|The Malay Annals|
Sejarah Melayu (Jawi: سجاره ملايو) or Malay Annals is a Malay literary work which covers a period of over 600 years that chronicles the, then and now, Genealogies of Rulers in the Malay Archipelago. This work was believed to have been commissioned in 1612 by the Junior King or Regent of Johor, The Yang di-Pertuan Di Hilir Raja Abdullah (Raja Bongsu), later, by the office title, HRH Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Syah ibni Sultan Abdul Jalil Syah). In 1613, the Johor capital of Batu Sawar was destroyed by Achehnese invaders and Raja Abdullah and his entire court was captured and exiled to Aceh.
Sultan Abdullah envoyed Seri Nara Wangsa Tun Bambang (Tun Bambang) to consult Bendahara Paduka Raja Tun Muhammad Mahmud (also known by the name, Tun Sri Lanang) on Thursday, 12 Rabi'ul Awal 1021, corresponds to 13 May 1612 to edit The Naskhah of Sejarah Melayu, accompanied by the Orang Kaya Sogoh from Gowa.
The original version of Sejarah Melayu was written during the reign of Malacca Sultanate in Malacca. It was brought together when HRH Sultan Mahmud Shah fled from Malacca in 1511 AD. During 1528 AD, the original naskhah (copy) were brought to Johor from Kampar. The Portuguese seized The Naskhah Sejarah Melayu in 1536 AD while attacking the Old Johor (Johor Lama). The naskhah, later on were returned to Johor by Orang Kaya Sogoh.
The subjects covered in the work included the founding of the Kingdom of Malacca and its relationship with neighbouring kingdoms, the advent and spread of Islam in the region, the history of the Royalty in the region as well as the administrative hierarchy of the Malacca kingdom and its successor states. During the Johor Sultanate political turning point from 1612, the Sultans convened for a political legitimacy. With providence from genealogy and historical dating, their Royal Highnesses, the Sultans took liberties for better political reasons.
The Malay Annals was listed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme International Register in 2001.
Tracing the lineage
The Sejarah Melayu recounts that a Srivijayan' Prince ruled Palembang with the title of Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara Batara Sri Tri Buana (also known as Sang Nila Utama). HRH Sang Nila Utama sets and defined the legal relationship that should exist between a Malay ruler and his subjects.
Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara Batara Sri Tri Buana was later adopted as a son of the female ruler of Bentan, Wan Sri Benian. During his sojourn on Bentan, he explored neighbouring Temasek Island (modern Singapore) in search of a site to build a fortified town or city. His descendants became Rulers or Kings of Temasek. The last King of Temasek was Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara. He lost Temasek to Majapahit after sentencing his bed-mate by taking off her jewellery garment, in public. Her father, Sang Rajuna Tapa, was one of Temasek's ministers, acted upon his family's holdings, turn sides and opened the way for a successful Majapahit invasion which ousted Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara. Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara fled north and later founded Malacca and introduced court ceremonies, laws and regulations which became the basis of Malacca administration.
Iskandar Dzulkarnain and common misconceptions
||This article possibly contains original research. (October 2008)|
Muslims believed that Iskandar Dzulkarnain was the great conqueror of Asia Minor as mentioned in the Al Qur'an; cites the ruler Dzulkarnain (verse 18:83). Iskandar Dzulkarnian has been identified with Alexander the Great or Cyrus the Great.
Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat and Hang Kasturi
According to Hikayat Hang Tuah, Hang Tuah confronted and killed Hang Jebat. Sejarah Melayu on the other hand writes that Hang Kasturi was killed by Hang Tuah instead of Hang Jebat. However, a revised edition of the Sejarah Melayu by A Samad Ahmad mentions that Tuah fought against Jebat, not Kasturi.
According to the Malay Annals, there was a time when the villages along the coast of Singapore suffered vicious attacks from a school of swordfish. On the advice of a particularly astute boy named Hang Nadim, the ruler of Singapore built a barricade made of banana stems along the coast, which successfully trapped the attacking fish by their snouts as they leap from the waters. In the revised edition of the Sejarah Melayu by A Samad Ahmad, the boy was not named.
Portuguese Conquest of Malacca
According to the Malay Annals, the Portuguese army, led by Afonso de Albuquerque, launched a second assault on Malacca (during the reign of Sultan Ahmad Shah), the first being repulsed by the late Bendahara Tun Mutahir. The assault on the city was great on the first day, and on the second, Malacca fell to the Portuguese. However, according to Portuguese records, Albuquerque's assault on Malacca started on July 25, 1511, (on St. James Day), and the battle lasted for 15 days before the city was captured on August 15. Also, Portuguese records, especially the ones written by Albuquerque's son, mentioned that the Malaccan Commander-In-Chief, Sultan Ahmad Shah, fell on the field of battle. However, in the Malay Annals, he survived the battle, and retreated to a safer place, only to be put to death by his own father.
- Gangga Negara, ancient Malay kingdom that is mentioned in the literature.
- Kota Gelanggi
- Richard O. Winstedt
- Explanatory Note by Dr Cheah Boon Kheng, Editor of the Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (JMBRAS)in the MBRAS Reprint 18 of The Malay Annals based on the oldest Sejarah Melayu manuscript in existence(MS Raffles No. 18)
- Hunt, Robert. 2002. International Bulletin of Missionary Research, Vol. 26.1: 31.
- The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Languages & Literature, edited by Prof. Dato' Dr Asmah Haji Omar (2004) ISBN 981-3018-52-6
- Malay Annals (PDF) translated by John Leyden from the National Library Board Singapore
- Sejarah Melayu Informational Website
- UNESCO Page on the Malay Annals
- The Malay Concordance Project, Taj al-Salatin (ed. Roorda)
- Sejarah Melayu Reloaded, a modern reading of the text by Malaysian writer Amir Muhammad (2010)