African hip hop

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Hip hop music has been popular in Africa since the early 1980s due to widespread American influence. In 1985 hip hop reached Senegal, a French-speaking country in West Africa. Some of the first Senegalese rappers were M.C. Lida, M.C. Solaar, and Positive Black Soul, who mixed rap with Mbalax, a type of West African pop music. An early South African group was Black Noise. They began as a graffiti and breakdance crew in Cape Town until they started emceeing in 1989.

There also have been groups in Tanzania and other countries that emceed before 1989, although it is not very well known. During the late 1980s-early 1990s rap started to escalate all over Africa. Each region had a new type of style of hip hop. Rap elements are also found in Kwaito, a new genre based on house music which developed in South Africa in the 1990s.

Algeria[edit]

Main article: Algerian hip hop

Algerian hip hop music, as a genre, includes the hip hop music of both native Algerians and Algerians abroad. Algerians living abroad have contributed much to this genre, especially in France, where they are also considered part of the French hip hop scene. Some of these Algerians have become prominent. Algeria also has a hip hop scene, which, while less well-known internationally, is among the most developed in Africa and the Arab world.

Raï is a genre of music which developed in Algeria during the 1920s as rural[1] migrants incorporated their native musical styles into the culture of the growing urban centers of western Algeria.

Angola[edit]

Angola has a lively hip hop music scene, including popular and influential crews like Conciencia da Africa, Atitude violenta and solo Mc Mutu Moxy Based in Cape Town, South Africa, and have begun to work with some South African hip hop musicians.[2] Angolan hip-hop is characterized by the influence of American hip-hop beats with a special flavor of Portuguese flow mixed with African rhythm and some Caribbean influence. SSP,Mutu Moxy,Kool Kleva,Nelboy Dastha Burda are credited for being the pioneers of the hip-hop in Angola from the late 1980s to the early 1990s.

Botswana[edit]

Botswana has never had a large popular music industry, with most of its recorded music coming from South Africa or further abroad. However, since about 1999, Botswana hip hop performers have begun to gain mainstream acceptance; the record label Phat Boy has done a lot to promote Botswana hip hop. The hip hop movement in Botswana has grown over the years as evidenced by the release over the years of albums and songs from artists such as Mr Doe, Zeus, Touch Motswak Tswak, Ignition, S.C.A.R, Awesomore.aka Gaddamit, Cashless Society, Nitro, Konkrete, HT, Flex, Dice, 3rd Mind, Kast, Nomadic, and Draztik to name a few. The release of hip hop albums is slow because of the small market and competition from other genres of mostly dance-oriented music. Since 2000 hip-hop has achieved more prominence in Botswana, with rappers like Scar Kast and Third Mind releasing relatively successful albums. In 2006, Scar released his sophomore offering, "Happy Hour". The same year Kast released "Dazzit". S.C.A.R has since won a Channel O Spirit of Africa Award 2007 for best hiphop.[3]

Cameroon[edit]

The hip hop scene of Cameroon includes pioneers like Manhitoo and Negrissim' who broke new ground in the early 1990s and stars like Koppo. Other hip hop artists from Cameroon are Les Nubians and Bams—female vocalists with a very personal approach to the genre who now reside in France. Many others hip hop artist appears with time such as Stanley Enow to continue building the industry[4]

Côte d'Ivoire[edit]

Main article: Ivorian hip hop

Ivorian hip hop became a mainstream part of the popular music of Côte d'Ivoire beginning in the late 1990s, and has been fused with many of the country's native styles, such as zouglou. Some time later, the scene gained more publicity with the rise of a publicly feuding pair of crew leaders, Stezo of the Flotte Imperiale and Almighty of the Ministère Authentik. There is a kind of gangsta rap-influenced Ivorian hip hop called rap dogba, inspired by Angelo & les Dogbas. Many Ivorian hip hop artists perform or live in France, and French hip hop has a major influence on the Ivorian scene.[5]

Democratic Republic of Congo[edit]

The capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, has long been a major home for pan-African styles of popular music like rumba, soukous and kwassa kwassa. Long-time performers on the Kinsasha scene include Profetzion (formerly of Holokaust, and the Congo Brazzaville rapper Passi. Promising new Congolese hip hop groups include Lopango yaba Nka, Apkass, Kaysha, Yolé!Africa All Stars and Ya Kid K.

