|Regions with significant populations|
|United Arab Emirates||914,000|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Dravidian people, Tuluva, Brahui people|
|Part of a series on|
|Dravidian culture and history|
The Malayali (Malayalam: മലയാളി) are people who inhabit the Indian state of Kerala and the Union Territory of Lakshadweep and have Malayalam language as their mother tongue. They share a common ancestry, culture, and history. A significant Malayali population, who migrated recently, also exist in other parts of India, the Middle East, North America, and Europe. According to the Indian census of 2011, there are approximately 33 million Malayalis in Kerala, making up 96.7% of the total population of the state. Hence the word Keralite is often used synonymously with Malayali, though a proper definition is ambiguous.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geographic distribution and population
- 3 Communities
- 4 Culture
- 5 Keralites
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Malayalam, the native language of Malayalis, has its origin from the words mala meaning mountain and alam meaning land or locality. Hence the term Malayali refers to the people from the mountains who lived beyond the Western Ghats, and Malayalam the language that was spoken there.
Geographic distribution and population
According to the Indian census of 2001, there were 30,803,747 speakers of Malayalam in Kerala, making up 93.2% of the total number of Malayalam speakers in India, and 96.7% of the total population of the state. There were a further 701,673 (2.1% of the total number) in Karnataka, 557,705 (1.7%) in Tamil Nadu, and 406,358 (1.2%) in Maharashtra. The number of Malayalam speakers in Lakshadweep is 51,100, which is only 0.15% of the total number, but is as much as about 84% of the population of Lakshadweep. In all, Malayalis made up 3.22% of the total Indian population in 2001. Of the total 33,066,392 Malayalam speakers in India in 2001, 33,015,420 spoke the standard dialects, 19,643 spoke the Yerava dialect and 31,329 spoke non- standard regional variations like Eranadan. As per the 1991 census data, 28.85% of all Malayalam speakers in India spoke a second language and 19.64% of the total knew three or more languages.
Large numbers of Malayalis have settled in Delhi, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Mumbai (Bombay), Ahmedabad, Pune, and Chennai (Madras). A large number of Malayalis have also emigrated to the Middle East, the United States, and Europe. There were 644,097 people with Malayalam heritage in the United States, according to the 2012 census, with the highest concentrations in Bergen County, New Jersey and Rockland County, New York, including a large number of professionals. There were 7,093 Malayalam speakers in Australia in 2006. The 2001 Canadian census reported 7,070 people who listed Malayalam as their mother tongue. The vast majority of them live in the Greater Toronto Area and Southern Ontario. The 2006 New Zealand census reported 2,139 speakers. 134 Malayalam speaking households were reported in 1956 in Fiji. There is also a considerable Malayali population in the Persian Gulf regions, especially in Dubai.
Historically, religion and caste played a major role in community, with individuals associating and marrying within their religion or caste. Hence, Malayali communities can be differentiated along historical religious lines.
Ambalavasi is the name of a Kerala group of communities (conclussion of various sub casts of Nairs and Brahmins) composed of a number of Hindu castes such as Pushpakas (Unni, Nambeesan, etc.), Chakyars, Moothaths, Kurukkals, Warriers, Marars, Pisharody, Poduvals etc. Traditionally, they perform temple-related jobs and art forms. Some members of the Ambalavasi community tie the "Yajnopaveetam" (a sacred thread), while others do not. Many of the latter groups are part of Nair community of Kerala.
The Ezhavas are one of the major Hindu communities, equally distributed all over south Kerala. They are also known as Ilhava, Irava, Izhava and Erava in the south. They are considered as Other Backward Class in Kerala.
Kaniyar community is known by different names(Balyaya, Panicker, Kanisu etc.),from region to region across the state .They were solely associated with the practice of traditional Hindu astrology,Aayurveda and other intellectual vocations  such as conducting Kalari for teaching letters (3R's) to non-Brahmins at village school (Ezhuthu Palli) and Martial arts (Kalary payattu) to young Nair soldiers. They were generally known by the title Panicker and Asan  in northern and southern regions of Kerala respectively in virtue of their status as Kalari teachers . In the past they were acted as the medicine men of Kerala and their herbal healing practice was based on Ayurvedic system of medicine.
