East Malaysia, also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah , Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia located on the island of Borneo. It consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, and the Federal Territory of Labuan. It lies to the east of Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia), which is located on the Malay Peninsula. The two are separated by the South China Sea. While East Malaysia is less populated and less developed than West Malaysia, its land mass is larger and it has notably more natural resources, chiefly oil and gas reserves.
Some parts of present-day East Malaysia, especially the coastal regions, were once part of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei. However, most parts of the interior region consisted of independent tribal societies.
In 1658, the northern and eastern coasts of Sabah were ceded to the Sultanate of Sulu while the west coast of Sabah and most of Sarawak remained part of Brunei. Beginning in the mid 19th century, both Sabah and Sarawak became British protectorates, and, in 1946, both became separate British colonies.
Both Sabah (formerly British North Borneo) and Sarawak were separate British colonies from Malaya, and did not become part of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. However, both voted to become part of the new Federation of Malaysia along with the Federation of Malaya and Singapore in 1963. Previously, there were efforts to unite Brunei, Sabah, and Sarawak under the North Borneo Federation but that failed after the Brunei Revolt occurred.
Sabah and Sarawak retained a higher degree of local government and legislative autonomy when compared to other states in West Malaysia. For example, both states have separate immigration controls, requiring Malaysian citizens from West Malaysia to carry passports or identity cards when visiting East Malaysia.
The islands of Labuan Territory once were part of North Borneo (later Sabah) in 1946 before becoming a Federal Territory in Malaysia on 1984. It was used to establish a centre for offshore finance in 1990.
Since 2010, there has been some speculation and discussion, at least on the ground level, about the possibility of secession from the Federation of Malaysia because of allegations of resource mishandling, illegal processing of immigrants, etc.
It has been a source of debate whether the states of Sabah and Sarawak joined the Federation of Malaysia as equal partners with Malaya and Singapore or whether they became merely equal partners of the states of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia). The consensus seems to be that Sabah and Sarawak are merely states of the federation with a slightly higher degree of autonomy compared to states in Peninsular Malaysia. For example, the East Malaysian states have separate laws regulating the entry of citizens from other states in Malaysia (including the other East Malaysian state), whereas, in Peninsular Malaysia, there are no restrictions on interstate travel or migration, including visitors from East Malaysia. There are also separate land laws governing Sabah and Sarawak, as opposed to the National Land Code, which governs Peninsular Malaysia.
With regard to the administration of justice, the courts in East Malaysia are part of the federal court system in Malaysia. The Constitution of Malaysia provides that there shall be two High Courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction – The High Court in Malaya and the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak (formerly the High Court in Borneo). The current Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak is Richard Malanjum from Sabah. His office is the fourth highest in the Malaysian judicial system (behind the Chief Judge of Malaya, President of the Court of Appeal, and Chief Justice of Malaysia).
Sarawak, Sabah and Labuan currently holding a total of 57 out 222 seats (25.68%) in the Malaysian parliament with majority of the seats going to the ruling coalition Barisan Nasional ever since the two states hold their first state elections. However, local leaders such as Jeffrey Kitingan is concerned that the number of seats from East Malaysia is under-represented in the Malaysian parliament as compared to the ideal representation of 35% stated in the Cobbold Commission report. After the conclusion of 2013 Malaysian general election, East Malaysia contributed a total of 47 parliamentary seats (35.34%) out of the 133 seats won by the Barisan Nasional coalition following the Barisan dismal performance in Peninsular Malaysia. This has resulted an increase in ministers and deputy ministers allocation for East Malaysia in the Malaysian Cabinet from 11 out of 57 portfolios in 2008 election to 20 out of 61 after the 2013 election. On the basis that East Malaysia should be treated as equal partner as compared to the Peninsular, local lawmakers has urged the federal government since the year 2011 to appoint at least one deputy prime minister from East Malaysia into the federal cabinet. Political parties in Sarawak and Sabah evolved independently of each other. Party switching and party leadership tussle are common in both the states.
The first political party, Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP) was established in 1959 followed by Parti Negara Sarawak (PANAS) in 1960, and Sarawak National Party (SNAP) in 1961. Other parties such as Barisan Ra'ayat Jati Sarawak (BARJASA), Sarawak Chinese Association (SCA), and Parti Pesaka Sarawak (PESAKA) later appeared by 1962. Stephen Kalong Ningkan (SNAP) was the first Chief Minister of Sarawak from 1963 to 1966 following his landslide winnings of three tier system of local authority elections. He was later ousted in 1966 by Tawi Sli (PESAKA) with the help of Malaysian federal government, causing 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis. Tawi Sli was a dissident from Ningkan's SNAP party who later joined PESAKA. Sarawak political climate is mostly stable except for the 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis and the Ming Court Affair between 1981 and 1987. Ming Court Affair was a political coup initiated by Abdul Taib Mahmud's uncle in order to topple the Taib led Sarawak Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition. However, the coup was unsuccessful and Taib was able to retain his chief minister post.
