Malaysian Army

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Malaysian Army
Tentera Darat Malaysia
تنترا دارت مليسيا
Flag of the Malaysian Army.svg
Crest of the Malaysian Army.svg
Flag and Crest of the Malaysian Army
Active Since 1 March 1933, but started under Penang rifle volunteers in 1861
Country  Malaysia
Allegiance Supreme Head of Malaysia
Branch Malaysian Armed Forces
Type Army
Role Defence and Dominance of Malaysia's soil
Size 80,000[1] active personnel
50,000[1] reserve
Motto Gagah Setia (English: Strong and Loyal)
Colors       Red and       Gold
Anniversaries 1 March
Engagements World War II
1st Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
2nd Malayan Emergency (1968–1989)
Sarawak Communist Insurgency (1962–1990)
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
United Nations Operation in the Congo
Battle of Mogadishu
Kosovo War
United Nations Iran–Iraq Military Observer Group
2006 East Timorese Crisis (OA)
United Nations Protection Force
Moro attacks on Malaysia (2013 standoff)
Commander-in-Chief Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah, Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Chief of Army General Raja Mohamed Affandi Raja Mohamed Noor

The Malaysian Army (Malay: Tentera Darat Malaysia; Jawi: تنترا دارت مليسيا) is the land component of the Malaysian Armed Forces. Steeped in British Army traditions, the Malaysian Army does not carry the title ‘royal’ (diraja) as do the Royal Malaysian Air Force and the Royal Malaysian Navy. Instead, the title is bestowed on selected army corps and regiments who have been accorded the honour by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, who is the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces.


Circa October 1941, Malay Regiment operatives at a bayonet practice before the Battle of Singapore.

The first military units in Malaysia can be traced back to the Malay States Volunteer Rifles which existed from 1915 to 1936. The birth of the Malaysian Army came about when the Federal Council of the Federated Malay States passed the Malay Regiment Bill on 23 January 1933. This allowed the initial recruitment of 25 males for the First Experimental Malay Company on 1 March 1933. Major G. McI. S. Bruce of the Lincolnshire Regiment was the first Commanding Officer.

By 1 January 1935, the Experimental Company became The Malay Regiment with a complement of 150 men. A battalion was formed on 1 January 1938 and eventually a second battalion on 1 December 1941.

The 1st Bn Malay Regiment was famous for its defence of Opium Hill or Bukit Chandu in Singapore. The ‘Battle of Opium Hill’ on 14 February 1942 involved 42 soldiers commanded by Lt. Adnan Bin Saidi who defended their position against attack from the 18th Division of the Japanese Imperial Army under Lt. Gen. Renya Mutaguchi. After World War II and during the Malayan Emergency, the number of battalions was increased to 7 in the early 50s.

The Kor Armor DiRaja (Royal Armoured Corps) can trace its roots to the formation on 1 September 1952 of the Federation Reconnaissance Squadron. It was later merged with the Federation Regiment to form the Federation Reconnaissance Corps. The name underwent a few transformations from the Malaysian Reconnaissance Corps (16 September 1967), Royal Malaysian Reconnaissance Corps (May 1979) to Royal Cavalry Corps (December 1979) and finally to Kor Armor DiRaja (Royal Armoured Corps) on 8 December 1986.

Organisation and structure[edit]

Malaysian Army major combat unit locations
Source: Jane's World Armies Issue 23, 2008
New Sabah Times, 2 March 2014[2]

The Malaysian Army is currently organised into five Divisions and are placed under the Field Army Headquarters. Three of which (the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Divisions) are based on the Malaysian Peninsular, while the two (the 1st Division and 5th Divisions) are based on Malaysian Borneo. The Grup Gerak Khas (Special Forces group), 10th Parachute Brigade and the Pasukan Udara Tentera Darat (army aviation) are independent formations and directly subordinate to the Chief of the Army.

The Malaysian Army currently has 17 Corps or Regiments. These are grouped into 3 main components: the Combat Element, the Combat Support Element and the Support Elements.

10 Paratrooper Brigade commando forces with ATMP (All Terrain Mobility Platform) during a parade

Rank Structure[edit]

The Malaysian Army uses a rank structure [1] inherited from the British Army. the Malaysian Army rank structure has 17 levels from Private (Prebet) to General (Jeneral). These ranks are divided into 2 groups - Officer (Pegawai) and Other Ranks (Lain-Lain Pangkat) which includes the Non-Commissioned Officer (Pegawai Tanpa Tauliah) ranks.


