Málaga

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Málaga
Panoramic view of Málaga from Gibralfaro
Panoramic view of Málaga from Gibralfaro
Flag of Málaga
Flag
Coat of arms of Málaga
Coat of arms
Málaga is located in Andalusia
Málaga
Málaga
Location in Andalusia
Málaga is located in Spain
Málaga
Málaga
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 36°43′10″N 4°25′12″W / 36.71944°N 4.42000°W / 36.71944; -4.42000
Country Spain Spain
Autonomous Community Andalusia Andalusia
Province Flag Málaga Province.svg Málaga
Comarca Málaga-Costa del Sol
Founded 8th century BC[1]
Government
 • Type Mayor-council
 • Body Ayuntamiento de Málaga.
 • Mayor Francisco De La Torre Prados (PP)
Area
 • City 395 km2 (153 sq mi)
 • Urban 561.71 km2 (216.88 sq mi)
Elevation 11 m (36 ft)
Population (2010)
 • City 568,507
 • Rank 6th
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,046,279
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postcode 29001-29018
Calling code +34 (Spain) 95 (Málaga)
Website www.malaga.eu

Málaga (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmalaɣa]) is a state and a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 568,507 in 2010[citation needed], it is the second most populous city of Andalusia and the sixth largest in Spain. The southernmost large city in Europe, it lies on the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) of the Mediterranean, about 100 km (62.14 mi) east of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 130 km (80.78 mi) north of Africa.

Málaga enjoys a subtropicalmediterranean climate. It has one of the warmest winters in Europe, with average temperatures of 17 °C (62.6 °F) during the day and 7–8 °C (45–46 °F) at night in the period from December through February. The summer season lasts about eight months, from April to November, although in the remaining four months temperatures sometimes reach around 20 °C (68.0 °F).

Málaga's history spans about 2,800 years, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. It was founded by the Phoenicians as Malaka about 770 BC, and from the 6th century BC was under the hegemony of Ancient Carthage. Then from 218 BC it was ruled by the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire as Malaca (Latin). After the fall of the empire it was under Islamic domination as Mālaqah (مالقة) for 800 years, but in 1487 it again came under Christian rule in the Reconquista. The archaeological remains and monuments from the Phoenician, Roman, Arabic and Christian eras make the historic center of the city an "open museum", displaying its rich history of more than 3,000 years.

This important cultural infrastructure and the rich artistic heritage have culminated in the nomination of Málaga as a candidate for the 2016 European Capital of Culture.

The internationally acclaimed painter and sculptor Pablo Picasso, Hebrew poet and Jewish philosopher Solomon Ibn Gabirol and actor Antonio Banderas were born in Málaga. The magnum opus of Cuban composer Ernesto Lecuona, "Malagueña", is named for the music of this region of Spain.

The most important business sectors in Málaga are tourism, construction and technology services, but other sectors such as transportation and logistics are beginning to expand. The Andalusia Technology Park (PTA), located in Málaga, has enjoyed significant growth since its inauguration in 1992. Málaga is the main economic and financial centre of southern Spain, home of the region's largest bank, Unicaja, and the fourth-ranking city in economic activity in Spain behind Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia.[2]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Málaga
La malagueña (1919) by Julio Romero de Torres

The Phoenicians from Tyre founded the city as Malaka about 770 BC. The name Malaḥa or mlḥ is probably derived from the Phoenician word for "salt" because fish was salted near the harbour. (Cf. "salt" in other Semitic languages, e.g. Hebrew מלח mélaḥ or Arabic ملح malaḥ).

After a period of Carthaginian rule, Malaka became part of the Roman Empire. In its Roman stage, the city (Latin name, Malaca) showed a remarkable degree of development. Transformed into a confederated city, it was under a special law, the Lex Flavia Malacitana. A Roman theatre was built at this time.[3] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was ruled first by the Visigoths and then by the Byzantine Empire (550–621).

