Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi
|Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattviمخدوم محمدهاشم ٹھٹوي|
|Pir Thattvi Sufi order|
|Succeeded by||Makhdoom Abdul latif Thattvi|
|Succeeded by||Bibi Aaminat|
|Succeeded by||Bibi Hassan Bano|
|Succeeded by||Bibi Afroze Jameel Uqaili (Acting)|
Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi (1693- 1761) (urdu علامه مخدوم محمدهاشم ٹھٹوي) was an Islamic scholar, author, philanthropist, and spiritual leader who was considered a saint by his followers. He was the first ever Quranic exegesis writer in the Sindhi dialect. He also ran the office of the Chief Justice and stayed the Governor of Sindh and connected areas of Punjab in the Kalhora era. Makhdoom was also a feudal lord and tribe chieftain. He was the leading Islamic theologian and the Imam of the Grand Mosque at Thatta. He engaged himself in missionary duties and was famous among Sufis. He wrote Madah Nama Sindh (a book about Islam in Sindhi society and culture), Dirham al-Surrat Fi Wada al-Yadayn Taht al-Surrah (a book based on the Hanafi theology), Al-Baqiyat as-Salihat (a biography of great Islamic figures) and other books. His religious dictums shaped Sindhi culture and Islamic tradition in Sindh. He was believed to be a leading expert authority on the Fatwa-e-Alamgiri. He belonged to the Naqshbandi order of Sufism, and followed the Hanafi school of thought. He has a large following throughout the Muslim world specially in Sindh and Thatta district in specific.
Thattvi descends from Haris bin Abdul Mutallib of the Quraish tribe, to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad also belonged. He is the son of:
- Adul Ghafoor the son of
- Abdul Latif the son of
- Abdur Rehman the son of
- Khair Uddin Harsi.
Early life and education
Makhdoom belonged to a very traditional, religious and educated family and received basic education from his father Makhdoom Abdul Ghafoor. His father taught him to memorise and recite the Quran. He further learnt Persian language and Fiqh from his house and travelled to Thatta the centre of education, poetry, spiritual grooming and culture of the time for receiving higher education. It was in the time of the Kalhoras when Sindh was at its peak in reference to rich culture and economic progress. Scholars, poets, intellectuals were found in abundance and such people were very much obeyed trusted and respected. Thatta had been entirely unique as in 1111 Hijri it had 400 high schools and 1400 mosques and is of its own kind even today, this attracted Makhdoom Hashim to come to Thatta and attend Arabic classes from Makhdoom Saeed. Makhdoom by his immense intellect and sharp mind finished the curriculum which was usually completed in six years just in just six months this made Makhdoom earn a lot of popularity great scholars and people used to come and visit him from far away remote areas and places and so he became a centre of attraction for many spiritual leaders and people began to see him as their spiritual master.
Makhdoom proceeded towards Makhdoom Zia uddin Thattvi to learn the science of ahadith and associated matters. It took him nine years to learn Persian and Arabic. Meanwhile his father Makhdoom Abdul Ghafoor died on 1113 Hijri in the blessed month of Dhul-hajj and was buried in his place at Sehwan.
Makhdoom visited Makkah and Madinah and learnt exegesis, ahadith, religious fundamentals, tajwid and fiqh.
Pledge and Caliphate
Makhdoom was anxious for his spiritual promotion himself and thus started the quest for a spiritual master so after his return from Harmain-sharfain in 1136 Hijri he visited Surat Bandar in India and for spiritual training and growth adopted companionship in the Qadiri order under the leadership of Saeed Ullah Surti, he kept meditating there for a year and was promoted and assigned as the Caliph. He took the special permission for returning to his home Thatta in 1137 Hijri, October 1724 and to practice the Qadiri order. Syed Saad Ullah Surti was the disciple of Syed Abdul Shakur and so with eight connections he gets connected with His Highness Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani like wise Makhdoom Hashim is spiritually linked to Shiekh Abdul Qadir Jilani through nine caliphs.
His lineage to Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani is as follows:
Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi disciple to
- Syed Saad Ullah who was the disciple of
- Syed Abdul Shakoor who was the disciple of
- Shah Masoud Sufrani who was the disciple of
- Ali Hussaini who was the disciple of
- Jaffar Al-Hussaini who was the disciple of
- Syed Ibrahim who was the disciple of
- Abdullah Hussaini who was the disciple of
- Adbul-Razzaq who was the son and the disciple of
- Syed Abdul Qadir Jilani
- Madah Nama Sindh (مدح نامه سنڌ): The book contains merits and values of Sindh and Sindhi society in the 12th century Hijri.
- Dirham al-Surrat Fi Wada al-Yadayn Taht al-Surrah. This is a short book that proves the Hanafi way of keeping hands in Qiyam during prayer is proved by Sahih Hadith.
- al-Baqiyat as-Salihat (الباقيات الصالحات): This book describes the biographies of Ummahat-ul-Momineen and great Islamic figures.
His authored books are included in the syllabus of Al-Azhar University today as well. Some of his books have recently been translated into Sindhi by Allama Muhammad Idrees Dahiri and Ghulam Mustafa Qasmi, including Madah Nama Sindh, al-Baqiyat as-Salihat and Khamsat at-Tahirah.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2012)|
On Friday, 12th OF Rajab 1135 Hijri, Makhdoom Hashim was at Madinah and presented greetings at the resting place of Muhmmand and reportedly received the greatest gift in the form of reply of the greetings from Muhmmand himself: "Waalaykum as-salam ya Muhammad Hahim". There were two Muhammad Hashims who both felt Muhammad had replied to them alone. To end the confusion they agreed on trying again and this time Muhmmand reportedly replied: "Waalaykum as-salam ya Muhammad Hahim Thattvi."
A Persian phrease describes this event:
- "Zaban khalq-e-naqara khuda eist"
- Tongue of mankind is the tongue of God.
Mausoleum and shrine
Thousands of devotees and followers visit his Mausoleum and shrine every day which is located in Makli, Thatta, near the historical Makli graveyard. Many followers are buried alongside his shrine. Few of the names of the notables resting there are as follows: Ubaidullah Sindhi, Hassam-ud-Din Rashidi
Makhdoom Hashim's urs is celebrated every year on the 6th of rajab at the shrine.
The day's proceedings involve recitation of the Quran, hymns and praises of Allah and Muhammad and the Prophet, and religious discourses are given by local orators and scholars.