Officers are sub-divided into 3 groups:-

Senior Officers This group consists of officers holding the ranks of Lieutenant Colonel (Leftenan Kolonel), Colonel (Kolonel), Brigadier General (Brigedier Jeneral), Major General (Mejar Jeneral), Lieutenant General (Leftenan Jeneral) and General (Jeneral)

Field Officers Field Officers are officers holding the rank of Major (Mejar)

Junior Officers This group consists of Second Lieutenant (Leftenan Muda), Lieutenant (Leftenan) and Captain (Kapten) grade officers.

Other Ranks This group begins at Private (Prebet) and works its way up to Warrant Officer I (Pegawai Waran I). This is further subdivided into 3 groups:

Senior NCO (PTT Kanan) This group includes NCOs holding the rank of Sergeant (Sarjan), Staff Sergeant (Staff Sarjan), Warrant Officer II (Pegawai Waran II) and Warrant Officer I (Pegawai Waran I).

Junior NCO (PTT Rendah) This group includes NCOs holding the rank of Lance Corporal (Lans Koperal) and Corporal (Koperal).

Private (Prebet) Private soldiers in the Malaysian Army do not wear any rank devices on their uniform. There are no distinctions made between junior or senior Privates.

Corps and regiments[edit]

Malaysian Army Agusta A-109E LUH, armed with 20mm gun and rockets for area suppression

Combat element[edit]

Malaysian Army PT 91M MBT on display

This is the most senior regiment of the Malaysian Army. Its ranks are recruited from amongst the Malay population. The Regiment has 25 battalions. The 1st Battalion, the most senior in the Regiment, currently undertakes ceremonial and Royal Guard duties. The remainder are configured as 20 Standard Infantry Battalions, two Mechanised Infantry Battalions and two Parachute Infantry Battalions. The regiment uses rifle green berets except two battalions that wear maroon berets. See 17 RAMD Para Weblog The 19th Bn Royal Malay Regiment (Mech) was involved in the rescue of US Rangers and Delta Force operatives in Somalia during the Battle of Mogadishu. The unit of 32 Radpanzer Condor APCs and 113 men from MALBATT 1 went in with the United States 10th Mountain Division to rescue the trapped Rangers. Four APCs were immobilised and were destroyed by US helicopter gunships. 19 Royal Malay Regiment suffered 1 soldier killed in action (KIA), PFC Mat Aznan Awang while 8 others were wounded in action (WIA). Pfc Mat Aznan Awang was later promoted posthumously to Corporal and was awarded with Pingat Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa, the nation's highest gallantry award. In total, 7 officers and 26 NCOs were awarded various medals for their valour during the operation, the highest number of men recommended for medals in a single unit in a single operation.

ACV 300 Adnan on display

This is a multi-racial unit organised along similar lines to the Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja. There are currently 10 battalions within this regiment. The Regiment traces its roots to the Sarawak Rangers and the Sarawak Constabulary, famed jungle trackers who had a deadly reputation during the Malayan Emergency and during the Communist Party of Malaya’s insurgency in Malaysia. The 8th Bn Royal Ranger Regiment (8 Renjer) was the first infantry battalion in the Malaysian Army to undergo conversion into an airborne battalion. The unit is currently assigned to the elite 10 Brigade (Para). The Malaysian Army's most decorated soldier, WOI (Rtd) Kanang anak Langkau was a Regimental Sergeant Major of 8 Ranger .

This is a newly created regiment from the 300 series Territorial Army units in charge of the border. The Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak announced on 1 July 2006 the formation of a new regiment specifically for border patrol. Members of the regiment will be taken from various regiments and corps, most notably from the Rejimen Askar Wataniah. It is believed that the army will form about 2 to 3 brigades of this new regiment.[3][4] The new regiment was officially raised on 9 February 2008 by Najib Tun Razak at Tanah Merah, Kelantan.[5]

  • Kor Armor DiRaja (Royal Armoured Corps) provides the armour capability for the Malaysian Army. Currently, the Corps consists of 5 battalions (sometimes errantly referred to as Regiments), which are equipped with various armoured personnel carriers (SIBMAS AFSV-90, Rheinmetall Condor, K-200 MIFV) and light combat vehicles. Rejimen ke-11 of the Kor Armor DiRaja is the sole user of 48 PT-91M Main Battle Tanks from Poland.