In the 8th century, during the Muslim Arabic rule over Spain, the city became an important trade center. Málaga was first a possession of the Caliphate of Córdoba. After the fall of the Umayyad dynasty, it became the capital of a distinct kingdom ruled by the Zirids. During this time, the city was called Mālaqah (Arabic مالقة). From 1025 it was the capital of the autonomous Taifa of Málaga, until its conquest by the Emirate of Granada in 1239.

The traveller Ibn Battuta, who passed through around 1325, characterised it as "one of the largest and most beautiful towns of Andalusia [uniting] the conveniences of both sea and land, and is abundantly supplied with foodstuffs and fruits". He praised its grapes, figs, and almonds; "its ruby-coloured Murcian pomegranates have no equal in the world." Another exported product was its "excellent gilded pottery". The town's mosque was large and beautiful, with "exceptionally tall orange trees" in its courtyard.[4]

Málaga in 1572

Málaga was one of the Iberian cities where Muslim rule persisted the longest, having been part of the Emirate of Granada. While most other parts of the peninsula had already been liberated by the reconquista, the medieval Christian Spanish struggled to drive the Muslims out. Málaga was conquered by Christian forces on 18 August 1487,[5] The Muslim inhabitants resisted assaults and artillery bombardments before hunger forced them to surrender, virtually the entire population was sold into slavery or given as "gifts" to other Christian rulers,[6] five years before the fall of Granada.

On 24 August 1704 the indecisive Battle of Malaga, the largest naval battle in the War of the Spanish Succession, took place in the sea south of Málaga.

Málaga had a period of rapid development in the 19th century, becoming with Barcelona one of the two most industrialised cities of Spain. But that early industry was gradually dismantled, because the successive national governments were supporting the industrial centers in the north of the country.[citation needed]

After the coup of July 1936 the government of the Second Spanish Republic retained control of Málaga. Its harbour was a base of the Spanish Republican Navy at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. It suffered heavy bombing by Italian warships which took part in breaking the Republican navy's blockade of Nationalist-held Spanish Morocco and took part in naval bombardment of Republican-held Malaga.[7] After the Battle of Málaga and the Francoist takeover in February 1937, over seven thousand people were killed.[8] The city also suffered shelling later by Spanish Republican naval units. The well-known British journalist and writer Arthur Koestler was captured by the Nationalist forces on their entry into Málaga, which formed the material for his book Spanish Testament. The first chapters of Spanish Testament include an eye-witness account of the 1937 fall of Málaga to Francisco Franco's armies during the Spanish Civil War.

After the war, Málaga and Koestler's old haunts of Torremolinos and the rest of the Costa del Sol enjoyed the highest growth of the tourism sector in Spain.

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

The Roman theatre

Málaga is located in southern Spain, on the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) on the northern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It lies at the feet of the Montes de Málaga, about 100 kilometres (62 miles) east of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 130 kilometres (81 miles) east of Tarifa (the southernmost point of continental Europe) and about 130 km (81 miles) on north of Africa. Lies on a similar latitude (36°N) as Algiers in Algeria, Tunis in Tunisia, Antalya in Turkey, Aleppo in Syria, Mosul in Iraq, Kunduz in Afghanistan, Jinan, Shandong in China and Fresno, California and Norfolk, Virginia in the United States.

Metropolitan area[edit]

Málaga, together with the following adjacent towns and municipalities: Rincón de la Victoria, Torremolinos, Benalmádena, Fuengirola, Alhaurín de la Torre, Mijas, Marbella and San Pedro Alcántara form the urban area with a population of 1,066,532 on 827.33 square kilometres (319.43 sq mi) (density 1,289 hab / km²) – 2012 data. The urban area stretches mostly along a narrow strip of coastline. The Málaga metropolitan area includes additional municipalities located mostly in the mountains area north of the coast and also some on the coast: Cártama, Pizarra, Coín, Monda, Ojén, Alhaurín el Grande and Estepona on west; Casabermeja on north; Totalán, Algarrobo, Torrox and Vélez-Málaga eastward from Málaga.