The year 1970 saw the completion the first Sarawak state election where members of Council Negri (now Sarawak State Legislative Assembly) was directly elected by the voters. This election also marks the beginning of ethnic Melanau domination in Sarawak politics at first by Abdul Rahman Ya'kub and followed by his nephew Abdul Taib Mahmud. The year 1973 saw the demise of SCA after it was booted out by the government coalition and the birth of Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB). PBB was formed by the merger of three parties namely PANAS, BARJASA, and PESAKA. This party would later become the backbone of Sarawak BN coalition, currently holding 35 out of 71 state assembly seats after 2011 Sarawak state election.
However, a splinter party named Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS) broke off from SNAP in 1983 due to leadership tussle. PBDS would later dissolved in 2004 also due to another leadership crisis. Parti Rakyat Sarawak (PRS), a splinter party from PBDS, was formed after that in 2004. PRS is currently a component party in Barisan Nasional (BN). SNAP was deregistered in 2002. Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party (SPDP), another splinter party from SNAP, was formed after that in 2002 which would later become a component party of BN. The SNAP deregistration would later be reversed by Court of Appeal in June 2010. However, the revival was short-lived. SNAP was deregistered again in January 2013 by the verdict of Federal Court of Malaysia. In 2010, another splinter party named Sarawak Workers Party (SWP) emerged to absorb dissidents from PRS and SPDP. In 2014, Parti Tenaga Rakyat Sarawak (Teras) was formed following a split in SUPP, a component party in BN coalition.
In 1978, Democratic Action Party (DAP) was the first Peninsular-based party to open its branches in Sarawak. This party derived majority of its support from urban centres such as Miri, Bintulu, Sibu, and Kuching since 2006 state election and become the largest opposition party in Sarawak, currently holding 12 out of 71 state assembly seats. In 2010, it forms Pakatan Rakyat coalition with Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) and Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) where the latter 2 parties entered Sarawak only between 1996 and 2001. Sarawak is the only state in Malaysia where Peninsular-based component parties in BN coalition especially UMNO has not entered Sarawak.
East Malaysia contains the five highest mountains in Malaysia, the highest being Mount Kinabalu at 4095 m, which is also the highest mountain in Borneo and the 10th highest mountain peak in Southeast Asia. It also contains the two longest rivers in Malaysia – Rajang River and Kinabatangan River.
Banggi Island in Sabah and Betruit Island in Sarawak are the two largest islands that are located entirely within Malaysia. The largest island is Borneo, which is shared with Indonesia and Brunei. The second largest island is Sebatik Island, in Sabah, which is shared with Indonesia.
Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves within Gunung Mulu National Park. Its Sarawak Chamber is the largest known cave chamber in the world. The Gunung Mulu National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in November 2000.
Several oil and gas fields have been discovered offshore, including the Samarang oil field (1972) offshore Sabah, the Baronia oil field (1967) offshore Sarawak, and the Central Luconia natural gas fields (1968), also offshore Sarawak. The Baronia Field is a domal structural trap between two east-west growth faults, which produces from late Miocene sandstones interbedded with siltstones and clays at 2 km depth in 75 m of water.:431 The Samarang Field produces from late Miocene sandtones in an alternating sequence of sandstones, siltstones and clays in an anticline at a depth of about 3 km in water 9–45 m.:431 The Central Luconia Gas Fields produce from middle to late Miocene carbonate platform and pinnacle reefs from 1.25-3.76 km deep and water depths 60-100m.:436–437
The total population of East Malaysia in 2010 was 5.77 million (3.21 million in Sabah, 2.47 million in Sarawak, and 0.09 million in Labuan), which represents 20.4% of the population of Malaysia. A significant part of the population of East Malaysia today reside in towns and cities. The largest city and urban center is Kuching, which is also the capital of Sarawak and has a population of over 600,000 people. Kota Kinabalu is the second largest, and one of the most important cities in East Malaysia. Kuching, Kota Kinabalu, and Miri are the only three places with city status in East Malaysia. Other important towns include Sandakan and Tawau in Sabah, Sibu and Bintulu in Sarawak, and Victoria in Labuan.