Combat Support element[edit]

  • Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja (Royal Military Police Corps) deploys as part of the field army, in support of army operations, and enforces proper conduct among army personnel. Aside from being responsible for base security, the military police are also tasked with preventing and investigating criminal activities on army property or by military personnel.
  • Rejimen Askar Jurutera DiRaja (Royal Engineers Regiment) is tasked with demolitions, bridge-laying and the repair of military infrastructure, such as airbase runways, or clearing obstacles in emergency situations.

Support elements[edit]

  • Kor Ordnans DiRaja (Royal Ordnance Corps) ensures that all military supplies and ordnance are stored, secured and inventoried properly.
  • Kor Perkhidmatan DiRaja (Royal Logistics Corps) is in charge of transporting troops and supplies to the various units of the Malaysian Army.
  • Kor Kesihatan DiRaja (Royal Medical Corps) provides training for Army medics and other specialists. It runs the Armed Forces hospitals and provides the battlefield mobile hospitals. The unit has also provided relief MALMEDTIMs (Malaysian Medical Teams) to Pakistan, Afghanistan [2], West Sahara, Indonesia and Palestine.
  • Kor Perkhidmatan Am (General Services Corps) handles administration and financial management for the entire army.

Special Forces[edit]

  • Rejimen Gerak Khas (Special Forces Regiment) is the Malaysian Army's special forces and commando regiment. 21 Gerup Gerak Khas is the operational home of various specialists and the Commando battalions, which are capable of conducting unconventional warfare or special operations. One of the known foreign operations involving this regiment was in an attack by Somali militia on a convoy transporting UN Intelligence Chief in UNOSOM II on 18 July 1994. In the action, two members of the regiment were killed in action, while another four were wounded. One of the injured men was taken hostage by the militia and was released nine hours later.
  • 10 Paratrooper Brigade is an elite airborne unit tasked with being rapidly deployed inside or outside the boundaries of Malaysia. 10th Para is the key element of the Malaysian Rapid Deployment Force (Pasukan Aturgerak Cepat; PAC) and it is Malaysia primary main offensive force in time of war or emergencies.

Air unit[edit]


  • Rejimen Askar Wataniah (Territorial Army) forms the second line of Malaysia's defence. Formed by college students, professionals and civilians, it provides support for the regular armed forces of Malaysia and is responsible for the security of key installations in times of conflict. Originally tasked with area and local defence, the Rejimen Askar Wataniah units have been reconfigured and will perform front line duties alongside regular units when the need arises. Rejimen Askar Wataniah units, such as armoured squadrons, are integral units of several Kor Armor DiRaja regiments.


Malaysian Army Condor APC

The personnel strength of the Malaysian Army is approximately 80,000 personnel in the Active Army,[6] 50,000 in the Active Reserve[6] and 26,600 active and 244,700 reservists[6] in the Paramilitary.

The Malaysian Army consists of 4 infantry divisions, 9 infantry brigades, 1 special forces brigade, 1 airborne brigade and 1 mechanised brigade,[6] composed of:

  • 36 Light Infantry Battalions[6]
  • 3 Airborne Infantry Battalions[6]
  • 3 Mechanized Infantry Battalions[6]
  • 5 Armoured battalions (1 Tank Regiment)[6]
  • 1 light tank squadron[6]
  • 13 Artillery Regiments (3 Air Defence)[6]
  • 3 Special Forces Regiments[6]
  • 3 field engineer regiments[6]
  • 1 airborne infantry squadron[6]
  • 1 construction regiment[6]
  • 4 military police regiments[6]
  • 1 signals regiment[6]
  • 1 intelligence unit[6]
  • 1 helicopter squadron[6]

The territorial army includes:

  • 16 light infantry regiments[7]
  • 2 border surveillance brigades[7]
  • 5 highway surveillance battalions[7]
  • 2 field engineer regiments[7]


Infantry Weapons[edit]