The Namboodiris, or Nambudiris, perform rituals in temples of Kerala based on Tantra Vidhi, a complex and ancient branch of Tantric traditions found only in Kerala, and some Mahakshetras ("Great Temples") around India (which have a Namboodiri acting as the head priest). Namboodiris follow the conservative and ritualistic Śrauta traditions and the ancient Purva Mimamsa, unlike the majority of other Brahmins in India who follow the Vedanta.
The Vishwakarma (or Visvakarma) community refer to themselves as the Viswabrahmin, and are sometimes described as a caste. The community comprises five sub-groups – carpenters, blacksmiths, bell metalworkers, goldsmiths and stonemasons – who believe that they are descendants of Vishwakarma, a Hindu deity. They worship various forms of this deity and follow five Vedas: Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, and Pranava Veda.
The Pulayas, also known as Pulayar are one of the main social groups found in the Kerala society, who were traditionally engaged in various agriculture-related occupations. Ayyankali (1869–1914), one among the great social reformers of India, who was praised by Mahatma Gandhi when he visited Venganoor, was born to a Malayali Pulaya family.
Some among the Muslim community of North Kerala are known as Mappilas or Moplahs. The word mappila is derived from the words 'maha' and 'pilla' . They follow the preachings of monotheism by Muhammad in Arabia, especially the UAE and other Gulf countries. They propagated their Islamic faith along the Malabar Coast. Most Mappila Muslims follow the Shafi'i school of Muslim Jurisprudence (in contrast to the Hanafi school followed by most South Asian Muslims). A good amount of mappila's find their income from gulf region. In North Malabar, from Malappuram to Kasargod, at least one of three Muslim houses have foreign income.
Christians form the third largest group in Kerala.
Saint Thomas Christians (also known as Syrian Christians or Nasrani) trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle among the Jews and local population in Kerala in the 1st century. They are now divided into different denominations namely, Syro-Malabar Catholic, Syro-Malankara Catholic, Malankara Orthodox Syrian, Malankara Jacobite Syrian and Malankara Marthoma Syrian. Syrian Christians followed the same rules of caste and pollution as that of Hindus and sometimes they were even considered as pollution neutralizers. They tend to be endogamous, and tend not to intermarry even with other Christian groupings. Saint Thomas Christians derive status within the caste system from the tradition that they were elites, who were evangelized by St. Thomas. Also, internal mobility is allowed among these Saint Thomas Christian sects and the caste status is kept even if the sect allegiance is switched (for example, from Syrian Orthodox to Syro-Malabar Catholic). Despite the sectarian differences, Syrian Christians share a common social status within the Caste system of Kerala and is considered as Forward Caste.
Latin, Anglo-Indian, Protestants and others
Latin Rite Christians were converted by the Portuguese in the 16th and 19th centuries mainly from communities where fishing was the traditional occupation. Anglo-Indian Christian communities formed around this time as Europeans and local Malayalis intermarried. Latins and Anglo-Indians are considered as Other Backward Class in Kerala. Protestantism arrived a few centuries later with missionary activity during British rule. In the following centuries, several Protestant denominations and the relatively newer Pentecostal groups also emerged.
Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews (Malabar Yehudan) are the ancient Jews and their descendants of the erstwhile state of Kingdom of Cochin which includes the present-day port city of Kochi. Attested historically for more than 1,000 years, they developed Judeo-Malayalam language, a dialect of the Malayalam native to the state of Kerala. Some ancient Jews converted to Christianity during the time of Saint Thomas and became Nasranis aka Saint Thomas Christians.
