Malaysian Special Operations Force
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The Malaysian Special Operations Force (Malay: Pasukan Operasi Khusus Malaysia) is a multi-service force tasked with a counter-terrorism mission. It consists of 10 Paratrooper Brigade, Grup Gerak Khas (GGK), Pasukan Khas Laut (PASKAL), Pasukan Khas Udara (PASKAU), Pasukan Gerakan Khas (PGK), Unit Gempur Marin (UNGERIN), Trup Tindakan Cepat (meaning: Rapid Actions Troops) and Special Task And Rescue (STAR).
- 1 Introductions
- 2 Identities
- 3 Joint Anti-Terror Task Forces
- 4 Weapons
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Website
The eight elements of Malaysia's Special Operations Force have been tasked with the important objective of maintaining Malaysia's security, specifically in combating terrorism. A mission especially important in the wake of the 11 September attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, and in a climate of global terrorism which would see the later bombing of the tourist centre of Bali and the J.W. Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, bombings and murders in Southern Thailand and the bomb explosions in the railway stations and transit systems of Madrid and London. Malaysia's security agencies eagerly studied the lessons to be learnt from all such incidents so as to prepare to deal with similar terrorism, in the event that the terrorists should see Malaysia as a target. In November 2003 Malaysia passed new counter-terrorism laws that were widely criticised by local human rights groups for being vague and excessively broad. Critics claim that the laws put the basic rights of free expression, association, and assembly at risk. Malaysia persisted in holding around 100 alleged militants without trial, including five Malaysian students detained for alleged terrorist activity while studying in Karachi, Pakistan. Malaysia maintains a high level of security and to date no similar terrorist atrocities have occurred.
Previously the only incidents with possible links to Islamic terrorism have been the detonation of a small bomb in Kuala Lumpur's Puduraya bus station and more significantly the 2000 Sauk raid by Al-Ma'unah militants, an audacious raid to steal weapons from a military base to arm an Islamic insurrection. This attempted insurrection was swiftly defeated, the result of the close co-operation and relationship of the government, private agencies and society as a whole. A co-operation and relationship born from the initiatives that from 1948 to 1989 defeated the communist insurgents of the Malayan Emergency and the later Communist Insurgency War. The Malaysian people is eager not to suffer for a third time in their history a repeat of previous insurgencies and terrorism.
In assessing the tactics, strength, equipment, personnel and abilities as a whole of the Malaysian special forces, they are equal in competence with the special forces teams of Indonesia, Britain and the United States. In fact, since its creation Malaysian forces have been involved with these teams on the international level, for example whilst being part of United Nations peace keeping missions.
10 Paratrooper Brigade
10 Paratrooper Brigade is an elite rapid deployment brigade which is a branch of the Malaysian Army. It was then merged with other infantry elements including 3 battalions, 1 artillery regiment, 1 armour squadron and 11 supporting units.
While primarily tasked with rapid deployment, it is also involved in the fight against terrorism but in a different manner. This is because the operational tasks for the 10th Para involves the convergence of conventional warfare tactics requiring a high number of personnel and equipment. This includes amphibian warfare and airborne operations, just to name a few. 10 Para is not considered as a special operations unit. The paratrooper force consists of male and some female paratroopers.
Grup Gerak Khas
The Grup Gerak Khas (English: Special Service Group) is the main entity element in the Malaysian Army. It is basically a commando regiment in the Malaysian Army Corps. The mission of the GGK is to provide a squadron to locate, report, harass and disrupt the enemy through long range infiltration as well as operating in close collaboration with guerrilla or partisan forces. GGK will also plan, prepare for, and when directed, deploy to conduct unconventional warfare, internal defence, special reconnaissance and direct actions etc. in support of Government policy objectives within designated areas of responsibility.
GGK continuously trains to conduct unconventional warfare in any of its forms – guerrilla / anti-guerrilla warfare, escape and evasion, subversion, sabotage, counter-terrorist and their most highly regarded expertise – jungle warfare. They have a great reputation in operations against the communist terrorists. The troopers are also schooled in direct action operations and special reconnaissance. Currently, there are 3 fully equipped regiments (21st, 22nd & 11th GGK). GGK has seen action in Cambodia, Somalia, western Sahara, Namibia and Bosnia among others. Most recently GGK has also been involved with peacekeeping missions in Lebanon and East Timor.
