Malayalam literature

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Malayalam literature (മലയാള സാഹിത്യം) comprises those literary texts written in Malayalam, a South-Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala.

The earliest known extant literary work in Malayalam is Ramacharitam, an epic poem written in the late 13th or early 13th century. In the subsequent centuries, besides a popular pattu ("song") literature, the manipravalam poetry also flourished. Manipravalam (translates "ruby coral") style mainly consisted of erotic poetry in an admixture of Malayalam and Sanskrit.[1] Then came works such as champus and sandeshakavyas in which prose and poetry were interspersed. Later, poets like Cherusseri introduced poems on devotional themes. Ezhuthachan, a strong proponent of Bhakti movement, is known as the father of Malayalam. His poems are classified under the genre of kilippattu.[2]

Modern literary movements in Malayalam literature began in the late 19th century with the rise of the famous Modern Triumvirate consisting of Kumaran Asan,[3] Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer[4] and Vallathol Narayana Menon.[5] Kumaran Asan was temperamentally a pessimist—a disposition reinforced by his metaphysics—yet all his life was active in promoting his downtrodden Hindu-Ezhava community. Ullor wrote in the classical tradition, on the basis of which he appealed for universal love, while Vallathol responded to the human significance of social progress. Contemporary Malayalam poetry records the encounter with problems of social, political, and economic life. The tendency of the modern poetry is often regarded as toward political radicalism.[6]

Early literature[edit]

For the first 600 years of the Malayalam calendar, Malayalam literature remained in a preliminary stage. During this time, Malayalam literature consisted mainly of various genres of songs. The most prominent among these were songs praising the goddesses of the land, ballads of brave warriors, songs related to the work of a particular caste and songs intended just for entertainment. Bhadrakali pattu, thottam pattu, mavaratham pattu, sasthanga pattu, nizhalkoothu pattu, sarpa pattu, sastham pattu, thiyyattu pattu, pulluvar pattu, mannar pattu, panar pattu, krishi pattu, thamburan pattu, pada pattu, villadichan pattu, onappattu, kummi and lullaby were some of the major sub-genres. These names were not used historically, but are used in modern times to describe the song genres of that time.

Ramacharitham[edit]

Ramacharitham is a collection of poems written at the end of the preliminary stage in Malayalam literature's evolution. It is the oldest Malayalam book available. The collection has 1,814 poems in it. Ramacharitham mainly consists of stories from the Yuddha Kanda the of Ramayana. It was written by a poet with the pen name Cheeramakavi who, according to poet Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer, was Sree Veerarama Varman, a king of Travancore from AD 1195 to 1208.[7] Other experts, like Dr. K.M. George and P.V. Krishnan Nair, claim that the origins of the book can be found in north Kerala. They cite the use of certain words in the book and also the fact that the manuscript of the book was recovered from Neeleshwaram in north Kerala.[8] Some experts consider it a Tamil literary piece. A. R. Rajaraja Varma, who heavily contributed to the development of Malayalam grammar, is of the opinion that Malayalam originated from ancient Tamil. Ramacharitham is considered a book written during the formative years of Malayalam. According to Rev. Dr. Hermann Gundert, who compiled the first dictionary of the Malayalam language, Ramacharitham shows the ancient style of the Malayalam language.[9]

Early prose literature[edit]

List of early prose literature in 19th century.[10]

Allegories[edit]

Title Author Year Make Other notes
Sanchariyude Prayanam
(സഞ്ചാരിയുടെ പ്രയാണം - Sañcāriyuṭe Pṟayāṇaṁ)
Rev. C. Muller
Rev. P. Chandran
1846 Translation
Paradeshi Mokshayathra
(പരദേശി മോക്ഷയാത്ര - Paradēśi Mōkṣayātṟa)
Rev. K. Koshy
Rev. Joseph Peet
1844 Translation
Thirupporattam
(തിരുപ്പോരാട്ടം - Tiruppōrāṭṭaṁ)
Archdeacon. K. Koshy 1868 Translation

Plays[edit]

Title Author Year Make Other notes
Bashashankunthalam
(ഭാഷാശാകുന്തളം - Bhaṣāśākuntaḷaṁ)
Ayilyam Thirunal Rama Varma 1850-1860 Translation
Almarattam
(ആൾമാറാട്ടം - Āḷmāṟāṭṭaṁ)
Kalloor Umman Philipose 1866 Translation
Kamakshee Charitham
(കാമാക്ഷീചരിതം - Kāmākṣīcaritaṁ)
K. Chidambara Wadhyar 1880-1885 Translation
Varshakala Katha
(വൎഷകാലകഥ - Varṣakāla Katha)
K. Chidambara Wadhyar 1880-1885 Translation

