Makhachkala

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Makhachkala (English)
Махачкала (Russian)
МахаIчкала (Rutul)
МахӀачхъала (Avar)
Магьачкъала (Kumyk)
-  City  -
Map of Russia - Republic of Dagestan (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of Dagestan in Russia
Makhachkala is located in Republic of Dagestan
Makhachkala
Makhachkala
Location of Makhachkala in the Republic of Dagestan
Coordinates: 42°58′N 47°30′E / 42.967°N 47.500°E / 42.967; 47.500Coordinates: 42°58′N 47°30′E / 42.967°N 47.500°E / 42.967; 47.500
Coat of Arms of Makhachkala.png
Flag of Makhachkala (Dagestan).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of April 2006)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Dagestan
Administratively subordinated to City of Makhachkala[1]
Capital of Republic of Dagestan[2][citation needed]
Administrative center of City of Makhachkala[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2006)
Urban okrug Makhachkala Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Makhachkala Urban Okrug[3]
City Head[citation needed] Said Amirov[citation needed]
Representative body Assembly of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 468.13 km2 (180.75 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 572,076 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 27th
Density 1,222/km2 (3,160/sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Founded 1844[citation needed]
City status since 1857[citation needed]
Previous names Petrovskoye (until 1857),[citation needed]
Petrovsk-Port[2] (until 1921)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 367000-367999
Dialing code(s) +7 8722[citation needed]
Official website
Makhachkala on WikiCommons

Makhachkala (Russian: Махачкала; IPA: [məxət͡ɕkɐˈla]; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаIчкала; Kumyk: Магьачкъала, Mahačqala), “Fort Maghach”, is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. It is located on the western shore of the Caspian Sea and is home to the Makhachkala Grand Mosque, one of Russia’s largest. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 572,076, making it the largest in the North Caucasus Federal District.[5] The city has an ethnic plurality, with the Avars and Laks as the largest groups.

Founded as a fortress of the Russian Empire in 1844 and given city status thirteen years later, the city bore the name of the Russian Tsar Peter the Great until 1921. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Makhachkala has been affected by Islamist insurgents as part of a republic-wide conflict.

History[edit]

Russian Tsar Peter the Great visited what is now Makhachkala in 1722, and the settlement bore his name from 1844 to 1921

Makhachkala's historic predecessor was the town of Tarki, now a nearby suburb, whose history goes back to the 15th century and possibly much earlier. The modern city of Makhachkala was founded in 1844 as a fortress; town status was granted in 1857. The original Russian name of the city was Petrovskoye (Петро́вское)—after the Russian Tsar Peter the Great who visited the region in 1722 during his Persian Campaign. However, among the locals it was known as Anzhi-Qala, The Pearl Fortress (Qala means fortress, while Anzhi means pearl in Kumyk). After gaining city status, the Petrovskoye fortress was renamed Petrovsk-Port (Петро́вск-Порт) in 1857, sometimes simply Petrovsk.[2] In 1894, a railway line linked the city to Vladikavkaz (in present-day North Ossetia) and Baku (in present-day Azerbaijan), yet a report from 1904 detailed the spread of malaria and unsuitable drinking water in the city.[9]

In January 1919, during the Russian Civil War, the British No. 221 Squadron Royal Air Force based themselves at Petrovsk. In March they were joined by No. 266 Squadron and both squadrons were involved in bombing operations against Bolshevik forces in Astrakhan and elsewhere. In August 1919 both squadrons were withdrawn from Petrovsk.[10] The city was invaded by the Red Army in Spring 1920.[9]

As part of the Soviet revolution, place names relating to monarchy or religion were changed, and thus on 14 May 1921, Petrovsk was renamed Makhachkala, after Dagestani revolutionary Magomed-Ali 'Makhach' Dakhadaev. On the same day, it became capital of the newly formed Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.[9] The city incurred major damage during an earthquake on 14 May 1970.[11]

The area was used as a Soviet-era naval testing station, leaving behind a curious sea fort off nearby Kaspiysk.[12]42°53′48″N 47°40′53″E / 42.896598°N 47.681274°E / 42.896598; 47.681274

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eight settlements of urban type and six rural localities, incorporated as the City of Makhachkala—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Makhachkala is incorporated as Makhachkala Urban Okrug.[3]

City divisions[edit]

For the purposes of administration, the city is divided into three city districts, from west to east: Kirovsky, Sovetsky and Leninsky.

Symbols[edit]

The coat of arms and flag of Makhachkala were adopted on 15 December 2006. The coat of arms shows the city's historic fortress in silver on a red field, with flames coming from either tower and a solar symbol above. It is supported by a golden eagle on each side, a crown on top, and crossed anchors (representing its maritime history) entangled with grapevines at the bottom.

A street in Makhachkala
Makhachkala, 2012

In proportions of 2:3, the flag displays the main shield of the city's coat of arms.[13]

Unrest[edit]

Makhachkala is close to areas of fighting and therefore it and the surrounding region has a heavy security service presence. On 25 November 2011, a protest took place in Makhachkala attended by up to 3,000 people demanding an end to illegal activities perpetrated by the security services.[14]

On December 15, 2011, Gadzhimurat Kamalov, a Russian investigative journalist and founder of the independent Chernovik newspaper was shot dead in an apparent assassination.[15]

Demographics[edit]

The population of Makhachkala includes (2002 Census data): [1]

Transportation[edit]

The city is served by Uytash Airport, a regional airport providing connections to other Russian cities.

Russian Railways via the North Caucasus Railway provides freight and passenger traffic to and from Makhachkala.