Picture Model Type Caliber Version Origin Notes
Browning HP West German Police.jpg Browning HP Semi-Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Parabellum Standard  Belgium Standard issue sidearms for senior-rank officers and special forces
HK P9S PDRM.jpg HK P9S Semi-Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Parabellum Standard  Germany Issued to specific infantry units
VektorSP1.jpg Vektor SP1 Semi-Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Parabellum Standard  South Africa In service with GGK[8]
MP5.jpg Heckler & Koch MP5 Submachine gun 9×19mm Parabellum MP5A3/SD/K  Germany Standard army submachine gun.[9] Also used by 10 Paratrooper Brigade and GGK
Flickr - ~Steve Z~ - 870.jpg Remington 870 Shotgun 12 gauge Various  United States In service with 10 Paratrooper Brigade and GGK[8]
SPAS-12 stock folded.jpg Franchi SPAS-12 Shotgun 12 gauge Various  Italy In service with GGK[8]
Assault rifle
AUG A1 508mm 04.jpg Steyr AUG Assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO AUG A1  Austria
Made under license by SME Ordnance Sdn Bhd. Standard issue
M4 PEO Soldier.jpg M4 Assault rifle/Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO  United States
Made under license by SME Ordnance Sdn Bhd.[10] Used along with Steyr AUG as standard service rifle.
M16A1 brimob.jpg M16 Assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO M16A1, A2, A3, A4 and Colt 602  United States In service with reserve and Malaysian army
AR-15 Sporter SP1 Carbine.JPG CAR-15 Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Model 727 and XM177E1,E2  United States In service with 10 Paratrooper Brigade.
HK43.jpg HK33 Assault Rifle 5.56×45mm NATO  West Germany
in service with 10 paratrooper brigade.
FN-FAL belgian.jpeg L1A1 SLR Battle rifle 7.62×51mm NATO  Belgium In Services with Malaysian army and 10 paratroper brigade.
Sniper Rifles
Barrett M95SP.jpg Barrett M95 Anti-materiel Rifle .50 BMG  United States In service with GGK[8]
Accuracy International Arctic Warfare - Psg 90.jpg Accuracy International Arctic Warfare Sniper Rifles .308 Winchester Standard  United Kingdom
SR-25 pic01.jpg SR-25 Sniper Rifles 7.62 NATO  United States
TRG mit nigtforce 2,5-12 X56 und Fuchs.jpg TRG-22 sniper rifle .308 Winchester  Finland In service with GGK[8]
Machine Guns
LMG-RPD-44.jpg RPD machine gun Light machine gun 7.62x39mm M43 Standard  Soviet Union Standard issue LMG
M249 FN MINIMI DA-SC-85-11586 c1.jpg M249 SAW Light machine gun 5.56x45mm NATO Standard  Belgium Standard issue LMG
M60GPMG.jpeg M60 light machine gun/general purpose machine gun 7.62×51mm NATO Standard  United States In service with GGK[11]
HK 21 LMG RIGHT SIDE.jpg HK21 General-purpose machine guns 7.62×51mm NATO  West Germany Standard issue machine gun
PEO M240B Profile.jpg M240 General-purpose machine guns 7.62×51mm NATO M240G And M240B  Belgium
Machine gun M2 1.jpg M2 Browning Heavy machine guns 12.7×99mm NATO M2HB  United States
Grenade Launcher
MK19-02.jpg Mk 19 Automatic grenade launcher 40mm grenade Standard  United States
Marine shoots M32 at Fort Bragg for prepering to go to Afghanistan.jpg Milkor MGL Grenade launcher 40mm grenade Mk1L  South Africa
M203 1.jpg M203 Grenade launcher 40mm grenade Standard  United States Attached to M4 and M16.
2B14 Podnos at "Engineering Technologies 2010" forum.jpg 2B14 Podnos Mortar 81mm mortar Standard  Soviet Union
81mmMORT L16.png L16 81mm mortar Mortar 81mm mortar Standard  United Kingdom


Picture Vehicle Origin Type Inventory Notes
PT-91M Pendekar.jpg PT-91M Pendekar  Poland Main Battle Tank 48[12] Not including 15 as a support vehicles.
Irish Scorpion Tank.JPG FV101 Scorpion  United Kingdom Light tank 26[6] Converted to light tank. Armed with Cockerill 90mm main gun

Armoured Vehicle[edit]