The Jews of Cochin did not adhere to the Talmudic prohibition, followed by other Orthodox Jews, against public singing by women, and therefore have a rich tradition of Jewish prayers and narrative songs performed by women in Judeo-Malayalam. European Sephardim immigrants joined them in the sixteenth century following the expulsion from Spain, and Baghdadi Jews in the late eighteenth century, but the Malabar Jews were by far the majority of the community.
In the 1930s and 1940s, they numbered more than 30,000. Their population has been greatly reduced from historical numbers, as most emigrated to Israel in the 1950s to settle in the Negev. Less than 100 remain in Kochi as of 2008.
Jainism has had a continued presence in Kerala since pre-Christian times with Jainism in Kerala enjoying an extensive heritage and history.
At present, Jainism in Kerala has a very small following, mainly from the original Jains of Kerala and the Gujarati Jain business community, to be found in Kochi and Kozhikode. Most of the Shwetambar followers are living in Mattancherry (Kochi) and Digambar community families are residents of Ernakulam (Kochi).
Jainism came to Kerala in the third century BC soon after Chandragupta Maurya (B.C. 321-297), accompanied by the Jain monk Bhadrabahu, travelled to Shravanabelagola near Mysore (in present day Karnataka). Their followers are believed to have journeyed further south, into present day Kerala and Tamil Nadu, in search of suitable places for meditation. By the start of the Christian era, Jainism was well established in Kerala. Ilango Adigal, author of the Tamil epic Silappadikaram, was among the notable royal patrons of the Jain religion in Kerala. He lived in Trikkanaa-Mathilakam which attained fame as a centre of Jain culture and learning.
With the growth in intermarriage between Malayali communities and also with other groups, especially outside Kerala, many people who identify themselves with Kerala or with Malayali culture can not readily be labeled as members of one of the historic castes or communities listed above. Also, although a number of these groups were historically affiliated to one or other religion or sect, many of their modern members may be agnostic or atheist, or identify more strongly with some other religious or non-religious ideology.
Malayali cultural genesis can be traced to their membership in a well-defined historical region known as Tamilakam, encompassing the Chera, Chola, and Pandya kingdoms and southern coastal Karnataka. Later upon the arrival of Syrian, Judeo and Namboothiri communities, the distinct culture took shape. This was later elaborated upon by centuries of contact with foreign cultures such as Arabian, Portuguese (Latin Christians), English communities which have left their mark.
Language and literature
Malayalam is the language spoken by the Malayalis. Malayalam is derived from Middle Tamil in the 6th century, of which Modern Tamil was also derived. An alternative theory proposes a split in more ancient times. For cultural purposes Malayalam and Sanskrit formed a language known as Manipravalam, where both languages were used in an alternating style. Malayalam is the only among the major Dravidian languages without diglossia. This means, that the Malayalam which is spoken does not differ from the written variant. Malayalam is written using the Malayalam script.
Malayalam literature is ancient in origin. The oldest literature works in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated between 9th century and 11th century. Malayalam literature includes the 14th century Niranam poets (Madhava Panikkar, Sankara Panikkar and Rama Panikkar), whose works mark the dawn of both modern Malayalam language and indigenous Keralite poetry. The Triumvirate of poets (Kavithrayam: Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer) are recognized for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics and towards a more lyrical mode. In 19th century Chavara Kuriakose Elias, the founder of Carmelites of Mary Immaculate and Congregation of Mother of Carmel congregations, contribute different streams in the Malayalam Literature. All his works are written between 1829 to 1870. Chavara's contribution  to Malayalam literature includes, Chronicles, Poems – athmanuthapam (compunction of the soul), Maranaveettil Paduvanulla Pana (Poem to sing in the bereaved house) and Anasthasiayude Rakthasakshyam – and other Literary works . In the second half of the 20th century, Jnanpith awardees like G. Sankara Kurup, S. K. Pottekkatt, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai and M. T. Vasudevan Nair and non Jnanpith awardees like Vaikom Muhammad Basheer have made valuable contributions to the Malayalam literature. Later, such Keralite writers as O. V. Vijayan, Kamaladas, M. Mukundan, and Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy, whose 1996 semi-autobiographical bestseller The God of Small Things is set in the Kottayam town of Ayemenem, have gained international recognition.