Map of Málaga province, centered Málaga urban area (Málaga, Rincón de la Victoria, Torremolinos, Benalmádena, Fuengirola, Marbella – density >1000/km² and Mijas, Alhaurín de la Torre)

Municipalities of the metropolitan area are connected by the road network (including motorways) with the urban area and Málaga city (the urban area can be reached by car from the farthest reaches in 20 minutes and Málaga city in 45 minutes). In some usages the metropolitan area includes other municipalities to which Málaga's public transportation network extends, at least since the establishment of the Consorcio de Transporte Metropolitano del Área de Málaga (en: Consortium of Transportation of Málaga Metropolitan Area). Together about 1.3 million (max. 1.6 million[9]) people live in the Málaga metropolitan area and the number grows every year as all the municipalities and cities of the area record an annual increase in population.

Climate[edit]

The climate is Mediterranean (Köppen climate classification: Csa)[10] with very mild winters and hot summers. Málaga enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of about 300 days of sunshine and only about 50 days with precipitation annually. Its coastal location with winds blowing from the Mediterranean Sea make the heat manageable during the summer.[11]

Málaga experiences the warmest winters of any European city with a population over 500,000 and over 100,000 jointly with two other cities in Spain: Almería and Alicante. The average temperature during the day in the period December through February is 17–18 °C (63–64 °F). During the winter, the Málaga Mountains (Montes de Málaga) block out the cold weather from the north.[11] Generally, the summer season lasts about eight months, from April to November, although in the remaining four months temperatures sometimes reach around 20 °C (68 °F). Its average annual temperature is 23 °C (73 °F) during the day (one of the highest in Europe) and 13 °C (55 °F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the temperature ranges from 12 to 20 °C (54 to 68 °F) during the day, 4 to 13 °C (39 to 55 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F). In the warmest month, August, the temperature ranges from 26 to 35 °C (79 to 95 °F) during the day, above 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 23 °C (73 °F).

Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. The highest temperature ever recorded during the day at the airport is44.0 °C (111.2 °F). In the month of August 1881, the average reported daytime maximum temperature was a record 34.8 °C (94.6 °F). The coldest temperature ever recorded was −0.9 °C (30.4 °F) on the night (the same as tropical Miami) of 19 January 1891. The highest wind speed ever recorded was on 16 July 1980, measuring 119 km/h (73.94 mph). Málaga city has once recorded snow in the 20th century, on 2 February 1954.[12]

Annual average relative humidity is 65%, ranging from 58% in June to 72% in December.[13] Yearly sunshine hours is between 2,800 and 3,000 per year, from 5–6 hours of sunshine / day in December to average 11 hours of sunshine / day in July.[13][14][15] This is one of the highest results in Europe and almost double more that of cities in the northern half of Europe (for comparison: London – 1,461, Warsaw – 1,571, Paris – 1,630). According to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2007 saw 3,059 hours of sunshine.[16] Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. Málaga is one of the few cities in Europe which are "green" all year round.

Climate data for Málaga Airport, Spain (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16.8
(62.2)
17.7
(63.9)
19.6
(67.3)
21.4
(70.5)
24.3
(75.7)
28.1
(82.6)
30.5
(86.9)
30.8
(87.4)
28.2
(82.8)
24.1
(75.4)
20.1
(68.2)
17.5
(63.5)
23.3
(73.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.1
(53.8)
12.9
(55.2)
14.7
(58.5)
16.3
(61.3)
19.3
(66.7)
23.0
(73.4)
25.5
(77.9)
26.0
(78.8)
23.5
(74.3)
19.5
(67.1)
15.7
(60.3)
13.2
(55.8)
18.5
(65.3)
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.2
(46.8)
9.8
(49.6)
11.1
(52)
14.2
(57.6)
18.0
(64.4)
20.5
(68.9)
21.1
(70)
18.8
(65.8)
15.0
(59)
11.3
(52.3)
8.9
(48)
13.7
(56.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 69
(2.72)
60
(2.36)
52
(2.05)
44
(1.73)
20
(0.79)
6
(0.24)
0
(0)
6
(0.24)
20
(0.79)
57
(2.24)
101
(3.98)
100
(3.94)
534
(21.02)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 5 4 5 3 1 0 1 2 4 6 7 42
Mean monthly sunshine hours 181 180 222 244 292 329 347 316 255 215 172 160 2,905
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (UN),[17] Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[13]

Main sights[edit]

View of the old Alcazaba
The Cathedral of the Incarnation

The old historic centre of Málaga reaches the harbour to the south and is surrounded by mountains to the north, the Montes de Málaga (part of Baetic Cordillera), lying in the southern base of the Axarquía hills, and two rivers, the Guadalmedina – the historic center is located on its left bank – and the Guadalhorce, which flows west of the city into the Mediterranean.