Picture Vehicle Origin Type Inventory Notes
ACV-300 Adnan.jpg ACV 300 Adnan  Turkey
Armoured Combat Vehicle 267[13] Includes ambulance, ARV, command post vehicle and 81mm & 120mm mortar carrier versions. 259 ACV-300 and 8 ACV-S. Produce locally by Deftech Sdn Bhd.
2007 Seoul Air Show 063 K200.JPG K-200 KIFV  Republic of Korea Infantry fighting vehicle 103[7] Malaysian Army operate the upgraded variant (K200A1)[14]
Alvis Stormer in 2009.jpg Alvis Stormer  United Kingdom Armoured vehicles 25[15] 12 units has a 20mm autocannon while others equipped with the TH-1 turret[16]
Hägglunds Bv206S ambulance.jpg Bandvagn 206  Sweden Armoured all-terrain carrier 80[15] Armoured utility vehicles with various functions[17]
FNSS Pars 2.JPG Deftech AV8 (8x8)  Turkey
Amphibious armored fighting vehicle 257[18] A prototype has been delivered by 2011 for final approval, and the order is expected to be filled between 2012 and 2015. 257 units will locally produced by the local company DRB-HICOM Defence Technologies Sdn Bhd (Deftech)


Sibmas AFSV-90 Muzium Tentera Darat.JPG SIBMAS (6x6)  Belgium Armoured fire support vehicles 186[6] Including 24 as armoured recovery vehicle. Armed with Cockerill 90mm main gun [21]
Malaysian Condor.jpg Condor APC (4x4)  Germany Armored personnel carrier 315[7] Originally 460 units. Some were lost in the Battle of Mogadishu (1993) and others were used for peacekeeping missions in various countries [22][23]
Herat2 (cropped).jpg URO VAMTAC  Spain Multi-purpose armoured vehicle 85[24] Multi-purpose armoured vehicle that strongly similar to U.S made Humvee. Mostly equipped with Mk 19 40mm AGL and M2 Browning HMG.[25] 25 units are as Igla anti-air missile launcher platform.[26]

Utility Vehicles[edit]

Picture Vehicle Origin Type Notes
POL Warsaw WZT-3.jpg WZT-4  Poland Armored Recorvery Vehicle
MID Polish.jpg MID-M  Poland Engineering Tank
Sabah Malaysia Hari-Merdeka-2013-Parade-226.jpg IVECO M4010  Italy Field Ambulance
Sabah Malaysia Hari-Merdeka-2013-Parade-224.jpg Land Rover Defender  United Kingdom Multi-purpose vehicle
Sabah Malaysia Hari-Merdeka-2013-Parade-221.jpg Mercedes-Benz G-Class  Germany Multi-purpose/light assault vehicle GD290
Malaysian Supacat.jpg All Terrain Mobility Platform  United Kingdom Air-mobile vehicle Used by 10 Paratrooper Brigade
PMC Leguan PMC Leguan  Poland Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge
SJ-09 SJ-09  Poland Training Tank
HICOM Handalan I/II  Malaysia Troop carrier truck
AV-VBL  Brazil
IVECO M4012  Italy Satellite Communication Vehicle
KAMAZ 43253  Russia Troop carrier truck

Major weaponry[edit]

Carl Gustav recoilless rifle Rapier-Jernas.jpg Avibras ASTROS-II SS-30.JPEG G-5Rear.jpg Antitank missile system Metis-M1.jpg
Name Origin Version In service Notes
Air-Defense Missiles
MBDA Rapier  United Kingdom Jernas 15 Launchers[27]
Starburst surface-to-air missile  United Kingdom Standard VML / LML Launchers
Fei Nu-6  People's Republic of China Standard
Anza (missile)  Pakistan Standard [28]
9K38 Igla  Soviet Union SA-18
Anti-Tank missile
Baktar-Shikan  Pakistan Standard
ERYX  France Standard
9K115 Metis  Soviet Union Standard
9K115-2 Metis-M  Soviet Union Standard
C90-CR (M3)  Spain
Carl Gustav recoilless rifle  Sweden M2
M40 recoilless rifle  United States Standard
M72 LAW  United States
RPG-7  Soviet Union RPG-7V
Astros II MLRS  Brazil 300mm Multiple rocket launcher 54[29][30] Originally received 36 Astross in inventory[30] On 2012 another 18 unit was ordered[30] make the total of 54 system in inventory.
Denel G5 howitzer  South Africa 155mm Towed artillery 22[7]
VSEL FH-70  European Union 155mm Towed artillery 12[7]
OTO Melara Mod 56  Italy 105 mm Towed artillery 110[7][31]
M102 howitzer  United States 105 mm Towed artillery 40[31]
Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon   Switzerland 35mm Anti-aircraft artillery 28[7]
Bofors 40 mm gun  Sweden 40mm Anti-aircraft artillery 36[7]

Army Air Wing[edit]

Aircraft Photo Role Versions Inventory Notes
Agusta A109 Malaysian Army Agusta A-109E LUH Vabre.jpg Multi-purpose helicopter A109LOH[32] 10 Used for observation. A109LOH version armed with 20mm gun and/or rockets for area suppression missions[33] One lost to crash.

