|- City -|
Location of the Republic of Dagestan in Russia
|Administrative status (as of April 2006)|
|Federal subject||Republic of Dagestan|
|Administratively subordinated to||City of Makhachkala|
|Capital of||Republic of Dagestan|
|Administrative center of||City of Makhachkala|
|Municipal status (as of November 2006)|
|Urban okrug||Makhachkala Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Makhachkala Urban Okrug|
|City Head||Said Amirov|
|Representative body||Assembly of Deputies|
|Population (2010 Census)||572,076 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||26th|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Previous names||Petrovskoye (until 1857),
Petrovsk-Port (until 1921)
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8722|
Makhachkala (Russian: Махачкала; IPA: [məxətɕkɐˈla]; Avar: МахIачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Kumyk: Магьачкъала, Mağaçqala), “Fort Maghach”, is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. It is located on the western shore of the Caspian Sea and is home to the Makhachkala Grand Mosque, one of Russia’s largest. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 572,076, making it the largest in the North Caucasus Federal District. The city has an ethnic plurality, with the Avars and Laks as the largest groups.
Founded as a fortress of the Russian Empire in 1844 and given city status thirteen years later, the city bore the name of the Russian Tsar Peter the Great until 1921. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Makhachkala has been affected by Islamist insurgents as part of a republic-wide conflict.
Makhachkala's historic predecessor was the town of Tarki, now a nearby suburb, whose history goes back to the 15th century and possibly much earlier. The modern city of Makhachkala was founded in 1844 as a fortress; town status was granted in 1857. The original Russian name of the city was Petrovskoye (Петро́вское)—after the Russian tsar Peter the Great who visited the region in 1722 during his Persian Campaign. However, among the locals it was known as Anzhi-Qala, The Pearl Fortress (Qala means fortress, while Anzhi means pearl in Kumyk). After gaining city status, the Petrovskoye fortress was renamed Petrovsk-Port (Петро́вск-Порт) in 1857, sometimes simply Petrovsk. In 1894, a railway line linked the city to Vladikavkaz (in present-day North Ossetia) and Baku (in present-day Azerbaijan), yet a report from 1904 detailed the spread of malaria and unsuitable drinking water in the city.
In January 1919, during the Russian Civil War, the British No. 221 Squadron Royal Air Force based themselves at Petrovsk. In March they were joined by No. 266 Squadron and both squadrons were involved in bombing operations against Bolshevik forces in Astrakhan and elsewhere. In August 1919 both squadrons were withdrawn from Petrovsk. The city was invaded by the Red Army in Spring 1920.
As part of the Soviet revolution, place names relating to monarchy or religion were changed, and thus on 14 May 1921, Petrovsk was renamed Makhachkala, after Dagestani revolutionary Magomed-Ali 'Makhach' Dakhadaev. On the same day, it became capital of an autonomous Dagestan Soviet Socialist Republic. The city incurred major damage during an earthquake on 14 May 1970.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eight settlements of urban type and six rural localities, incorporated as the City of Makhachkala—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Makhachkala is incorporated as Makhachkala Urban Okrug.
The coat of arms and flag of Makhachkala were adopted on 15 December 2006. The Arms show the city's historic fortress in silver on a red field, with flames coming from either tower and a solar symbol above. It is supported by a golden eagle on each side, a crown on top, and crossed anchors (representing its maritime history) entangled with grapevines at the bottom.
In proportions of 2:3, the flag displays the main shield of the city's Coat of Arms.
Makhachkala is close to areas of fighting and therefore it and the surrounding region has a heavy security service presence. On 25 November 2011, a protest took place in Makhachkala attended by up to 3,000 people demanding an end to illegal activities perpetrated by the security services.
The population of Makhachkala includes (2002 Census data): 
- Avars (26.5%)
- Laks (14.6%)
- Kumyks (13.9%)
- Dargins (13.7%)
- Lezgins (13.6%)
- Russians (9.1%)
- Tabasarans (2.2%)
- Azerbaijani (1.4%)
- Rutuls (1.2%)
The city is served by Uytash Airport, a regional airport connecting to other parts of Russia.