The Royal Malaysian Navy also has elite forces to secure the Malaysian maritime areas, especially the Malacca Straits, from intruders and terrorist groups. The unit is known as Naval Special Warfare Forces (Malay: Pasukan Khas Laut, a.k.a. PASKAL) by its Malay acronym in the year 1980. The unit was established using commando-trained officers and men from the Security Regiment. The first batch were trained by Komando Pasukan Katak or called KOPASKA, the naval special forces from Indonesia. First established in the year 1975, the role of this team is similar to coast guards whereby it was assigned to secure the RMN vessels, and the beaches. However, the UK Royal Marines Commando and US Navy SEALs have restructured the PASKAL forces. Some PASKAL operators have also been sent to the SEALs training center. PASKAL is now a highly competent special forces unit with responsibilities to secure all strategic areas and conducting other counter-terrorism operations in cargo shipments, oil rigs and the terrain. Some of its personnel are stationed in man-made 'islands' in the Spratlys and in strategic areas within the country's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). PASKAL is equipped with the latest hi-tech weaponry as they are also funded by an oil consortium (one of PASKAL's main missions is to protect oil rigs in Malaysian waters) and shipping companies.
The Royal Malaysian Air Force once had a special operations force to secure the RMAF strategic airbase which was known as Air Special Forces (Malay: Pasukan Khas Udara, PASKAU). In its first establishment, the name of this unit was known as HANDAU (Air and Land Defense, Malay: Pertahanan Darat dan Udara) and at that moment, it did not have any counter-terrorism roles yet. The tentative "special forces" designation was probably due to the unit's airborne capability. This unit was established after the covert attacks on the RMAF strategic amenities in Sungai Besi by members of the Malayan Communist Party.
With very high competency level, the unit was tasked to secure the RMAF airbases and amenities and also civil airports including Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) if necessary. Under Directive No. 18 National Defense Council (Malay: Arahan 18 Majlis Keselamatan Negara) it is also tasked with handling hijackers or terrorism involving RMAF bases. The GGK army commando were also included to join this unit at its formation. Nowadays, PASKAU had the three branches including Flight Hostage Rescue Team (Malay: Skuad Udara Penyelamat Tebusan, tasked on Counter-Terrorist force), Combat Air Rescue Team (Malay: Skuadron Penyelamat Tempur Udara – SPTU, CSAR task) and Force Protection Teams (Malay: Skuadron Kawalan Medan – SKM, Air Base protections task). The unit conducted special training technique and rescue missions, especially rescue operations for a downed pilot behind enemy lines or in hostile territory, but they were much more popular for life-saving services to civilians (courtesy flights etc.). Other than that, PASKAU may also search and eliminate enemy troops who execute sabotage against RMAF air bases.
(Note: All special operations forces of Malaysian Armed Forces were involved with the Malaysian UN force in Lebanon.)
Pasukan Gerakan Khas
In the days of communist insurgency, the Royal Malaysian Police had a paramilitary arm called Pasukan Polis Hutan (PPH). They had several battalions and among them was the elite one, known as 69 Commando Battalion or VAT 69. It was actually formed in 1969 (hence the name – 69). The normal police too had an elite unit – Unit Tindakan Khas (UTK). UTK had a SWAT-like function as well as close protection roles. After the communist terrorists laid down arms in 1989, VAT 69 had problems finding a proper role. Finally on October 1997, the PPH was renamed as Pasukan Gerakan Am (PGA) while UTK and 69th Commando Battalion were merged. It was then called Pasukan Gerakan Khas (PGK).
All officers and soldiers of PGK wherever conduct the special training from the United States (besides Germany GSG-9, Australia, Britain and New Zealand SAS) including special investigators, counter-terrorist experts, risk, special demolitions, airborne and much more. The PGK police counter-terrorists are ever involved in anti-terror operations in Malaysia, for example the armed rebellion of the Al Ma'unah terrorist militia led by Mohamed Amin Razali. The police special force, together with Grup Gerak Khas, successfully tracked down the rebellion, as well as being involved in the arrest of suspected Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist groups who were involved in the 9/11 attacks and Bali bombing. Beside that, the unit also took over the 10 Para and GGK duties in Timor Leste after the terrorism in the country was calmed down.