Stories[edit]

Title Author Year Make Other notes
Oru Kuttiyude Maranam
(ഒരു കുട്ടിയുടെ മരണം - Oru Kuṭṭiyuṭe Maraṇaṁ)
<Anonymous Writer> 1847 Original
Vishathinu Marunnu
(വിഷത്തിന് മരുന്ന് - Viṣattinŭ Marunnŭ)
<Anonymous Writer> 1848 Original
Anayum Thunnanum
(ആനയും തുന്നനും - Āṉayuṁ Tunnaṉuṁ)
<Anonymous Writer> 1849 Original
Meenakethanan or Meenakethana Charitham
(മീനകേതനൻ or മീനകേതനചരിതം - Mīṉakētaṉan or Mīṉakētaṉacaritaṁ )
Ayilyam Thirunal Rama Varma 1850-1860 Inspiration
Jathibetham
(ജാതിഭേദം - Jātibēdaṁ)
Archdeacon. K. Koshy 1860 Original
Aayalkarane Konnavante Katha
(അയൽക്കാരനെ കൊന്നവന്റെ കഥ - Ayalkārane Konnavanṯe Katha)
<Anonymous Writer> 1873 Original
Kallan
(കല്ലൻ - Kallan)
<Anonymous Writer> 1881 Adaptation
Pullelikunchu
(പുല്ലേലിക്കുഞ്ചു - Pullēlikkuñcu)
Archdeacon. K. Koshy 1882 Original
Vasanavikrithi
(വാസനാവികൃതി - Vāsanāvikr̥ti)
Vengayil Kunjiraman Nayanar 1891 Original

Novels[edit]

Title Author Year Make Other notes
Fulmoni Ennum Koruna Ennum Peraya Randu Sthreekalude Katha
(ഫുൽമോനി എന്നും കോരുണ എന്നും പേരായ രണ്ടു സ്ത്രീകളുടെ കഥ - Phulmōni ennuṁ kōruṇa ennuṁ pērāya ranṭu strīkaḷuṭe katha)
Rev. Joseph Peet 1858 Translation
Ghathakawadham
(ഘാതകവധം - Ghātakavadhaṁ)
Rev. Richard Collins[11] 1877 Translation
Pathminiyum Karunayum
(പത്മിനിയും കരുണയും - Patmiṉiyuṁ karuṇayuṁ)
<Anonymous Writer> 1884 Translation
Kundalatha
(കുന്ദലത - Kundalata)
Appu Nedungadi 1887 Original
Indulekha
(ഇന്ദുലേഖ - Indulēkha)
O. Chandumenon 1889 Original
Indumathee Swayamvaram
(ഇന്ദുമതീസ്വയംവരം - Indumatīsvayaṁvaraṁ)
Padinjare Kovilakathu Ammaman Raja 1890 Original
Meenakshi
(മീനാക്ഷി - Mīṉākṣi)
C. Chathu Nair 1890 Original
Marthandavarma
(മാർ‍ത്താണ്ഡവർ‍മ്മ - Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma)
C. V. Raman Pillai 1891 Original
Saraswatheevijayam
(സരസ്വതീവിജയം - Sarasvatīvijayaṁ)
Potheri Kunjanbu 1892 Original
Parishkarapathi
(പരിഷ്ക്കാരപ്പാതി - Pariṣkārappāti)
Kochuthomman Appothikari 1892 Original
Parangodee Parinayam
(പറങ്ങോടീപരിണയം - Paṟaṅṅōṭīpariṇayaṁ)
Kizhakepattu Raman Menon 1892 Original
Sarada
(ശാരദ - Śārada)
O. Chandumenon 1892 Original
Lakshmeekeshavam
(ലക്ഷ്മീകേശവം - Lakṣmīkēśavaṁ)
Komattil Padu Menon 1892 Original
Naluperiloruthan
(നാലുപേരിലൊരുത്തൻ - Nālupēriloruttan)
C. Anthapayi 1893 Original
Chandrahasan
(ചന്ദ്രഹാസൻ - Candrahāsan)
P. Krishnan Menon
T. K. Krishnan Menon
C. Govindan Eledam
1893 Translation
Akbar
(അക്ബർ - Akbaṟ)
Kerala Varma Valiya Koi Thampuran 1894 Translation
Kalyani
(കല്യാണി - Kalyāṇi)
<Anonymous Writer> 1896 Original
Sukumari
(സുകുമാരി - Sukumāri)
Joseph Mooliyil 1897 Original
Saguna
(സഗുണ - Saguṇa)
Joseph Mooliyil 1898-1899 Translation
Kamala
(കമല - Kamala)
C. Krishnan Nair 1899 Translation