Tharavadu is a system of joint family practised by Malayalis, especially castes Nairs, Ezhava/Thiyyas and other prominent religious groups. Each Tharavadu has a unique name. The Tharavadu was administered by the Karanavan, the oldest male member of the family. He would be the eldest maternal uncle of the family as well. The members of the Tharavadu consisted of mother, daughters, sons, sisters and brothers. The fathers and husbands had very minimal role to play in the affairs of the Tharavadu. It was a true matrilineal affair. The Karanavar took all major decisions. He was usually autocratic. However, the consent of the eldest female member of the family was taken before implementing the decisions. This eldest female member would be his maternal grandmother, own mother, mother's sister, his own sister or a sister through his maternal lineage. Since the lineage was through the female members, the birth of a daughter was always welcomed. Each Tharavadu also has a Para Devatha (clan deity) revered by those in the particular Tharavadu. Temples were built to honor these deities.
Kerala's society is less patriarchical than the rest of the Majority World. Certain Hindu communities such as the Nairs, some Ezhava families in Travancore and Cochin, Thiyyas in north Kerala and Muslims around Kannur used to follow a traditional matrilineal system known as marumakkathayam which has in the recent years (post Indian independence) ceased to exist. Christians, Muslims, and some Hindu castes such as the Namboothiris and some Ezhavas follow makkathayam, a patrilineal system. Kerala's gender relations are among the most equitable in India and the Majority World.
Kerala, the native land of Malayalis has a tropical climate with excessive rains and intensive solar radiation. The architecture of this region has evolved to meet these climatic conditions by having the form of buildings with low walls, sloping roof and projecting caves. The setting of the building in the open garden plot was again necessitated by the requirement of wind for giving comfort in the humid climate. Timber is the prime structural material abundantly available in many varieties in Kerala. Perhaps the skillful choice of timber, accurate joinery, artful assembly and delicate carving of wood work for columns, walls and roofs frames are the unique characteristics of Malayali architecture. From the limitations of the materials, a mixed mode of construction was evolved in Malayali architecture. The stone work was restricted to the plinth even in important buildings such as temples. Laterite was used for walls. The roof structure in timber was covered with palm leaf thatching for most buildings and rarely with tiles for palaces or temples. The Kerala murals are paintings with vegetable dyes on wet walls in subdued shades of brown. The indigenous adoption of the available raw materials and their transformation as enduring media for architectural expression thus became the dominant feature of the Malayali style of architecture.
Nalukettu was a housing style in Kerala.Nalukettu is a quadrangular building constructed after following the Tachu Sastra(Science of Carpentry). It was a typical house which was flanked by out-houses and utility structures.The large house-Nalukettu is constructed within a large compound.It was called Nalukettu because it consisted of four wings around a central courtyard called Nadumuttom.The house has a quadrangle in the center. The quadrangle is in every way the center of life in the house and very useful for the performance of rituals.The layout of these homes was simple, and catered to the dwelling of a large number of people, usually part of a tharavadu. Ettukettu (eight halled with two central courtyards) or Pathinarukettu (sixteen halled with four central courtyards) are the more elaborate forms of the same architecture. An example of a Nalukettu structure is Mattancherry Palace.
