|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the French Wikipedia. (November 2012)|
|Stylistic origins||Bouncy Techno, Trance|
|Cultural origins||Early 1990s
|Typical instruments||Synthesizer - Sequencer - Keyboard - Sampler|
|Derivative forms||Japanese Mákina|
Mákina is a subgenre of Hardcore_techno, originating in Spain. Similar to UK hardcore, it includes elements of bouncy techno and hardtrance. The subgenre is characterized by a fast tempo (from 150 to 180 BPM), bass kicks and catchy melodies.
Early 1990s: Origins
Dance music in Spain became prominent in 1988 with the rise of acid house. Mákina followed this trend and has its origins in the early 1990s in Valencia, Spain. Derived from another style called Bakalao, which was in reality the local name given to an association of electronic dance music played together with pop/rock tunes in Valencian clubs in the second half of the 1980s. These electronic styles comprised mainly Electronic Dance Music, Techno, House and Hardcore.
Mid-1990s: Breakthrough and success
Over the years mákina progressed in speed and sound. The genre gained prominence in 1991 when Spanish producer Chimo Bayo released his single, "A Si Me Gusta A Mi (X-Ta Si, X-Ta No)". The song was a success throughout Europe and the genre soon gained prominence. The genre became extremely popular throughout Spain from 1995 to 1997, when many Mákina oriented singles reached number one on the Spanish Singles Chart. Spanish mákina group EX-3 had two number-one singles, "Extres" and "Ex-P-Cial" in 1995 and 1996, respectively.
- Carles Feixa; Carmen Costa; Joan Pallarés (2001). From okupas to makineros: citizenship and youth cultures in Spain. Council of Europe. p. 297.
- Damien Simonis (15 March 2007). Spain. Lonely Planet. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-74104-554-3. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- Loretta Chilcoat; Reuben Acciano (15 February 2005). Western Europe. Lonely Planet. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-74059-927-6. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.