Present Development[edit]

Since the recovery from the 1997 economic crisis, MA, along with other branches of the MAF, has regained momentum in its modernizing programs. The first major procurement was to set a milestone by building its first ever main battle tank regiment. MA received delivery of 48 PT-91M main battle tanks and other tank-based equipment, like ARV WZT-4 from Poland, fully completed contract of sale in March 2010. Despite adding some 28 units of South African G5 Mk III 155 mm howitzers, another major procurement was 18 units of Astros MLRS from Brazil, which delivery was completed in 2006. A second batch of 18 MRLS was ordered in 2007.[34] MA is also rapidly mechanizing its current inventory - 211 Adnan IFVs (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) were acquired by the army in 2004. Following a more recent procurement of the Pakistani Bakhtar-Shikan Anti-armor missile launcher, these were installed on the Adnans.

MA is now shifting its emphasis on enhancing its air wing. In September 2006, MA received its 11th and last Agusta-Westland A109H Light Utility Helicopter. These helicopters are to initially complement, and ultimately replace, the aging SA316B Aérospatiale Alouette III helicopters. Six of them were to be installed with light arms and to be tasked to a scout observation unit; a sample was shown in LIMA 07. The configuration of the remainder is unclear. Furthermore, the army will also receive S61A-4 Nuri multipurpose helicopters after they are retired from RMAF; these will form the backbone of the army’s very first air transport units - 881 and 882 squadrons of the army air wing.

In the same year, at the biannual Defence Services Asia (DSA) 2006, Malaysia announced that the U.S. made M4 Carbine service rifle will replace the Austrian-made Steyr AUG service rifle for all three Malaysian Armed Forces services. The army will receive the new weapon soon.

There is also a requirement for an upgrade to the current air defence network. However, a dispute between the army and the air force on whether to introduce a mid-range SAM system had led to the procurement being put on hold. According to a recent interview of the army’s chief of staff, Ismail bin Haji Jamaluddin, the army has no intention of taking over the mid-range air defence role.

Malaysia’s Soldier Modernisation Programme[edit]

As part of the Malaysian Armed Forces 4 Dimension (MAF 4D) strategic plan, a future soldier program known as Soldier Advanced Kombat Technology Integrated (SAKTI) has been established by the Ministry of Defence.[35] Malaysia’s work on its Future Soldier System has several aspects. There are currently no formal schedules for the programme, which is still in its initial phases with no formal issuing by the Army of a final requirement although industry, understood to include Sapura who are teamed with Thales on other projects have made submissions. Some technology development projects have come out, of such as earlier this year with the public display of the Malaysian Army Future Soldier Combat Uniform MK II.


  1. ^ a b "Malaysian Armed Forces". 
  2. ^ "Tentera Darat pertingkat kesiagaan pertahan dua wilayah secara serentak" (in Malay). New Sabah Times. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Kerajaan Cadang Wujud Rejimen Pengurusan Sempadan
  4. ^ Broken link as of 16 Nov 2007
  5. ^ Hamzah h.d (4 August 2008). "PENGISTIHARAN REJIMEN SEMPADAN - KOR BARU TENTERA DARAT YANG KE 16". Majalah Perajurit Edisi Mac 2008 (Kuala Lumpur: J2k,Minda Pertahanan,Min-Def Blogspot). Retrieved 2010-04-08 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t IISS (2012), p. 264
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k IISS (2012), p. 265
  8. ^ a b c d e
  9. ^ "Ops Daulat Ground Operation, Lahad Datu Crisis picture gallery". 
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ AV8 8x8 Wheeled Armoured Vehicle will be Revealed to the Public Soon
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ Rapier Ground Based Missile Defence System, United Kingdom,
  28. ^ "Anza Mk II anti-aircraft missile for elite Rapid Deployment Force". Worldsources Online. 2003-10-15. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  29. ^
  30. ^ a b c
  31. ^ a b "SIPRI arms transfer database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Information generated in 6 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ Astros II Artillery Saturation Rocket System Army Technology
  35. ^
Works cited
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2012). The Military Balance 2012. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222. 

External links[edit]