Performing arts and music
Malayalis use two words to denote dance, which is attom and thullal. The art forms of Malayalis are classified into three types. They are (i)Religious like Theyyam, Bhagavatipattu etc., (ii)Semi religious like Sanghakali, Krishnanattom etc., and (iii)Secular like Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Thullal etc. Kathakali and Mohiniyattam are the two classical dance forms from Kerala. Kathakali is actually a dance-drama. Mohiniyattam is a very sensual and graceful dance form that is performed both solo and in a group by women. Kutiyattam is a traditional performing art form from Kerala, which is recognised by UNESCO and given the status Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.Ottamthullal is another performing art, which is also known as the poor man's Kathakali, which was created by the poet Kunchan Nambiar as an alternative to Chakiarkooth (another performing art),which was open only for higher castes to see. Theyyam is a ritualistic art form of Malayalis, which is thought to predate hinduism and to have developed from folk dances performed in conjunction with harvest celebrations. Theyyam is performed as an offering to gods so as to get rid of poverty and illness. Velakali is another ritualistic art form, mainly performed at temples in the festival time. Kolkali is a folk art in which dance performers move in a circle, striking small sticks and keeping rhythm with special steps. Many ancient Malayali family houses in Kerala have special snake shrines called Kavu. Sarpam Thullal is usually performed in the courtyard of houses having snake shrines. This is a votive offering for family wealth and happiness.
Performing arts in Kerala is not limited to a single religion of the Malayali society. Muslim Mappilas, Nasranis and Latin Christians have their own unique performing art forms. Duff Muttu, also known as Dubh Muttu/Aravanamuttu is a performing art form prevalent among the Muslim community. It is a group performance, staged as a social event during festivals and nuptial ceremonies. Oppana is a popular form of social entertainment among the Muslim community. It is a form accompanied by clapping of hands, in which both men and women participate. Margamkali is a performing art which is popular among the Saint Thomas Christians. It combines both devotion and entertainment, and was performed by men in groups. Since 1980's women also have found groups. The dancers themselves sing the margamkali songs in unison call and response form.Parichamuttukali is another performing art which is popular among Saint Thomas Christians. This is an artistic adaptation of the martial art of Kerala, Kalaripayattu. Chavittu nadakom is a theatrical art form observed mainly by Kerala Latin Christians, dating back to second half of 16th century.
However, many of these native art forms largely play to tourists or at youth festivals, and are not as popular among ordinary Keralites. Thus, more contemporary forms – including those heavily based on the use of often risqué and politically incorrect mimicry and parody – have gained considerable mass appeal in recent years. Indeed, contemporary artists often use such modes to mock socioeconomic elites. Since 1930 when the first Malayalam film Vigathakumaran was released and over the following decade or two, Malayalam cinema had grown to become one of the popular means of expression for both works of fiction and social issues, and it remains so.
Music formed a major part of early Malayalam literature, which is believed to have started developing by 9th century CE. The significance of music in the culture of Kerala can be established just by the fact that in Malayalam language, musical poetry was developed long before prose. Kerala is musically known for Sopanam. Sopanam is religious in nature, and developed through singing invocatory songs at the Kalam of Kali, and later inside temples. Sopanam came to prominence in the wake of the increasing popularity of Jayadeva's Gita Govinda or Ashtapadis. Sopana sangeetham (music), as the very name suggests, is sung by the side of the holy steps (sopanam) leading to the sanctum sanctorum of a shrine. It is sung, typically employing plain notes, to the accompaniment of the small, hourglass-shaped ethnic drum called idakka, besides the chengila or the handy metallic gong to sound the beats. Sopanam is traditionally sung by men of the Marar and Pothuval community, who are Ambalavasi (semi-Brahmin) castes engaged to do it as their hereditary profession. Kerala is also home of Carnatic music. Legends like Swati Tirunal, Shadkala Govinda Maarar, Sangitha Vidwan Gopala Pillai Bhagavathar, Chertala Gopalan Nair, M. D. Ramanathan, T.V.Gopalakrishnan, M.S. Gopalakrishnan, L. Subramaniam T.N. Krishnan & K. J. Yesudas are Malayali musicians. Also among the younger generations with wide acclaim and promise is Child Prodigy Violinist L. Athira Krishna etc., who are looked upon as maestros of tomorrow.