The oldest architectural remains in the city are the walls of the Phoenician city, which are visible in the cellar of the Museo Picasso Málaga.

The Roman theatre of Málaga, which dates from the 1st century BC, was rediscovered in 1951.

The Moors left posterity the dominating presence of the Castle of Gibralfaro, which is connected to the Alcazaba, the lower fortress and royal residence. Both were built during the Taifa period (11th century) and extended during the Nasrid period (13th and 14th centuries). The Alcazaba stands on a hill within the city. Originally, it defended the city from the incursions of pirates. Later, in the 11th century, it was completely rebuilt by the Hammudid dynasty.[18] Occupying the eastern hillside that rises from the sea and overlooks the city, the Alcazaba was surrounded by palms and pine trees.

La Concepción, botanical and historical garden

Like many of the military fortifications that were constructed in Islamic Spain, the Alcazaba of Málaga featured a quadrangular plan. It was protected by an outer and inner wall, both supported by rectangular towers, between which a covered walkway led up the slope to the Gibralfaro (this was the only exchange between the two sites). Due to its rough and awkward hillside topography, corridors throughout the site provided a means of communications for administrative and defensive operations, also affording privacy to the palatial residential quarters.

The entrance of the complex featured a grand tower that led into a sophisticated double bent entrance. After passing through several gates, open yards with beautiful gardens of pine and eucalyptus trees, and the inner wall through the Puerta de Granada, one finds the 11th and 14th century Governor's palace. It was organised around a central rectangular courtyard with a triple-arched gateway and some of the rooms have been preserved to this day. An open 11th century mirador (belvedere) to the south of this area affords views of the gardens and sea below. Measuring 2.5 square metres, this small structure highlighted scalloped, five-lobed arches. To the north of this area were a waterwheel and a Cyclopean well (penetrating forty metres below ground), a hammam, workshops and the monumental Puerta de la Torre del Homenaje, the northernmost point of the inner walls. Directly beyond was the passage to the Gibralfaro above.

The Church of Santiago (Saint James) is an example of Gothic vernacular Mudéjar, the hybrid style that evolved after the Reconquista incorporating elements from both Christian and Islamic tradition. Also from the period is the Iglesia del Sagrario, which was built on the site of the old mosque immediately after the city fell to Christian troops. It boasts a richly ornamented portal in the Isabeline-Gothic style, unique in the city.

The Cathedral and the Episcopal Palace were planned with Renaissance architectural ideals but there was a shortfall of building funds and they were finished in Baroque style.

The Basílica y Real Santuario de Santa María de la Victoria, built in the late 17th century, has a chapel in which the vertical volume is filled with elaborate Baroque plasterwork.

The historic Anglican Cemetery of St. George is the oldest non-Roman Catholic Christian cemetery established on mainland Spain (in 1831).

Other sights include:

Palacio de la Aduana, Fine Arts and Archeology museum

Museums[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Málaga in winter.