The Marine Combat Unit or UNGERIN is a newly formed maritime anti-terror special force which was established in March 2006 and was under control of the marine police of RMP. Very different from other Malaysian special forces, the UNGERIN is the only one special force in Malaysia which is trained by the United States (all special forces of Malaysia are regularly trained with foreign special forces including the Special Air Service Regiments of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom and a number of US services). The unit which has been given special training by 69 Commando and US Navy SEALs were tasked with securing the Malaysia maritime, especially the Malacca Straits and Sulu Sea from threats at sea, especially piracy and smugglers, and cooperation with naval elite units and coast guard.
Rapid Actions Troops
The Rapid Actions Troops, or Trup Tindakan Cepat, is a new Prison Department anti-terror special forces squad, which was established on 3 October 2005 and operates under control of the Malaysian Prison Department. Formed with 20 members that had undergone three months training at the Special Warfare Training Centre (PULPAK) in Sungai Udang Fort, Malacca by 11th Rejimen Gerak Khas Counter-Terrorist Regiment for dealing with terrorist threats and riot which occurred inside the jails in Malaysia.
With the formation of this team, the Prisons Department was able to carry out escort tasks without police assistance, escorting prisoners that are listed as high profile criminal records to detention centres. When needed, the team is also used to assist the other Malaysian special forces in counter-terrorism missions.
Special Task and Rescue
The Special Task And Rescue (Malay: Pasukan Tindakan Khas dan Penyelamat Maritime) or STAR team is the official coast guard special forces of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency which was established to protect local maritime assets, especially the Straits of Malacca. Initially, the commandos were formerly trained by Air Force PASKAU and formed on 25 April 2005. STARs are trained to be a first responder to potential terrorist situations; deny terrorist acts; perform security actions against non-compliant actors; perform tactical facility entry and enforcement; participate in port level counterterrorism exercises; and educate other forces on Coast Guard counterterrorism procedures.
STARs are a quick response force capable of rapid nationwide deployment via air, ground or sea transportation in response to changing threat conditions. Multi-mission capability facilitates augmentation for other selected Coast Guard missions. The STAR's purpose is to develop systems and processes for standardised training, equipment, organisation, planning, and scheduling of rapidly deployable specialised forces to execute mission objectives in support of tactical and operational commanders.
Joint Anti-Terror Task Forces
Currently, when under control of Arahan 18 Majlis Keselamatan Negara (MKN) or Directive No.18 National Security Council, there are several units distinguished as Special Operations Force, namely;
- Grup Gerak Khas (Army)
- PASKAL (Navy)
- PASKAU (Air Force)
- 69 Commando PGK (Police)
- Special Actions Unit PGK (Police)
- UNGERIN (Police)
- Trup Tindakan Cepat (Prison Department)
- Special Task And Rescue (Coast Guard)
Discussion had been ongoing that instead of having seven separate units, there should be an initiative to combine all 8 into one organised unit as Malaysian Special Operation Forces or Joint Special Services Regiment.
A successful SAS model based on UK, New Zealand and Australia experience should be taken into view. In matters relating to national security issues of these countries, the only recognised SAS Regiments will be the choice in order to neutralise the conflict.
Under the so-called concept of 'Joint Services Special Forces', the great seven units can be combined together as one regiment headed by a major general/vice air chief marshal/vice admiral or even a deputy commissioner of police. This unit should be placed under matrix organisation as to report directly to MKN and to each respected Chief of Army, Navy, Airforce and Inspector General of Police.
Within the joint unit, all seven units can be re-organised as per SAS models such as;
- Mountain/Land Troop (including/combining all specialised skills/unit acquired by the former Army Grup Gerak Khas, Police VAT 69 Pasukan Gerakan Khas);
- Amphibious/Maritime Troop (including/combining all PASKAL specialised trade in seaborne operations, swamp, diving etc. together with UNGERIN);
- Air Troop (including/combining all PASKAU specialised in hostage rescue at the airport or aircraft, air installation protection and also taking over PARA troops facility and training of the HALO/HAHO from Grup Gerak Khas etc.).
- Counter Revolutionary Warfare and Counter Terrorist Unit (including/combining skills from GGK, PGK, PASKAL, UNGERIN, TTC and PASKAU to form several units, with 24 hours standby notice by the MKN. The example of this is Blue Troop and Red Troop of the British SAS that are on 24 hours standby notice.)