The Caspian Sea International Port handles crude oil, petroleum, construction materials, grain, cargo and timber and operates 24 hours a day.[16]

The port offers communications with the rest of Russia, as well as with Belarus, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia.[16]

A railyard at the port connects the port to the North Caucasus Railway network.[16]

Sports[edit]

The city's football team, FC Anzhi Makhachkala of the Russian Premier League, play at the 15,200-seat[17] Dynamo Stadium.

Founded in 1991, the side returned to the Premier League in 2009 and in January 2011 were purchased by Dagestani commodities billionaire Suleyman Kerimov,[18] whose investment has allowed the club to sign players such as Brazilian World Cup winner Roberto Carlos[19] and Cameroonian striker Samuel Eto'o who, during his time at the club, became the world's highest paid player.[20] However, due to recent unrest in the region, the players currently live and train in Moscow, and an armed guard patrols their matches.[21]

Climate[edit]

The climate of Makhachkala combines subtropical warm summers and a continental climate resulting in cold winters. It is also influenced by a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) as is found across most of the Caspian Sea basin.

Climate data for Makhachkala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
20.9
(69.6)
28.8
(83.8)
33.5
(92.3)
35.1
(95.2)
36.1
(97)
38.7
(101.7)
38.7
(101.7)
35.0
(95)
28.9
(84)
23.1
(73.6)
19.9
(67.8)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
4.2
(39.6)
7.8
(46)
14.3
(57.7)
20.2
(68.4)
25.9
(78.6)
28.9
(84)
28.7
(83.7)
23.8
(74.8)
17.4
(63.3)
10.7
(51.3)
5.7
(42.3)
16.0
(60.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
1.2
(34.2)
4.7
(40.5)
10.4
(50.7)
16.1
(61)
21.6
(70.9)
24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
20.0
(68)
13.9
(57)
7.5
(45.5)
2.7
(36.9)
12.4
(54.3)
Average low °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−1.5
(29.3)
1.9
(35.4)
7.1
(44.8)
12.6
(54.7)
17.7
(63.9)
20.7
(69.3)
20.5
(68.9)
16.5
(61.7)
10.6
(51.1)
4.5
(40.1)
0.0
(32)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F) −25.1
(−13.2)
−26.9
(−16.4)
−13.5
(7.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
0.0
(32)
5.8
(42.4)
9.7
(49.5)
8.0
(46.4)
0.7
(33.3)
−6.6
(20.1)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−26.5
(−15.7)
−26.9
(−16.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.26)
27
(1.06)
22
(0.87)
17
(0.67)
32
(1.26)
22
(0.87)
21
(0.83)
28
(1.1)
46
(1.81)
45
(1.77)
41
(1.61)
32
(1.26)
365
(14.37)
Avg. precipitation days 6 6 5 4 4 5 4 4 5 5 5 6 59
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74.4 72.5 105.4 171.0 244.9 279.0 282.1 269.7 195.0 151.9 81.0 68.2 1,995.1
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[22]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (UN),[23] Hong Kong Observatory[24] for data of sunshine hours

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Makhachkala is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Law #16
  2. ^ a b c http://russia.rin.ru/guides_e/4939.html
  3. ^ a b c Law #6
  4. ^ Подсчитано по базе данных муниципальных образований РФ на 2008 год
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  9. ^ a b c http://a-u-l.narod.ru/Markovin-V-I_Dorogami_i_tropami_Dagestana.html#glava02
  10. ^ Bowyer, Chaz (1988). RAF Operations 1918-1938. London: William Kimber. pp. 40, 41. ISBN 0-7183-0671-6. 
  11. ^ Gorbunova, I. V.; Kondorskaya, N. V. (1973). "Comparison analysis of magnitude values for the daghestanian and Kirghiz earthquakes by observations of Soviet and American stations". Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH 103: 381. doi:10.1007/BF00876415.  edit
  12. ^ Abandoned Places: Soviet naval testing station in Makhachkala, Russia, distractify.com, accessed 12 July 2014
  13. ^ http://zakon.scli.ru/ru/legal_texts/act_municipal_education/extended/index.php?do4=document&id4=36392d56-1041-4306-a8db-7fbd78aeb3a2
  14. ^ Russian journalist gunned down in violent republic of Dagestan, Guardian, retrieved 16/12/2011
  15. ^ Newspaper chief's murder in Dagestan adds to toll of Russian journalists, Guardian, retrieved 16/12/2011
  16. ^ a b c http://en.portnews.ru/news/135575/
  17. ^ http://www.stadiumguide.com/dinamostadiummakhachkala/
  18. ^ http://www.caughtoffside.com/2011/08/15/five-reasons-you-should-look-out-for-anzhi-makhachkala/
  19. ^ http://soccernet.espn.go.com/news/story/_/id/881588/roberto-carlos-joins-russian-side-anzhi?cc=5739
  20. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2011/aug/23/samuel-etoo-internazionale-anzhi-makhachkala
  21. ^ "Blackburn Rovers defender Chris Samba joins Anzhi Makhachkala". Manchester: BBC. 24 February 2012. 
  22. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  23. ^ "Weather Information for Mahackala". 
  24. ^ "Climatological Information for Mahackala, Russia". 

Sources[edit]

  • Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. (People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan. Law #16 of April 10, 2002 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #106 of December 30, 2013 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Republic of Dagestan. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. Закона №60 от 5 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 9 Закона Республики Дагестан "О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. (People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan. Law #6 of January 13, 2005 On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of the Republic of Dagestan, as amended by the Law #60 of October 5, 2012 On Amending Article 9 of the Law of the Republic of Dagestan "On the Status and Borders of the Municipal Formations of the Republic of Dagestan". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]