizens have pointed out that "drunken rice" is not a particularly suitable anglicization, and that in an international context, this may reflect poorly on Korean cuisine in general.
- Kim, Violet "Food map: Eat your way around Korea" CNN Go. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-12
- Posted by KOREA.NET (2009-06-22). "Korean-style food: History of makgeolli, a traditional alcoholic beverage". Koreanfood-koreanet.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
- JoongAng Ilbo (2009-11-05). "'「日本で"抱川マッコリ"登録した人は韓国人」". Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- Posted by 이진우(Jinu Lee) (2011-04-01). "'막걸리' 명칭 일본에 빼앗길 판". asiatoday.co.kr. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
- Noh, Seung-Hyuk (9/8/2010). "충주 예성여고생들 오곡 막걸리로 특허". Yonhap News. Retrieved 9/13/2010.
- "막걸리 영문애칭 "Drunken Rice," "Makcohol," "Markelixir" 뽑혀". KOREA.KR.
- "막걸리 영문애칭 '드렁큰라이스(Drunken Rice)". ajnews.co.kr.
- "막걸리 영문애칭에 '부글부글'". news.nate.com.