Gambia[edit]

Main article: Gambian hip hop

Gambia's much larger neighbor, Senegal, is home to a thriving hip hop scene, which has exerted a strong influence on Gambian hip hop but Gambian hip-hop is now evolving its own unique style. In 1999, the Gambia Radio & Television Services gave out the first Gambian Rap Award. The first crew to win the award for best new act was Da Fugitvz, who rapped in Wolof, the national language of Senegal, and thus became popular in both countries. They also later played at Popkomm in Germany.

Ghana[edit]

Ghanaian hip hop is the origin of hip life, a combination of hip hop music and highlife.This started late 1980's early 90's with the Hip-life father Reggie Rockstone, VIP, Talking Drums and Nananom. But others did a mix of english with Twi or Ga like Heaven n' Hell, this was copied by secondary school and small area rap groups who will rap in broken english (a mix of english and other dialects). The Ghanaian music scene has also produced a number of rappers and DJs who are both locally and internationally renowned. Ghanaian rapping is mostly in the English language, but is also sometimes in Twi, Ewe, Ga or Hausa. Artistes include Reggie Rockstone, Kae Sun, Sway DeSafo, Samini, Okyeame Kwame, Bradez, Buk Bak, D-Black, Sarkodie, Tic Tac, Obrafour, 4x4, Kwaw Kese, Daniel Tudzi, VIP, Ayigbe Edem, Tinny, Castro Destroyer, Mzbel and upcoming artists including Lil Shaker, N-Dex, Yaa Pono, Kursa, Loone, and Sarkodie. Though in the recent years there has been an upsurge of true HipHop music on the Ghanaian music scene. Seeing artistes like C-Real, J-town, E.L., S.L, JaySo, and many others take on the genre with grace and finesse that at times challenges the western rappers. Also with the rise of these artistes from the undergrowth of Hip-life comes the awareness that follows. BET, Channel O and MTV Base have all had a taste of the HipHop talent from Ghana and it is without a doubt a growing industry.

At times it is often hard to differentiate between artistes from Ghana and artistes from Brooklyn NY. Their skill and lyricism are not to be underrated.

C-real hailed from the Gold-Coast as champion of the most recent Sprite Channel O Emcee Africa contest. Winning in his home town and placing second on the continental stage. His predecessor J-town boast an identical achievement as he also won the contest in Ghana and placed second on in the continental stage. Foreign artistes such as Rick Ross, Jay-Z and Busta Rhymes have graced the streets of Ghana in recent times.

Guinea[edit]

Although Guinea is not much known internationally for any variety of popular music, there is a local hip hop music scene, which has produced one crew with an international reputation, Kill Point, which has toured across West Africa. Many groups use Guinean folk rhythms and styles in their music. The Guinean Africa Rap Festival is held in Conakry.[6]

Kenya[edit]

Main article: Kenyan hip hop

Madagascar[edit]

Hip hop has rapidly grown in popularity in Madagascar in the past decade. The local name of hip hop is called "Haintso Haintso", meaning "H. H." (for hip hop). Malagasy hip hop, although largely reflective of Western genre standards, has been moving toward incorporation of more Malagasy musical tradition in its style and instrumentation.

Hip-hop spread to Madagascar in about 1985 together with breakdancing. The local rap scene (Rap Gasy) remained underground until the late nineties, although artists as early as 1994 were attracting attention with their politically provocative lyrics. The earliest performers included the MCM Boys (now known as Da Hopp) and 18,3. Mainstream success came in about 1998; popular modern performers include The Specialists, Paradisa, Oratan and many more.

On June 21, 2007, UNICEF chose a 15-year-old Malagasy rap star, Name Six as its first ever Junior Goodwill Ambassador for Eastern and Southern Africa. The young rapper's work continues the genre's tradition of social critique and political commentary, focusing largely on the challenges faced by children in underprivileged communities in Madagascar and voicing the views and concerns of the young, who are routinely omitted from political decision-making processes.[7]

Malawi[edit]

The urban music scene in Malawi is growing at a very fast rate seeing Hip Hop as the most dominant force. Hip Hop culture in Malawi is relatively young with early; notable rappers being Criminal A, Real Elements{Marvel, Q, Stix and Plan B}. Currently, Malawian Hip Hop major players are: Tay Grin, Phyzix, 3rd Eye, Young Kay and Dominant 1.