The number of resident foreign nationals has risen significantly in Málaga since the 1970s, especially of British and German expatriates who move for the pleasant climate. The majority of foreigners live near the coastline.[19] An estimated 6 million tourists visit the city each year.[20]

Politics and administration[edit]

Málaga is divided in 11 municipal districts.[21]

District District Location
1 Centro 7 Carretera de Cádiz Distritos Málaga.svg
2 Este 8 Churriana
3 Ciudad Jardín 9 Campanillas
4 Bailén-Miraflores 10 Puerto de la Torre
5 Palma-Palmilla 11 Teatinos-Universidad
6 Cruz de Humilladero

Economy[edit]

Málaga harbour
Trade Fair and Congress in Málaga (Palacio de Ferias y Congresos de Málaga)

Málaga is the fourth-ranking city in economic activity in Spain behind Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia.[2]

The most important business sectors in Málaga are tourism, construction and technology services, but other sectors such as transportation and logistics are beginning to expand. The Andalusia Technology Park (PTA) (In Spanish, "Parque Tecnológico de Andalucía"), located in Málaga, has enjoyed significant growth since its inauguration in 1992 by the King of Spain. In 2010, this high-tech, science and industrial park was home to 509 companies and employed over 14,500 people.

In line with the city's strategic plan, the campaign "Málaga: Open for Business" is directed towards the international promotion of the city on all levels but fundamentally on a business level. The campaign places a special emphasis on new technologies as well as innovation and research in order to promote the city as a reference and focal point for many global business initiatives and projects.[22]

Málaga is a city of commerce and tourism has been a growing source of revenue, driven by the presence of a major airport, the improvement of communications, and new infrastructure such as the AVE and the maritime station, and new cultural facilities such as the Picasso Museum, the Contemporary Art Centre and Trade Fair and Congress, which have drawn more tourists.[23]

The city hosts the International Association of Science and Technology Parks (IASP) (Asociación Internacional de Parques Tecnológicos), and a group of IT company executives and business leaders has launched an information sector initiative, Málaga Valley e-27, which seeks to make Málaga the Silicon Valley of Europe. Málaga has had strong growth in new technology industries, mainly located in the Technological Park of Andalusia, and in the construction sector. The city is home to the largest bank in Andalusia, Unicaja, and such local companies as Mayoral, Charanga, Sando, Vera, Ubago, Isofoton, Tedial, Novasoft, Grupo Vértice and Almeida viajes, and other multinationals such as Fujitsu Spain, Pernod Ricard Spain, Accenture, Epcos, Oracle Corporation, Huawei and San Miguel.[24]

Distribution by sector industrial enterprises:[25]
Industrial sector Companies
Energy and water 24
Chemical and mining 231
Mechanical engineering industry 833
Manufacturing 1,485
Total 2,573
Industrial activity index 771
Construction-related companies 3,143

Culture[edit]

Holy week in Málaga

Annual cultural events[edit]

The Holy Week celebration, the August Málaga Fair (Feria de Málaga) and the Málaga Film Festival are the three major events held in the city.

The Holy Week of Málaga has been observed for some five centuries. Processions start on Palm Sunday and continue until Easter Sunday. Images depicting scenes from the Passion are displayed on huge ornate tronos (floats or thrones), some weighing more than 5,000 kilos and carried by more than 250 members of the fraternity of Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza. These tronos highlight the processions that go through the streets led by penitents dressed in long purple robes, often with pointed hats, followed by women in black carrying candles. Drums and trumpets play music and occasionally someone spontaneously sings a mournful saeta dedicated to the floats as they make their way slowly round the streets.

Some Holy Week tronos are so huge that they must be housed in places outside the churches, as they are taller than the entrance doors. There are also military parades of soldiers playing processional band marches or singing their anthems along the route.

During the celebration of the Feria de Málaga in August, the streets are transformed into traditional symbols of Spanish culture and history, with sweet wine, tapas, and live flamenco shows. The day events consist of dancing, live music (like Flamenco or Verdiales, traditional music from Málaga) and bullfights at La Malagueta, while the night fair is moved to the Recinto Ferial, consisting of restaurants, clubs, and an entire fair ground with rides and games.

The Málaga Film Festival (Festival de Málaga Cine Español (FMCE)) is the most important festival in the world that is dedicated exclusively to films produced in Spain. It is held annually during a week in April.

Religion[edit]

Most of the population of Málaga professes Roman Catholicism as its religion.Protestants also have a presence in Málaga: one of seven congregations of the Reformed Churches in Spain is based in the city and is the only one that permits paedocommunion, while The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is growing.