A railyard at the port connects the port to the North Caucasus Railway network.
Founded in 1991, the side returned to the Premier League in 2009 and in January 2011 were purchased by Dagestani commodities billionaire Suleyman Kerimov, whose investment has allowed the club to sign players such as Brazilian World Cup winner Roberto Carlos and Cameroonian striker Samuel Eto'o who is now the world's highest-paid player. However, due to recent unrest in the region, the players currently live and train in Moscow, and an armed guard patrols their matches.
The climate of Makhachkala combines subtropical warm summers and a continental climate resulting in cold winters. It is also influenced by a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) as is found across most of the Caspian Sea basin.
|Climate data for Makhachkala|
|Record high °C (°F)||19.0
|Average high °C (°F)||4.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−25.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||32
|Avg. precipitation days||6||6||5||4||4||5||4||4||5||5||5||6||59|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||74.4||72.5||105.4||171.0||244.9||279.0||282.1||269.7||195.0||151.9||81.0||68.2||1,995.1|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (UN), Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours|
- Sergei Agababov, composer
- Ruslan Agalarov, former footballer
- Kamalutdin Akhmedov, footballer
- Ali Aliyev, amateur boxer
- Malik Akhmedilov, editor
- Abdulla Alishayev, TV host
- Ali Gadzhibekov, footballer
- Shamil Gitinov, Armenian wrestler
- Ali Isayev, Azeri wrestler
- Gadzhimurat Kamalov, editor
- Kuramagomed Kuramagomedov, wrestler
- Shamil Lakhiyalov, footballer
- Jamaladdin Magomedov, Azeri wrestler
- Khadzhimurad Magomedov, Olympic Azeri wrestler
- Aleksandr Maslov, former footballer
- Sharif Mukhammad, footballer
- Magomed Musaev, Olympic Kyrgyz wrestler
- Marid Mutalimov, Olympic Kazakh wrestler
- Vladimir Nazlymov, sabre fencer and coach
- Gadzhimurad Nurmagomedov, Olympic Armenian wrestler
- Khabib Nurmagomedov, mixed martial artist
- Eduard Puterbrot, artist
- Muslim Salikhov, kickboxer
- Serder Serderov, footballer
- Sharif Sharifov, Olympic Azeri wrestler
- Ruslan Sheikhau, Belarusian wrestler
- Ilyas Shurpayev, television journalist
- Nikita Timoshin, footballer
- Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, suspects in the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings
- Zalimkhan Yusupov, Olympic Tajik wrestler
Twin towns and sister cities
Makhachkala is twinned with:
- Sfax, Tunisia
- Siping, China
- Spokane, United States
- Vladikavkaz, Russia
- Yalova, Turkey
- Ndola, Zambia
- Oldenburg, Germany
- Maharajganj, India
- Law #16
- Law #6
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Bowyer, Chaz (1988). RAF Operations 1918-1938. London: William Kimber. pp. 40, 41. ISBN 0-7183-0671-6.
- Russian journalist gunned down in violent republic of Dagestan, Guardian, retrieved 16/12/2011
- Newspaper chief's murder in Dagestan adds to toll of Russian journalists, Guardian, retrieved 16/12/2011
- "Blackburn Rovers defender Chris Samba joins Anzhi Makhachkala". Manchester: BBC. 24 February 2012.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- "Weather Information for Mahackala".
- "Climatological Information for Mahackala, Russia".
- Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №23 от 4 апреля 2006 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан в связи с прекращением полномочий Государственного Совета Республики Дагестан». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. (People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan. Law #16 of April 10, 2002 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #23 of April 4, 2006 On Amending Several Legislative Acts of the Republic of Dagestan Due to the Termination of Powers of the State Council of the Republic of Dagestan. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №60 от 5 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 9 Закона Республики Дагестан "О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. (People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan. Law #6 of January 13, 2005 On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #60 of October 5, 2012 On Amending Article 9 of the Law of the Republic of Dagestan "On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of the Republic of Dagestan". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).