Morocco[edit]

Main article: Moroccan hip hop

Namibia[edit]

Hip hop music and culture has a big influence on the Namibian youth, with American rappers, Tupac Shakur and The Notorious B.I.G. being popular. Most of the urban Namibian youth has adopted a hip hop lifestyle, including their dress code. Early Namibian hip hop acts include a group called Dungeon Family, which was composed of the newly recreated group The Kalaharians and the popular girl duo Gal Level. Shikololo, Fidel O'del, Pablo, Dore, Kanibal, Catty Catt, Lalu, OmPuff, Zero Degrees, Walvis Bay based Desert Eagles, Swakop City MC's the Naughty Crew and Krazie-D of Otjiwarongo were also among the first hip hop performers. Popular and most successful hip hop artists include Katutura native Jericho, Snazzy, a female MC who got nominated for Kora Awards in 2005, Rizzy, A-51, a group native to Angola, and Dee Jay, who has lived most of his life between Walvis Bay and Chicago, United States. Windhoek City based Tesh, Saint, G-Ride, Krespo, Black Vulcanite and Contract Killers are some of the newer rappers. Some artists rap in their indigenous languages including, Oshiwambo, Damara-Nama. Namibia now has the talent to compete with the rest of Africa thanks to a flood of new & exciting artists, such as "Lil D", "Kid Nana", "KingRich", "Yungin", "KK", "NKN" & the like.

Niger[edit]

Main article: Nigerien hip hop

"Rap Nigerien", a style of Nigerien hip hop began to develop in the late 1990s, mostly in Niamey, and has become one of the dominant popular music forms in Niger. It is a mélange of different languages spoken in Niger. Sampled music is often mellow, and is mixed with the traditional music, although more aggressive dance styles have been mixed in, reflecting influences of French, American, and other West African hip hop styles (especially Ivorian hip hop). Young, dissatisfied Nigeriens have used the form to talk about common social problems.[8] Local recordings are mostly sold on cassette tapes and compact discs, as with most forms of contemporary West African popular music.

Hip hop groups began to appear and perform in Niamey in 1998. In August 2004, UNICEF opened its "Scene Ouverte Rap", where 45 new groups entered selections among an informal count of 300 existing groups. Shows took place at Niamey's Jean Rouch Centre Culturel Franco – Nigerien (CCFN) in August 2004. Major groups include, including Tchakey, Kaidan Gaskya, Almamy Koye & WassWong, and Goro G. Diara Z, an Ivorian hip hop artist, was also living in Niamey at the time and was influential in the Niamey rap scene. Other successful groups include Black Daps, Berey Koy, Federal Terminus Clan, Haskey Klan, Kamikaz, Rass Idris, 3STM (Sols, Tataf et Mamoud), PCV (puissance, connaissance et verité) and Metafor.[9]

Nigeria[edit]

Nigeria is sometimes called Naija.[10] Afro Hip hop in Nigeria dates back to the late eighties and early nineties. Groups and solo artists during that period include the likes of Junior & Pretty, Daniel 'Danny' Wilson, Plantashun Boiz, Remedies with members Eedris Abdulkareem, Eddy Remedy & Tony Tetuila. The late 90s and the early years of the new millennium saw an outburst of artists and groups, many returning home from the Western Diaspora, like Eldee da Don of Trybesmen, Madarocka and the S.O.U.R.C.E. Clik, Naeto C of W.F.A, and from Europe, JJC and the 419 squad; and P-Square (the duo of Peter & Paul Okoye) became a part of mainstream Nigerian music after the collapse of pop trends like Yo-pop. The availability of computers and cheap music editing software in the late 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century enabled Nigerian musicians to achieve higher quality recordings which quickly won over the Nigerian audience. Just as Nigeria's Nollywood movies have done with Western movies, Nigerian hip hop has begun to displace Western popular music.

Hip-Hop World Magazine, based in Nigeria, is a prominent publication that has helped fashion the orientation of hip-hop culture in Nigeria and across the continent. African Beatz, Blast and Bubbles magazines are other similar major Nigerian hip hop publications.