Kerala also has a significant presence of Hindustani music as well. The king of Travancore, Swathi Thirunal patronaged and contributed much to the Hindustani Music. The pulluvar of Kerala are closely connected to the serpent worship. One group among these people consider the snake gods as their presiding deity and perform certain sacrifices and sing songs. This is called Pulluvan Pattu. The song conducted by the pulluvar in serpent temples and snake groves is called Sarppapaattu, Naagam Paattu, Sarpam Thullal, Sarppolsavam, Paambum Thullal or Paambum Kalam. Mappila Paattukal or Mappila Songs are folklore Muslim devotional songs in the Malayalam language. Mappila songs are composed in colloquial Malayalam and are sung in a distinctive tune. They are composed in a mixture of Malayalam and Arabic.
Film music, which refers to playback singing in the context of Indian music, forms the most important canon of popular music in India. Film music of Kerala in particular is the most popular form of music in the state.
Vallam Kali, is the race of country made boats. It is mainly conducted during the season of the harvest festival Onam in Autumn. Vallam Kali include races of many kinds of traditional boats of Kerala. The race of Chundan Vallam (snake boat) is the major item. Hence Vallam Kali is also known in English as Snake Boat Race and a major tourist attraction. Other types of boats which do participate in various events in the race are Churulan Vallam, Iruttukuthy Vallam, Odi Vallam, Veppu Vallam (Vaipu Vallam), Vadakkanody Vallam, and Kochu Vallam. Nehru Trophy Boat Race is one the famous Vallam Kali held in Punnamada Lake in Alappuzha district of Kerala. Champakulam Moolam Boat Race is the oldest and most popular Vallam Kali in Kerala. The race is held on river Pamba on the moolam day (according to the Malayalam Era) of the Malayalam month Midhunam, the day of the installation of the deity at the Ambalappuzha Sree Krishna Temple. The Aranmula Boat Race takes place at Aranmula, near a temple dedicated to Lord Krishna and Arjuna. Thousands of people gather on the banks of the river Pamba to watch the snake boat races. Nearly 50 snake boats or chundan vallams participate in the festival. Payippad Jalotsavam is a three day water festival. Its conducted in Payippad Lake which is 35 km from Alappuzha district of Kerala state. There is a close relation between this Payippad boat race and Subramanya Swamy Temple in Haripad. Indira Gandhi Boat Race is a boat race festival celebrated in the last week of December in the backwaters of Kochi, a city in Kerala. This boat race is one of the most popular Vallam Kali in Kerala. This festival is conducted to promote Kerala tourism.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2013)|
Malayali cuisine is not homogeneous and regional variations are visible throughout. Spices form an important ingredient in almost all curries. Kerala is known for its traditional sadhyas, a vegetarian meal served with boiled rice and a host of side-dishes. The sadhya is complemented by payasam, a sweet milk dessert native to Kerala. The sadhya is, as per custom, served on a banana leaf. Traditional dishes include sambar, aviyal, kaalan, theeyal, thoran, injipully, pulisherry, appam, kappa (tapioca), puttu (steamed rice powder), and puzhukku. Coconut is an essential ingredient in most of the food items and is liberally used.
Puttu is a culinary specialty in Kerala. It is a steamed rice cake which is a favourite breakfast of most Malayalis. It is served with either brown chickpeas cooked in a spicy gravy, papadams and boiled small green lentils, or tiny ripe yellow Kerala plantains. In the highlands there is also a variety of puttu served with paani (the boiled-down syrup from sweet palm toddy) and sweet boiled bananas. to steam the puttu, there is a special utensil called "Puttu Kutti". It consists of two sections. The lower bulkier portion is where the water for steaming is stored. The upper detachable leaner portion is separated from lower portion by perforated lids so as to allow the steam to pass through and bake the rice powder.
Appam is a pancake made of fermented batter. The batter is made of rice flour and fermented using either yeast or toddy, the local spirit. It is fried using a special frying pan called appa-chatti and is served with egg curry, chicken curry, mutton stew, vegetable curry and chick pea curry.