Islam is represented by a growing number of immigrants and a mosque, while the Jewish community (primarily Sephardi) is represented by its synagogue and the Jewish Association.

Sports[edit]

La Rosaleda stadium. Málaga CF vs Real Madrid C.F. in October 2010

Málaga is home to three major professional sports teams. These include:

The city has four large sports facilities:

In city and neighbourhood, you can engage in many sports, for example: surfing, windsurfing, kitesurfing, swimming, diving, skydiving, paragliding, running, cycling, rowing, tennis and golf.

La Malagueta beach

Tourism[edit]

Strachan Street in downtown

The city is an important tourist destination, known as "the capital of the Costa del Sol". Tourists usually visit the birthplace of Pablo Picasso and the Museo Picasso Málaga, the Carmen Thyssen Museum, the old town or the beaches. The Málaga harbour is also the second busiest cruise port of the Iberian Peninsula.

A popular walk leads up the hill to the Gibralfaro castle (a Parador), offering panoramic views over the city. The castle is next to the Alcazaba, the old Muslim palace, which in turn is next to the inner city of Málaga. Other nearby attractions are the Roman Theatre, the old Jewish quarter, the Cathedral, and the Church of Santiago in mudéjar style. A popular walk follows the Paseo del Parque (a promenade that runs alongside a grand park with many palm trees and statues) to the harbour, ending in Calle Larios, the main commercial street of the city. There is also a curious museum, the Museum of the Holy Week, which includes an impressive display of Baroque ecclesiastical items.

Other events[edit]

The Fiesta Mayor de Verdiales takes place every year on 28 December during which Spain's April Fool Day is celebrated.[26]

Fiestas de Carnaval event takes prior to the holy 40 days of Lent every February. People dressed in traditional costumes join the festivities, which include Flamenco dancing, and a parade. One more highlight of this festival is the stalls selling traditional pottery and artifacts.[26]

Transportation[edit]

Airport[edit]

City view from the port

The city is served by Málaga Costa Del Sol Airport, one of the first in Spain and the oldest still in operation. In 2008, it handled 12,813,472 passengers,[27] making it the fourth busiest in Spain. It is the international airport of Andalusia accounting for 85 percent of its international traffic. The airport, connected to the Costa del Sol, has a daily link with twenty cities in Spain and over a hundred cities in Europe (mainly in United Kingdom, Central Europe and the Nordic countries but also the main cities of Eastern Europe: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Budapest, Sofia, Warsaw, Riga or Bucharest), North Africa, Middle East (Riyadh, Jeddah and Kuwait) and North America (New York, Toronto and Montreal).

The airport is connected to Málaga City and surrounding areas through a transportation hub, which includes the bus system and suburban trains.[28][29] and car parks.[citation needed]

Seaport[edit]

The Port of Málaga is the city's seaport, operating continuously at least since 600 BC. The port is one of the busiest ports on the Mediterranean Sea, with a trade volume of over 428,623 TEU's and 642,529 passenger in 2008.[30]

High speed trains AVE S-112 nicknamed "Pato" ("Duck") in Málaga-Maria Zambrano Station.

High-speed train[edit]

The Málaga-María Zambrano Railway Station is served by the AVE high-speed rail system, and is operated by the Spanish formerly state-owned rail company Renfe. Málaga is on the AVE experience, a net created with Málaga next to 17 major cities of Spain with high-speed rail.

Roads and highways[edit]

The A45 road leads north to Antequera and Córdoba. The Autovía A-7 parallels the N-340 road, both leading to Cádiz to the west through the Costa del Sol Occidental and Barcelona to the east through the Costa del Sol Oriental.

Urban bus[edit]

Empresa Malagueña de Transportes[31] buses are the main form of transport around the city.[32] Málaga's bus station is connected with the city by the bus line number 4, although it is only ten minutes walk to the Alameda from there.

Metropolitan bus[edit]

Málaga Metropolitan Transport Consortium's (Consorcio de Tranpsporte Metropolitano del Área de Málaga)[33] buses are the main form of transport around the city of Málaga and the villages of the Metropolitan Area.