Other notable Nigerian Hip hop artists include Modenine, U.G.O., TySu, Chris Akinyemi, B-One, Terry tha Rapman, O.D, Junkies, Six-Foot Plus, M.I, Naeto C, Ruggedman, Styl-Plus, eLDee, Duncan Mighty, African Kings, Blak Jesus, Whiteboy Pee, Sauce Kid, Nefe Stone, Ikechukwu of W.F.A, Mastaplan (MP), IXXIGABARI, Kraft, Pherousheouz, Freestyle, Ill Bliss, Elajoe, Sasha, B.o.u.q.u.i, Tony Merlot, Jesse Jags, A2 BrothazZ (Afro-Asian BrothazZ).

More recently the Nigerian hip hop industry has witnessed a wave of new artists which include Weird M.C, Jazzman Olofin, Baba Dee, The Mo' Hits crew, Tannaz Records Family, C TySu, B-one, Faze, 9ice, Young Paperboyz, Blaise, Jay 'Ikwan a.k.a The Mega-Jay, Nikki Laoye[11] (one of the first Nigerian aristes featured on BET[12]) Chemistry, Lord of Ajasa, Skuki, Mr Belushi, Darey, Mojizzle, Pius (of MC²) & Chocolate City's loopy crew which includes 2009 Hennessy Artistry winner Ice Prince & Jesse Jagz and Soundcity's Best Hiphop video winner Str8Buttah.[13]

The Nigerian Hip Hop Music is majorly influenced by its American counterpart. This is mainly because the nation can be said to be the highest American-hip-hop consuming nation after the Americans themselves.

Some American Hip hop artists have included and have been influenced by Nigerian music. For example on an episode of the radio show “The Let Out,” there was a “Nigerian Gangsta Remix” of the Jay-Z song “Roc Boyz” which features Fela Kuti, one of the most influential Nigerian musicians of all time.[14]

Contributors to Nigerian Hip hop include the producer Cobhams Asuquo.

Rwanda[edit]

Hip hop spread to Rwanda, in the early to mid-1980s. The most prominent figure in the early Rwandan scene was DJ Berry (Nsabimana Abdul Aziz), who was a DJ for Kigali Night and Cosmos and a presenter for Radio Rwanda, in addition to being an early rapper and breakdancer. The Hutu government of the period did not approve of hip hop, however, and DJ Berry was forced into exile in Goma, Zaire, where he continued performing. He later moved on to Germany and recorded "Hey You", which became a hit on both Rwandan and Ugandan radio. After returning to Africa in 1990, Berry continued to promote hip hop in Rwanda until his death from AIDS in 1996. By the mid-1990s, hip hop was growing increasingly popular in Rwanda, due to the introduction of 101 FM Kigali and TVR in 1995, and American and French rappers like Tupac Shakur and MC Solaar became popular.

The first locally recorded Rwandan hip hop hit was "Peaced Up" by KP Robinson ft Mc Monday Assoumani. This was promoted by DJ Alex of Radio Rwanda from 1997. The song inspired many youths around Kigali to begin recording.[citation needed] The famous Rapper Mc Monday Assoumani,after his tune with Robisons he started his radio presenting career at local FM know as Radio10, where he promoted Rwandan local artists since 2004 Up to 2011. From 2012 he is no longer using Mc Monday name, he is now rebranded as SAGA Assou Gashumba. with a willing of helping Rwandan music industry he started a record label named IYI Production which also rebranded and became C4D production. HIPHOP is growing up in this country and recently SAGA Assou released a song titled "I want you back" the killer song is a mixture of English and Kinyarwanda.

Senegal[edit]

Main article: Senegalese hip hop
Daara J live in Berlin

Senegal has one of the most active hip hop scenes on the continent, and has produced international stars like MC Solaar. US hip hop became popular in Senegal in the early 1980s, and a few MCs began rapping. During this period, many Senegalese rappers were copying American performers quite closely. One often-cited reason for the prominence of Senegalese hip hop is the ancient musical and oral traditions of that country, which include some practices, like griots and tassou, which are similar to rapping.