The earliest inhabitants of East Malaysia are the Dayak people and other related ethnic groups such as the Dusun people. These indigenous people form a significant portion, but not the majority, of the population. For hundreds of years, there has been significant migration into East Malaysia and Borneo from many parts of the Malay Archipelago, including Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, and Sulu. More recently, there has been immigration from India and China.
The indigenous inhabitants were originally animists. Islamic influence began as early as the 15th century, while Christian influence started in the 19th century.
The indigenous inhabitants are generally partisan and maintain culturally distinct dialects of the Malay language, in addition to their own ethnic languages. Approximately 13% of the population of Sabah, and 26% of the population of Sarawak, is composed of ethnic Chinese Malaysians.
However, the demographics of Sabah has been altered dramatically with the alleged implementation of Project IC in the 1990s. Citizenships are alleged to be granted to immigrants of Indonesia and Philippines in order to keep the UMNO ruling party in power. Royal Commission of Inquiry (RCI) has been conducted from 11 August 2012 to 20 September 2013. The outcome of the investigation was submitted to the prime minister on 19 May 2014 but the content of the report has not been made public.
East Malaysia currently has two public universities, namely Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) and Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) also has branch campuses in both states. Labuan's own institution of higher education is Universiti Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus, a branch of Universiti Malaysia Sabah in Sepanggar Bay, Kota Kinabalu. Labuan also has a matriculation college, Kolej Matrikulasi Labuan, the only matriculation college in East Malaysia. Thus, all pre-university students from Sabah, Sarawak, and Labuan must take their courses there.
UCSI University, Sarawak Campus, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College (Sabah campus), International University College Of Technology Twintech (Sabah campus), and Open University Malaysia (Sabah campus) have local private university branch campuses in East Malaysia.
There are 4 teacher training colleges (Malay: Maktab Perguruan) in Sarawak, namely Maktab Perguruan Batu Lintang (Kuching), Maktab Perguruan Rajang (Sibu), Maktab Perguruan Sains Bintulu, and Maktab Perguruan Sarawak (Miri). There are also 4 teacher training colleges in Sabah, namely Maktab Perguruan Kent, Maktab Perguruan Gaya, Maktab Perguruan Keningau, and Maktab Perguruan Tawau.
The Pan Borneo Highway connects Sabah, Sarawak, and Brunei. The road has been poorly maintained since it was built. The narrow road is dark at night without any street lights and there are many danger spots, sharp bends, blind spots, potholes, and erosion. However, federal government funds have been allocated for the upgrade of the highway, which will be carried out in stages until completion in 2025.
The major airports in East Malaysia are Kuching International Airport, Labuan International Airport and Kota Kinabalu International Airport. There are frequent air flights by carriers including Malaysia Airlines (MAS) and AirAsia between East Malaysia and Peninsular Malaysia. Other ports of entry to East Malaysia include Sibu Airport, Bintulu Airport, and Miri Airport in Sarawak, Sandakan Airport and Tawau Airport in Sabah. MAS also operates international flights to major cities in East Malaysia.
The rural areas in Borneo can only be accessed by air or river boat. River transport is especially prevalent in Sarawak because there are many large and long rivers, with Rajang River being the most used. Rivers are used by boats and ferries for communications (i.e. mail) and passenger transport between inland areas and coastal towns. Timber is also transported via vessels and log carriers down the rivers of Sarawak.
The 2013 Lahad Datu standoff, which lasted from February to March 2013, had raised security concerns over the east coast of Sabah, which borders the southern islands of the Philippines. The Eastern Sabah Security Zone (ESSZONE) and Eastern Sabah Security Command (ESSCOM) was established on 25 March 2013 to tighten security in the region and to prevent any further intrusion. In November 2013 suspected Abu Sayyaf militants killed a Taiwanese national at Pom Pom Island and released his wife a month later in the southern Philippines. In January 2014, an attempted intrusion by foreign elements on Sabah was blocked by Malaysian security forces. On 2 April 2014, a Chinese tourist and a Filipino national were abducted off Singamata Adventures Reef and Resort, Semporna. Two months later, they were rescued by Malaysian and Philippines security forces. On 6 May 2014, another abduction involving a Chinese national occurred in Silam, near the Lahad Datu area in Sabah. He was later freed on July 10. On 16 June, a fish breeder and a Filipino worker was kidnapped off Kunak. On 12 July, a policeman was shot dead and another marine policeman was abducted at Mabul Water Bungalows Resort, Mabul island. On 19 July, 12-hour dusk to dawn curfew was imposed on six Sabah east coast districts.
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