Malabar Independent Syrian Church
|Malabar Independent Syrian church|
|Classification||Eastern Church, following West Syrian Orthodox faith and worship|
|Founder||Mar Cyril I|
|Separated from||Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church (archdiocese of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch)|
|Other name(s)||Thozhyur Sabah
The Malabar Independent Syrian Church, also known as the Thozhiyur Sabah (Church), is a Christian church centred in Kerala, India. It is one of the churches of the Saint Thomas Christian community, which traces its origins to the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
Considered part of the Syriac Orthodox Group of churches in India, the church split from the main body of India's Malankara Church in 1772. The church obtained its current name after a court verdict in 1862; although the church is independent under the Malankara umbrella, the church faith and traditions are strictly Oriental Orthodox, adhering to the West Syrian Rite and consistently using western Syriac and Malayalam during the Holy Qurbana (Qurbono Qadisho).
Today the church remains small, with about 35,000 members, and maintains good relations with the other Malankara churches.
The Saint Thomas Christians trace their origins to Thomas the Apostle, who according to tradition proselytized in India in the 1st century. By the 7th century they were part of the Church of the East, centred in Persia. The entire community remained united until the 17th century, when disputes with the Portuguese padroado in India led to the Coonan Cross Oath of 1653 and the division of the Saint Thomas Christians into Catholic and independent branches. The independent branch, known as the Malankara Church, forged a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch.
However, relations between the Syriac Orthodox hierarchy and the native clergy were sometimes strained. In 1772 Bishop Mar Gregorios, a representative of the Syriac Orthodox hierarchy from the Middle East, had grown dissatisfied with how the Metropolitan Mar Dionysius I had treated him. Against Dionysius' wishes, Gregorios consecrated as bishop a leading dissenter, the monk Kattumangatt Kurien, in a secret but canonically legitimate ceremony. The new bishop took the name Mar Cyril (Koorilos), and he was designated Gregorios' sole heir.
Cyril claimed authority over the parishes of Cochin, and initially received the support of the Raja of Cochin. However, Dionysus saw him as a threat to his power, and in 1774 he appealed to the Raja and to the British authorities in India to suppress the rival bishop. Cyril left for Thozhiyur, outside their jurisdiction, and established what would become an independent church. This was the first of several churches to split off from the Malankara Church.
Cyril's church was always small, but maintained stability by attracting devoted priests and emphasizing regularity in the ecclesiastical order. In 1794 Cyril consecrated his brother Geevarghese as bishop; Geevarghese succeeded Cyril as Mar Cyril II in 1802, and the succession has proceeded unbroken since. As a result of an 1862 court case, the Madras High Court confirmed the Thozhiyur church was independent Malankara church, and it has subsequently been known as the Malabar Independent Syrian Church.
The Malabar Independent Syrian Church maintains good relations with the other Malankara churches, especially the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church. Despite its small size, it has had a significant impact on the history of the Saint Thomas Christian community. On several occasions Thoziyur bishops have stepped in to consecrate bishops for the other churches when the episcopal succession (particularly the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church), and therefore the churches themselves, were in danger. Mar Philoxenos II Kidangan (1811–1829) of the Thozhiyur Church consecrated three successive bishops in the Malankara Church: Mar Dionysius II on March 22, 1816, Mar Dionysius III on October 19, 1817, and Mar Dionysius IV on August 27, 1825.
Malabar Independent Syrian Church is a member of the Christian Conference of Asia, the Council of Churches in India, and the Kerala Council of Churches. Other ecumenical links have been developed, not least with the Anglican and Lutheran Churches. This has been facilitated through a support group based in England, where the Church is a registered charitable trust.
- Mar Cyril I (Kattumangatt Kurien)– (1772–1802).
Cyril was the first Metropolitan of the church. As a boy he impressed the visiting Bishop Mar Ivanios of Jerusalem by correcting a deacon's liturgical mistake at Mulanthuruthy Church. Ivanios later ordained both Kurien and his brother Geevarghese as deacons, then priests, before returning to Jerusalem in 1751. He later became a monk under Mar Baselios and Mar Gregorios, and was a leader in the local opposition to Malankara Metropolitan Mar Dionysius I. He was consecrated as Bishop by Gregorios, fomenting the tensions with Dionysius that ultimately resulted in the formation of the independent Thozhyur church. He died on July 10, 1802.
- Mar Cyril II (Kattumangatt Geevarghese) – (1802–1807).