Apologues[edit]

Title Author Year Make Other notes
Rasselas
(റാസലസ് - Ṟāsalas)
Pilo Paul[12] 1895 Translation
Nandipa Deepika
(നന്ദിപദീപിക - Nandipadīpika)
Kunji Kelu Nair 1895 Translation
Rasalelika
(രസലേലിക - Rasalēlika)
Thatha Kanaran 1898 Translation

Malayalam novel[edit]

Main article: Malayalam novel

Notable Malayalam writers[edit]

The field of Malayalam writers include the following people, from various disciplines and periods.

Art criticism[edit]

Poetry[edit]

Modern Romantics[edit]

Other modern poets[edit]

G. Shankara Kurup (1900–1978)
Vyloppilli Sreedhara Menon (1911–1985)
Edasseri Govindan Nair
N. V. Krishna Warrier
Thirunalloor Karunakaran
Vayalar Ramavarma
O. N. V. Kurup
Punaloor Balan
Akkitham
Olappamanna Subramanian Namboothirippad
Sugathakumari
M. Govindan
K. Ayyappa Panicker
Kadammanitta Ramakrishnan
Attoor Ravi Varma
Satchidanandan
Lalitha Lenin
Vishnunarayanan Namboothiri
D. Vinayachandran
Kureepuzha Sreekumar
Balachandran Chullikkadu
A. Ayyappan
Nellikkal Muraleedharan
V Madhusoodanan Nair
Attoor Ravi Varma
Chandiroor Divakaran

Post-modern poets[edit]

Fiction[edit]

Nineteenth century[edit]

Modern[edit]

Post-modern fiction[edit]

Children's literature[edit]

Sumangala
Nandanar a.k.a P C Gopalan
Shebaly
Sippy Pallippuram

Essayists[edit]

Literary criticism[edit]

Joseph Mundasseri (1901–1977)
Kesari Balakrishna Pillai (1889–1960)
Kuttikrishna Marar (1900–1973)
M. P. Paul (1904–1952)
K.Damodaran (1912–1976)
S. Guptan Nair (1919–2006)
M. Krishnan Nair
M. N. Vijayan (1930–2007)
K. M. Daniel (1920–1988)
Sukumar Azhikode (1926–2012)
M. K. Sanu
K. P. Appan (1936–2008)
Narendra Prasad (1946–2003)
M. Leelavathy
V. C. Sreejan
S. Rajasekharan

Film criticism[edit]

Translation[edit]

Others[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/317732/kilippattu
  3. ^ http://www.poemhunter.com/kumaran-asan/
  4. ^ http://www.poemhunter.com/ulloor-s-parameswara-iyer/
  5. ^ http://www.poemhunter.com/vallathol-narayana-menon/
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ S. Parameshwara Aiyer, Ulloor (1990), Kerala Sahithya Chrithram (History of literature of Kerala), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala: University of Kerala 
  8. ^ Leelavathi, Dr. M., Malayala Kavitha Sahithya Chrithram (History of Malayalam poetry) 
  9. ^ Gundert, Rev. Dr. Hermann (1865), Malayalabhasha Vyakaranam (Grammar of Malayalam language 
  10. ^ Irumbayam, Dr. George (January 1997) [1984]. Jacob, Jolly, ed. മലയാള നോവൽ പത്തൊമ്പതാം നൂറ്റാണ്ടിൽ (malayāḷa nōval pattonpatāṁ nūṯāṇṭil) [The Malayalam Novel in the Nineteenth Century] (Study) (in Malayalam) (First D.C.P. ed.). Thiruvananthapuram: Cultural Publication Section, Government of Kerala. 
  11. ^ Journal of Kerala Studies , Volume 9. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India: Kerala University. 1982. p. 159. 
  12. ^ George, Dr. K. M. (1998) [1972]. Western Influence on Malayalam Language and Literature (Study). New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. p. 99. 

External links[edit]