Malayalis have their own lethal form of martial arts called Kalaripayattu. This type of martial arts was used as defensive mechanism against intruders. In ancient times, disputes between nobles (naaduvazhis or Vazhunors) were also settled by the outcome of a Kalaripayattu tournament. This ancient martial art is claimed as the mother of all martial arts. The word "kalari" can be traced to ancient Sangam literature. The martial tradition of Kalaripayattu is also dated to ancient Dravidian traditions. Phillip Zarrilli, a professor at the University of Exeter and one of the few Western authorities on kalaripayattu, estimates that kalarippayattu dates back to at least the 12th century CE. The historian Elamkulam Kunjan Pillai attributes the birth of Kalaripayattu to an extended period of warfare between the Cheras and the Cholas in the 11th century CE. What eventually crystallized into this style is thought to have been a product of existing South Indian styles of combat, combined with techniques brought by migration from the north along the western coast. What eventually crystallized as kalarippayattu combined indigenous Dravidian techniques with the martial practices and ethos brought by brahman migrations from Saurastra and Konkan down the west Indian coast into Karnataka and eventually Kerala. Discovery channel notes that Kalaripayattu may be one of the oldest martial arts in existence. The oldest western reference to Kalaripayattu is a 16th-century travelogue of Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese explorer. The Southern style, which places more emphasis on open hand combat was mostly practiced in the southern regions of Kerala.
- Ethnologue report for Malayalam
- "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speakers' strength - 2001". http://www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "Kerala Migration Survey - 2014". The Indian Express.( This is the number of approximate emigrants from Kerala, which is closely related to, but different from the actual number of Malayalis.) (17 September 2014). Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Zachariah, K. C. & Rajan, S. Irudaya (2008), Kerala Migration Survey 2007 (PDF), Department of Non-resident Keralite Affairs, Government of Kerala, p. 48. This is the number of emigrants from Kerala, which is closely related to but different from the actual number of Malayalis.
- Zachariah, K. C. & Rajan, S. Irudaya (2011), Kerala Migration Survey 2011 (PDF), Department of Non-resident Keralite Affairs, Government of Kerala, p. 29. This is the number of emigrants from Kerala, which is closely related to but different from the actual number of Malayalis.
- Jews, by Country of Origin and Age
- The Last Jews of Kerala, Edna Fernandes, Portobello Books 2008
- "In the Australia, 18% of people spoke a language other than English at home in 2011.". http://www.abs.gov.au/. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "India-born Malayalam-speaking community in Australia: Some interesting trends". Times of India (16 July 2014). Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- Where Malayalees once held sway: DNA India
- , censusindia.net
- "Sayeed says he is a Malayali too". The Hindu. 24 May 2004. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- "kerala.gov.in". – go to the website and click the link – language & literature to retrieve the information
- . Accessed November 22, 2014.
- Statistics New Zealand:Language spoken (total responses) for the 1996–2006 censuses (Table 16), stats.govt.nz
- Nossiter (1982) p. 30
- Mandelbaum, David Goodman (1970). Society in India: Continuity and change. University of California Press. p. 502. ISBN 9780520016231.
Another strong caste association, but one formed at a different social level and cemented by religious appeal, is that of the Iravas of Kerala, who are also known as Ezhavas and make up more than 40 per cent of Kerala Hindus
- Arthur Miles, The land of the lingam, London: Hurst & Blackett, Ltd., 1933
- A. Aiyappan. Social revolution in a Kerala village: a study in culture change -1965 ,
- L.Krishna Anantha Krishna Iyer (Diwan Bahadur), The Cochin tribes and castes, 1909.
- Pi. Uṇittiri. Studies in Kerala Sanskrit literature, University of Calicut,2004
- KUMAR SURESH SINGH, People of India: Volume 27, Part 1'ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA - 2002
- Studies in traditional Kerala society, College Book House, 1977
- Office of the Registrar General, Census of India, 1961: Mysore: India Manager of Publications, 1974, page 377
- Angus Stewart Woodburne, The religious attitude: a psychological study of its differentiation, The Macmillan company, 1927, Page 56
- Neither Newton nor Leibniz, canisius.edu
- From Vedic Martial Arts to Aikido, veda.harekrsna.cz
- A travel feature on the ancient Kerala art of Kalaripayattu, rediff.com
- Kalaripayattu, the traditional martial art, enskalari.org.in
- The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2.