Known as the Younger Bava, Geevarghese was the younger brother of Mar Cyril I. He was ordained as a deacon and then priest along with his brother by Mar Ivanios. Cyril I consecrated him as bishop and named him his successor in 1794, and he succeeded his brother as Mar Cyril II in 1802. He consecrated Skaria Mar Philexenos and Joseph Mar Ivanios as suffragans. Geevarghese Mar Koorilose died on May 29, 1809, and was laid to rest at Vettical Dayara, Mulanthuruthi.
- Skaria Mar Philexenos (Cheeran) – (1807–1811)
He was consecrated by Geevarghese Mar Koorilose.
- Geevarghese Mar Philexenos II (Kidangan) (1811–1829)
He was consecrated by Skaria Mar Philexenos. During his period Mar Thoma IX was the Metropolitan of the Malankara Church, but because he was not accepted by the people and clergy, the Reverend Ittoop Kathanar from Kunnamkulam was selected to succeed him. However, there was no bishop to consecrate him, so members of the Malankara Church invited Mar Philexenos from Thozhyoor for the consecration. Even though his ancestors were driven out of the Malankara Church, without a grudge he accepted the invitation. The Reverend Ittoop Kathanar was consecrated on March 22, 1816, and was given the episcopal title Pulikottil Joseph Mar Dionysius. However, in November that same year, Joseph Mar Dionysius died. Because there were no other metropolitans in Malankara at that time, Mar Philoxenos was accepted as Malankara Metropolitan and the concerned governments issued Royal Proclamation. This proclamation was lifelong. On October 19, 1817, he consecrated Punnathara Mar Dionysious and returned to Thozhyoor, but Punnathara Mar Dionysious died on May 17, 1825. Mar Philoxenos was again invited and he consecrated Cheppad Mar Dionysios for the Malankara Church. Mar Philoxenos died on February 7, 1829.
- Geevarghese Mar Koorilose (Kuthoorey) (1829–1856).
Mar Philexenos did not appoint any successors. So Thozhyoor church invited Cheppad Mar Dionysios of the Malankara church and it was he who consecrated Geevarghese Mar Koorilose.
- Joseph Mar Koorilose (Alathoorey) (1856–1888).
Geevarghese Mar Koorilose died without appointing a successor. So Mathews Mar Athanasius, metropolitan of the Malankara Church consecrated the Reverend Joseph Kathanar and gave him the episcopal title Joseph Mar Koorilose. At that time Euyakim Mar Koorilos, a bishop sent by the Patriarch of Antioch, was also in Kerala. In 1857, he filed a civil case stating that he was the Malankara Metropolitan and he had the rights to the Thozhyoor Church and its properties. In 1862, the Madras High Court issued the final verdict stating that the Church was an Independent Syrian Church in Malabar and that Euyakim Mar Koorilos had no claim on the Church or its properties. Because of this case Thozhyoor Church was given the name Malabar Independent Syrian Church.
- Joseph Mar Athanasius. (Maliyakal) (1888–1898)
Joseph Mar Koorilose consecrated his successor, Joseph Mar Athanasius. At this time, the Malankara church was split into two, the Jacobites and the Metran faction. Thomas Mar Athanasius, appointed by Mathews Mar Athanasius, died in August 1893 without appointing a successor. So Joseph Mar Athanasius consecrated Titus I as metropolitan of the Mar Thoma Church.
- Geevarghese Mar Koorilose (Karumamkuzhi Pulikkottil) (1898–1935)
He was consecrated by Joseph Mar Athanasios. He consecrated Poulose Mar Athanasius, assisted by Thomas Mar Athanasius of the Mar Thoma Church as suffragan. Two schools were opened during his time. He also sent deacons to study at the Cambridge National Institute and at the Serampore College. He was there for the consecrations of three Metropolitnas of the Mar Thoma Church. As a priest he attended the consecration of Titus I Mar Thoma and as metropolitan, the consecrations of Titus II and Abraham Mar Thoma.
- Kuriakose Mar Koorilose (Kuthoorey) (1935–1947)
He was consecrated by Titus II Mar Thoma, assisted by Abraham Mar Thoma of the Mar Thoma Church.
- Geevarghese Mar Koorilose (Cheeran) (1948–1967)
- Paulose Mar Philexenos (Ayankulangara) (1967–1977)
- Mathews Mar Koorilose (Kuthoorey) (1978–1986)
When the previous Metropolitan Paulose Mar Philexenos, joined the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, MISC was left without a hierarchy. Mathews Mar Koorilos was consecrated by Dr. Alexander Mar Thoma, of the Mar Thoma Church to replace him.
