Mak nyah

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Mak nyah (pronounced [ˈmaʔ ˈɲa]) is a Malay term for a male-to-female transsexual. The name is preferred by Malaysian transsexuals to various derogatory terms (namely, pondan and bapok), as these slurs are variously directed to gay men as well as transsexuals. Mak nyah is formed from the word mak, meaning 'mother', and 'nyah', meaning 'transition' (literally, 'to run from'). Though less used, the term pak nyah is sometimes used for female-to-male transsexuals, and the hybrid term mak-pak nyah for all transsexuals. These terms are sometimes also used by and for cross-dressers.

In 1983, the Malaysian Conference of Rulers ruled that sex-reassignment surgery should be forbidden to all except intersex people. Under Section 21 of the Minor Offences Act 1955, mak nyah can be charged for indecent behaviour for dressing as women. Such a charge usually results in a small fine of RM25–50. However, as the majority of mak nyah are Muslim, they can be further charged by a syariah court for offences against Islamic law, for which there is a fine of RM800–3,000. Police and religious officials can and do carry out raids in search of mak nyah and others considered guilty of 'sex crimes'.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Yik Koon, Teh (2003). The Mak Nyahs: Malaysian Male to Female Transsexuals. Singapore: Times Academic Press. ISBN 981-210-209-4. 
  • Slamah, Khartini (2005). "The Struggle to be Ourselves, Neither Men or Women: Mak Nyahs in Malaysia". In Misra, Geetanjali; Chandiramani, Radhika. Sexuality, Gender and Rights: Exploring Theory and Practice in South and Southeast Asia (New Delhi ; Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London: Sage): 98–112. ISBN 0-7619-3402-2.