Mass transit[edit]

The city has two commuter train lines Cercanías and a metro system.

Notable people[edit]

Antonio Banderas and Pablo Picasso

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Málaga is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aubet, María Eugenia.The Phoenicians and the West: politics, colonies and trade. Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ a b "LaCaixa Bank economic report, 2011 (spanish)". 
  3. ^ Leucona, Emilio. «Jornadas de estudio por el 150 aniversario del hallazgo de la Lex Flavia Malacitana». Consulted on 7 April 2008.
  4. ^ "Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa". Fordham.edu. 21 February 2001. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  5. ^ de Madariaga, Salvador (1952). La vida del muy magnífico señor Don Cristóbal Colón (in Castilan) (5th ed.). Mexico: Editorial Hermes. p. 222. "Málaga, ciudad que acabara de tomar a los moros (18 de agosto)" 
  6. ^ Blood and Faith: The Purging of Muslim Spain, Matthew Carr, page 7, 2009
  7. ^ Balfour, Sebastian; Preston, Paul (2009). Spain and the great powers in the twentieth century. London, UK; New York, USA: Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-415-18078-8.
  8. ^ Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936–1939. London: Weidenfield and Nicolson. 2006, ISBN 0-297-84832-1
  9. ^ "Population by sex and age groups"Eurostat, 2012
  10. ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". 
  11. ^ a b "Málaga City – Local Travel Information and City Guide". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  12. ^ "La gran nevada de 1954". Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Málaga / Aeropuerto". 
  14. ^ "Climatological Information for Málaga, Spain"Hong Kong Observatory
  15. ^ "Málaga Climate, Temperature, Average Weather History, Rainfall/ Precipitation, Sunshine". climatetemp.info. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  16. ^ "Málaga es la tercera ciudad española con más horas de sol" – www.diariosur.es
  17. ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". Retrieved July 2014. 
  18. ^ Dialnet.es, Fanny de Carranza Sell, La alcazaba de Málaga. Historia a través de su imagen, 2011. (In Spanish)
  19. ^ "Málaga Population Information". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  20. ^ "Málaga City Information". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  21. ^ "Districts" (Ayuntamiento de Málaga ed.). Retrieved 31 December 2011. [dead link]
  22. ^ "Málaga calls on the doors of the Anglo-saxon business world". Laopiniondemalaga.es. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  23. ^ Málaga Horizonte 2012 – SOPDE
  24. ^ Empresas en el PTAParque Tecnológico de Andalucía
  25. ^ Anuario Económico de España 2008 La Caixa (Málaga) – La Caixa
  26. ^ a b "Málaga Festivals". Malaga.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  27. ^ AENA passenger and aircraft movements for 2008[dead link]
  28. ^ Málaga airport
  29. ^ "Travelling From Malaga Airport AGP". Dragon Cars. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  30. ^ Memoria 2008, Annual Report, Port of Málaga site
  31. ^ "EMT Málaga". Emtmalaga.es. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  32. ^ "More info at the spanish wiki". 
  33. ^ http://www.ctmam.es Málaga Metropolitan Transport Consortium
  34. ^ "Geminações de Cidades e Vilas". Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  35. ^ a b "FEMP – Federación Española de Municipios y Provincias". Femp.es. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 
  36. ^ "Sister Cities of Manila". © 2008–2009 City Government of Manila. Retrieved 2 September 2009. 
  37. ^ http://www.malagactiva.es/pdf/exposiciones/De_Puentes_y_Agua.pdf
  38. ^ http://www.femp.es/files/566-1112-archivo/LISTADO%20DE%20HERMANAMIENTOS%20CON%20LATINOAM%C3%89RICA.pdf
  39. ^ "El Corresponsal de Medio Oriente y Africa – Málaga recupera su pasado fenicio". Elcorresponsal.com. Retrieved 8 April 2011. 

Sources[edit]

  • The Alhambra from the Ninth Century to Yusuf I (1354). vol. 1. Saqi Books, 1997.
  • Guia Viva, Andalucia, Anaya Touring Club, April 2001.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 

External links[edit]