- Joseph Mar Koorilose (Alathoorey) (27 August 1986)
He was consecrated by Dr. Alexander Mar Thoma, of the Mar Thoma Church. On 28th May 2001, the sabha council unanimously decided to consecrate the Metropolitan Joseph Mar Koorilose as the "Valiya Methrapolitha" and the constitution of Malabar Independent Syrian Church was modified accordingly. Now Metropolitan Joseph Mar Koorilos is the Valiya Methrapolitha of Malabar Independent Syrian Church.
- Cyril Mar Baselius Metropolitan.
The Sabha Mandalam (church synod) of the Malabar Independent Syrian Church held on 10 December 2000 unanimously elected Rev. Fr. K. C. Sunny as the metropolitan-elect. On 3 March 2001 he was consecrated as ramban. The Very Reverend Sunny Ramban was consecrated bishop on 10 March 2001 and named Cyril Mar Baselius. On 28 May 2001 he was installed as Metropolitan Mar Baselius. .
- St. George's Cathedral, Thozhiyur, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- St. Thomas' Church, Kunnamkulam, Guravayur Rd., Thrissur Dt.
- St. Augin's Church, Chalissery, Palakkad Dt., Kerala
- St. Adai's Church, Porkulam, Pazhanji, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- St. Mary's Church, Pazhanji, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- St. George Church, Kallumpuram, Kadavallur-Post, Thrissur Dt., Kerala
- St. Mary's church, Perummannoor, Palakkad Dt., Kerala
- St. George's Church, Karikkad, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- Mar Koorilose Church, Korattikara, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- St. George's Church, Perambur, Cooks Rd., Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
- St. George's Church, Coimbatore Tamil Nadu.
- Mar Koorilose Bava Church, Ernakulam, Kerala.
- St. George's Church, Peringod, Palakkad Dt., Kerala
- St. George's Chapel, Akathiyur, Kerala.
- Mar Bahanan Chapel, Anjoor Bazar, Kerala.
- Sleeba (Cross Memorial) Chapel, Thozhiyur, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- Mar Koorilose bava Chapel Ottapilave (Thrissur) Dt., Kerala
- St George Chapel Thiruthikkad (Thrissur) Dt.,
- St Koorilose Chapel, Bangalore, Karnataka.
- Syrian Christian U.P.S., Chalissery, Palakkad Dt., Kerala.
- St. George's H.S., Thozhiyur, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- Mar Koorilose Memorial U.P.S., Porkulam, Pazhanji, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- C.M.U.P. School, Thozhyoor, Thrissur Dt., Kerala.
- List of Orthodox Churches
- Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch
- Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church
- Indian Orthodox Church
- Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church (Mar Thoma Church)
- Baum, p. 53.
- Neill, p. 214.
- Neill, p. 319.
- "Christians of Saint Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
- Neill, p. 70.
- Vadakkekara, p. 92.
- Burgess, p. 175.
- Rev. K. C. Varghese Kassessa. (1972). History of Malabar Independent Syrian Church. (Malayam). Page 62.
- Kochumon, M.P., Parisuddha Kattumangatte Bavamar. Page 58,59.
- Varghese Kassessa, K.C. A short history of Malabar Independent Syrian church.(page 118)
- Varughese, Rev. K. C., History of the Malankar Independednt Suryani Church. Page 26.
- Mathew, N. M. History of the Marthoma Church, Volume 1. Page 196
- Kerala Govt: Gazette Part 5th, private advertisement, dated 19th February 2002
- Baum, Wilhelm; Dietmar W. Winkler (2003). The Church of the East: A Concise History. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-29770-2. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Burgess, Michael (2005). The Eastern Orthodox Churches. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2145-2.
- Neill, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-54885-3. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- Neill, Stephen (2002). A History of Christianity in India: 1707-1858, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-89332-1. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique. Media House Delhi.
- Mathew, N.M. (2007). Malankara Marthoma Sabha Charitram, (History of the Marthoma Church), Volume 1.(2006) and Volume II (2007). Pub. E.J.Institute, Thiruvalla
- Kochumon, M.P., (1995) Parisuddha Kattumangatte Bavamar. (The saintly bishops of Kattumangattu) Pub. By Most Rev.Joseph Mar Koorilose Metropolitan.
- Porkulam, A.K.C.. (2003) Parisudha Kattumangatte Bavamar Thiruvachanathiludey.(St. Kattumangattu bishops through the Bible), Trissur.
- Varughese, Rev.K.C., (1972). Malabar Swathantra Suryani Sabhyude Charitram (History of the Malankar Independednt Suryani Church)