- The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities by Orpa Slapak. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 2003. p. 27. ISBN 965-278-179-7.
- Weil S. 1982; Jessay P.M. 1986; Menachery 1973; Menachery 1998.
- A. E. Medlycott, India and The Apostle Thomas, pp.1–71, 213–97; M. R. James, Apocryphal New Testament, pp.364–436; Eusebius, History, chapter 4:30; J. N. Farquhar, The Apostle Thomas in North India, chapter 4:30; V. A. Smith, Early History of India, p.235; L. W. Brown, The Indian Christians of St. Thomas, p.49-59.
- Vadakkekara, Benedict (2007). Origin of Christianity in India: a Historiographical Critique, pp. 325–330. Media House Delhi.
- Fuller, Christopher J. (March 1976). "Kerala Christians and the Caste System". Man. New Series (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 11 (1): 55–56.(subscription required)
- Fuller, Christopher J. (March 1976). "Kerala Christians and the Caste System". Man. New Series (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 11 (1): 55, 68.(subscription required)
- Fuller, C.J. "Indian Christians: Pollution and Origins." Man. New Series, Vol. 12, No. 3/4. (Dec., 1977), pp. 528–529.
- Forrester, Duncan (1980). Caste and Christianity. Curzon Press. pp. 98,102.
- Fuller, Christopher J. (March 1976). "Kerala Christians and the Caste System". Man. New Series (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 11 (1): 61.(subscription required)
- The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities by Orpa Slapak. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. 2003. p. 27. ISBN 965-278-179-7.
- Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Menachery 1998; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; Weil 1982; Menachery 1998.
- Fernandes (2008), The Last Jews of Kerala, p. 164
- Kumudini Das, Kailash Chandra Das, Tarun Kumar Roy, Pradeep Kumar Tripathy (2010). "Inter-caste marriage in India: has it really changed over time? (Page 4)" (PDF). European Population Conference 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- Bhagyalekshmy 2004, pp. 6–7.
- Malayalam, R. E. Asher, T. C. Kumari, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02242-8, 1997
- "Trios of modern Malayalam literature".
- Cooper KJ (20 October 1997). "For India, No Small Thing; Native Daughter Arundhati Roy Wins Coveted Booker Prize". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
- Lyall, Sarah (15 October 1997). "Indian's First Novel Wins Booker Prize in Britain". New York Times. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "Winds, Rivers & Rain". Salon. September 1997. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
- "Tharavadu system".
- McKibben 2006.
- Lindberg 2004, pp. 18–19.
- Government of Kerala 2002b.
- Government of Kerala 2004r, p. 366.
- Lindberg 2004, p. 1.
- "Kerala architecture".
- "Nalukettu".-Malayalam Resource Centre
- "Kerala dance forms".
- "Classical dance forms of India".
- "Christian art foms".
- Sreedhara Menon, A.. Kerala Charithram. Kottayam, Kerala: D.C. Books. p. 494.
- Rolf, Killius (2006). Ritual Music and Hindu Rituals of Kerala. New Delhi: BR Rhythms. ISBN 81-88827-07-X.
- "Music". Keral.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2009.
- Suresh, P. R. (2005). Kalari Payatte – The martial art of Kerala.
- Subaltern Sports: Politics and Sports in South Asia By James H. Mills. Published 2005, Anthem Press. Subject: Archaeology /Anthropology. ISBN 1-84331-167-4
- Zarrilli, Phillip B. A South Indian Martial Art and the Yoga and Ayurvedic Paradigms. University of Wisconsin–Madison.
- Phillip B. Zarrilli, When the Body Becomes All Eyes
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|