It was not until later in the decade that a more distinctive Senegalese sound began evolving, along with the use of Wolof lyrics. The 1990s saw a division in the Senegalese scene, with some artists remaining underground, associated with the American alternative hip hop scene, while others, like Black Mboolo ("Alal"), fused hip hop with Senegalese mbalax style, (this is called mbalax rap or rap ragga soul), which uses the sabar drums. The most prominent performers from the modern period include Positive Black Soul, Daara J, and Akon. Others include M.C. Solaar, Black Face, and Didier Awadi.

Sierra Leone[edit]

Sierra Leone Rap music was originated by a Sierra Leone–based rappa; YOK SEVEN in the late 1990s. By then this kind of music was not even 30% appreciated in the country until a rappa by the name of KAO DENERO came and spread it nation wide. Hip hop music in Sierra Leone is now the most played music in Sierra Leone with its proliferate growth rate in the number of rappaz. The hottest emcees in the game are: KAO DENERO, BOSS LAJ, SHADOW BOXXER SUFFIRIORand SUPA LAJ.

Somalia[edit]

Main article: Somali hip hop

One of the most internationally renowned Somali rappers is Canada-based K'naan (real name Kanaan Warsame). The award-winning artist is a rapper and a poet with three albums The Dusty Foot Philosopher (on BMG Music), The Dusty Foot on the Road (on Wrasse Records) and Troubadour (on A&M/OctoScope Music)

South Africa[edit]

Although the history of hip hop in Cape Town can be tracked back to the early 1980s, cultural exchange between the Black United States, the West Indies, and Black South Africa was widespread since the 19th century. Black South African artists were influenced by minstrelsy and swing to bebop and beyond, which was partly in response to British imperialism.[15][16] The political history of Africa plays a predominant role in South African music. In the late 19th century gold was discovered in Johannesburg, and people from different tribes began to migrate to the Johannesburg area. As a result of the rich diversity of various South African tribes, traditional music of South Africa mixed with European music led to the development of a different sound. The musical and social movement of hip hop in South Africa has grown exponentially in the last two decades, most notoriously in the form of home-grown Kwaito, which is actually a distinct musical genre in itself.

Much of hip hop and Kwaito in South Africa is derived from western beats and tunes mixed with localized rhythms and accents.

Lyrically, South African hip hop is largely reliant on the political landscape from which the country has only recently emerged. If the explicit mention of Apartheid is not offered, lyrics will often revolve around the residue of the political system; such as the prevalence of HIV and AIDS, violence in the major cities, and what it means to be South African.

On the other hand, Kwaito has been seen as more devoted to "positive imagery", taking listeners away from the harsher realities of township life, where it originated. Currently, South African hip hop is beginning to diverge and acquire its own musical style. As individual provinces are developing their own styles of hip hop.

As much as hip hop has grown in South Africa it is still in its infancy in terms of recognition and artists rarely sell well. Differences in styles and approaches to the art have led to the South African market being split into sectors, for example: Cape Town has long been termed South African hip hops birthground with its more politically charged and socially conscious artists.

Tracing its origins in South Africa, the youth embraced hip hop and its culture from the United States including its break dancing and graffiti aspects.[17] These styles of expression were the predecessors to involvement in the music, due to the high cost and difficulty in finding music. Economic and political sanctions made finding American music extremely difficult. U.S. hip hop albums were seldom imported, but rather sent by relatives outside the country.[18] The audience was not totally approving however. Many were not happy with the links US hip hop had to the "structures that were largely responsible for the devastating conditions in the Third World countries."[15] The young people took hip hop and its anger, passion, and style in order to express themselves. They localized the music to express culture, frustration, and hope in order to tell their own stories.[17] The older population used that anger and passion to pass messages against the occurring apartheid, and also to connect with the youth. The music was perfect for the time because it was able to take the language of the underprivileged, parade it, and make it attractive to the point where people took pride in their "style" of music.[15]

Some South African hip hop artists include;Tuks Senganga, Pelé Rap's Revolutionary, Die Antwoord, Ben Sharpa, Prophets of Da City, Zola, Pro Kid, Trusenz, Proverb, Kwesta, Reason,(Thobeka Shangase) and producers PH, Draztik, Ivy League, Christian Tiger School, Tumi Molekane and The Militia.

Tanzania[edit]

Main article: Tanzanian hip hop

Togo[edit]

Main article: Togolese hip hop

Uganda[edit]

Uganda’s hip hop scene began in the early to mid-1990s, especially among university students at Makerere University and elsewhere. The Bataka Squad, formed in the early 1990s are the originators of the Lugaflow style, using the native Luganda language. Other formative groups on the Ugandan hip hop scene in the early 90s include Young Vibrations, MC Afrik, DJ Berry, Sylvester and Abramz and Kaddo. Club Pulsations in Kampala was a hotspot for Ugandan hip hop in the 90s. In recent years groups such as Klear Kut, Milestone, Chain Thought Reaction and many more have emerged. In 2002 Klear Kut were nominated for the Kora All Africa Music Awards in the “Most Promising African Group” and “Revelation of the Year” categories.

In 2003 Geoffrey Ekongot, Saba Saba aka Krazy Native, of the Bataka Squad, Francis Agaba, the late Paul Mwandha of Musicuganda.com, and Xenson formed the Uganda Hip Hop Foundation. In 2003, the Foundation hosted the first Ugandan Hip Hop Summit and concert at Club Sabrina's in Kampala. It was so successful that they have hosted it every year for the past four years. In 2005 the [www.bavubukaallstarz.com Bavubuka All Starz] was formed under the leadership of Silas aka Babaluku of the Bataka Squad, with the mission of bringing hip hop music and community together to address social causes. Keko is currently one of the most promising and talented rappers in Uganda. Of late Uganda has produced globally recognized MCs like Bana Mutibwa, whose commonly known as Burney MC. In 2013 he represented Uganda at the biggest Hip Hop festival in Europe (Hip Hop Kemp).

Zambia[edit]

Hip Hop in Zambia has its roots in the late 80s and early 90s; many young people were influenced by American Hip Hop mostly shown on imported programs by the local broadcaster; Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation. Early rappers and crews include Blaaze, Cypha crew, Blaze Makumba Mulenga, Riz, Ryan Tembo, Ice-Ache-Lips, Crisis, Ice Da Underground, Chilu Lemba and Allan Mvula also known as MC Suicide.

Daddy Zemus[19] was one of the first artists who fused Ragga and Hip Hop and is widely revered as the first artist to proudly use local languages to present his craft in this art form.

2001 saw the release of the first commercial Hip Hop album released in Zambia by Nemo tiled "My World". In 2005 C.R.I.$.I.$ Mr Swagger[20] released what is considered the biggest debut release by a Hip Hop artist in Zambia titled "Officer in Charge". Other notable artists to come up over the years are Black Muntu, The Holstar, Conscious, Takondwa, Pitch Black, Diamond Chain, 5ive 4our, Zone Fam,[21] Krytic, Slap Dee, Macky II and Urban Chaos[22]

In 2007 The Hip Hop Foundation of Zambia was formed, as a registered arts and culture organization. The organization was formed and registered under the Zambia Association of Musicians as a group member. ZAM is registered under the Zambian National Arts Council. The organization was established to provide a platform for hip hop music and culture for its various stakeholders in Zambia, as well as spearhead the development of the industry and address issues of social development and specifically those affecting young people through the use of hip hop. The Hip Hop Foundation has six main areas that it intends to implement in which are Events, Corporate Sponsorship, Artist and Content Development and Distribution, Outreach and Awareness, Strategic Partnership and Organizational Development. This organization is currently not active.

DJs have been instrumental in helping Zambian Hip Hop reach the status of most popular genre in the Country. One such DJ is Drex who hosted "Hip Hop To Rock Your Block" on Hone Fm for five years straight (2004 - 2009). At one point Drex was the only DJ hosting a 100% Local Hip Hop show. Other notable DJs are DJ Scratch who hosted "Urban Central" on Radio Phoenix and Daniel Mumba who still hosts Hip Hop Express on Joy Fm Zambia.

Slap D and Macky 2 are widely considered the most popular vernacular Hip Hop artists in Zambia, with younger artists such as Chef 187 and Stevo also gaining popularity. Zone Fam formed in 2007 has received accolades abroad and are Zambian Hip Hop's Best Export. Zone Fam gained popularity in 2011 when they released their debut album single Shaka Zulu On Em which went on to receive rave reviews worldwide. In November 2013 Contolola which is Zone Fam's first single from their yet to be named second album gained the number one position on the Afribizcharts.[23] Afribizcharts are considered the African version of the billboard charts.

Zimbabwe[edit]

Main article: Zimbabwean hip hop

Notable Zimbabwean Hip hop artists are Deetrionomics, Blaklizt Entertainment, Ammunition Girls, Tags, Mizchif, Maskiri, 25toLyf, Kudakwashe Munyaradzi, Jusa Dementor Karizma

References[edit]

  1. ^ Qantara.de - Algerian Hip Hop - Rap Rebellion - Loud and Proud
  2. ^ Africanhiphop.com :: African Rap :: 10 years online
  3. ^ Mnet - Where Magic Lives
  4. ^ "Stanley Enow". 
  5. ^ africanhiphop.com: Ivorian Hip Hop: 2002.
    It's killing Ivorian Hip Hop! Interview with leading Ivorian Hip Hop stars, unitednationsofhiphop.com, 9 February 2006
    The Hip Hop Generation: Ghana's Hip Life and Ivory Coast's Coupé-Decalé. Siddhartha Mitter, Afropop Worldwide.
  6. ^ AfricanFilms.com | African Films | Harry Potter Movie Posters | Scarface Poster | Film Scanners
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ VERNISSAGE DU 2E ALBUM DU GROUPE WASS-WONG. T-NIBON-C : un album très engagé. Mahamadou Diallo "Le Républicain Niger": 4 July 2007.
  9. ^ Detailed Fofo Magazine - Culture et musique du Niger: popular culture magazine, produced by the "Association culturelle de promotion de la culture nigérienne", focused since the 1990s on Hip hop.
    Nigerime.com: Portail du Hip-Hop Nigerien.
    Niger - Spéciale Hip Hop. Radio France International, 1 June 2006.
    Historique du Hip Hop Nigerien, Nigerap 12-04-2004.
  10. ^ Maduabuchi Agbo (1 February 2009). "Language Alternation Strategies in Nigerian Hip Hop and Rap Texts". Language in India. p. 35. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  11. ^ PM Newspaper, Nikki Laoye Addresses One Mic Naija. "News". PM Newspaper. 
  12. ^ Sound City, New Music from Nikki Laoye. "News". 
  13. ^ "Winners of the SoundCity Music Video Awards ‘09". Retrieved 16 January 2010. 
  14. ^ "Audio: East Village Radio 2/29". The Fader. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  15. ^ a b c Ariefdien, Shaheen and Nazli Abrahams. “Cape Flats Academy: Hip-Hop Arts in South Africa.” In Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop, ed. Jeff Chang, 262-70. New York: BasicCivitas / Perseus Books, 2006.
  16. ^ Global Envision - South Africa - Hip Hop Revolution
  17. ^ a b Clark, Msia Kibona. "South Africa: Hip Hop Revolution". June 27, 2007.
  18. ^ Ariefdien, Shaheen and Nazli Abrahams. “Cape Flats Alchemy: Hip-Hop Arts in South Africa.” In Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop, ed. Jeff Chang, 262-70. New York: BasicCivitas / Perseus Books, 2006.
  19. ^ Daddy Zemus
  20. ^ Crisis aka Mr Swagger Biography
  21. ^ About Zone Fam
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ Contolola Number One in Africa

Recordings[edit]

  • Bongo Flava. Swahili Rap from Tanzania (2004) compilation out here records.
  • Lagos Stori plenti - urban sounds from Nigeria (2006) compilation out here records.
  • African Rebel Music - Roots Reggae & Dancehall (2006) compilation out here records.
  • Urban Africa Club - Hiphop, Kwaito and Dancehall (2007) compilation out here records.

External links[edit]

General[edit]

Articles[edit]

Burkina Faso[edit]

Cameroon[edit]

African hip hop is amazing

Ghana[edit]

Guinea[edit]

Ivory Coast[edit]

Madagascar[edit]

Namibian[edit]

Niger[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Senegal[edit]

Tanzania[edit]

Uganda[edit]

Zambia[edit]