The unification of these several units into one special unit does have its benefits and its disadvantages. However, in matters of serving the country, all differences including/especially the self pride should be resolved amicably. Here are some of the benefits of uniting these units into one force:
- Joint selection process can be achieved to obtain the best candidate from all Services and also from Police (such as New Zealand SAS) to ensure the highest quality of future unit trooper.
- The cost of doing business or maintaining the forces will be much less and the saved money can be further invested in new weaponry, new tactics, high tech facilities, staff welfare etc.
- The expertise of each respected unit can be cross sectionalised and documented to ensure every trooper is highly specialised in his craft or even better multi-skilled. The future is to sell the 'Malaysian expertise' to other countries, as SAS UK did as part of the marketing of British defence product and expertise.
- Economies of scale in asset management and procurement in the long run as to have a highly dedicated special forces and also to keep the cost low or manageable.
To ensure the presentation of each service is equally exhibited, the head of each new unit can be as below;
- Commanding officer of the Mountain/Land Troop – Brigadier General (Army)
- Commanding officer of the Amphibious/Maritime Troop – Commodore (Navy)
- Commanding officer of Air Troop – Brigadier General (Airforce)
- Commanding officer of CRW/AT Unit – Senior Assistant Commissioner (Police)
However the officer and the NCOs can be cross sectionalised with each other based on his best achievement of his specialised skills or where he can perform the best.
|HK AG36||Germany||Grenade Launcher||40×46mm||used by PASKAL|
|HK MG4||Germany||Machine Gun||5.56×45mm NATO||used by PASKAL|
|FN Minimi||Belgium||Machine Gun||7.62×51mm NATO||used by 10 Para, GGK and PASKAU|
|RC-50F||USA||Anti-materiel Rifle||12.7×99mm NATO||used by PASKAL|
|M14 sniper||USA||Sniper Rifle||7.62×51mm NATO||used by PASKAL|
|HK PSG-1||Germany||Sniper Rifle||7.62×51mm NATO||used by police special forces|
|HK MSG-90||Germany||Sniper Rifle||7.62×51mm NATO||used by military special forces|
|Blaser 93 Tactical||Germany||Sniper Rifle||7.62×51mm NATO||used by military special forces|
|Barrett M95||USA||Anti-materiel Rifle||12.7×99mm NATO||used by GGK|
|Barrett M107||USA||Anti-materiel Rifle||12.7×99mm NATO||used by PASKAU|
|AMP DSR-1||Germany||Sniper Rifle||7.62×51mm NATO|
|AWM||UK||Sniper Rifle||.338 Lapua Magnum||used by PGK|
|AW||UK||Sniper Rifle||7.62×51mm NATO||used by other special forces|
|SIG SG 553||Switzerland||Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO||used by GGK, PASKAU, UNGERIN and STAR|
|HK XM8||Germany||Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO||used by PASKAL|
|HK416||Germany||Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO||used by PASKAL and PGK|
|HK G36||Germany||Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO||used by PASKAL and PGK|
|Colt M16A1||USA||Assault rifle||5.56×45mm NATO|
|Colt M4 Carbine||USA||Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO|
|HK UMP9||Germany||Submachine Gun||9×19mm NATO||used by PASKAL, PGK and STAR|
|HK MP7A1||Germany||Personal defence weapon||4.6×30mm||used by PASKAL and PGK|
|MP5 series||Germany||Submachine Gun||9×19mm NATO||used by other special forces|
|FN P90||Belgium||Personal defence weapon||5.7×28mm||used by PASKAL|
|Remington 870||USA||Shotgun||12 Bore||used by other special forces|
|Remington 1100||USA||Shotgun||12 Bore||used by other special forces|
|Mossberg 500||USA||Shotgun||12 Bore||used by other special forces|
|Franchi SPAS-12||Italy||Shotgun||12 Bore||used by GGK and PGK|
|Benelli M4 Super 90||Italy||Shotgun||12 Bore||used by PASKAU|
|Benelli M3 Super 90||Italy||Shotgun||12 Bore||used by PGK|
|Sphinx 3000||Switzerland||Pistol||9×19mm NATO||used by PASKAU|
|S&W M&P 9||USA||Pistol||9×19mm NATO||used by TTC|
|SIG P226||Switzerland||Pistol||9×19mm NATO||used by 10 Para, GGK and STAR|
|HK USP9 Tactical||Germany||Pistol||9×19mm NATO||used by PGK|
|HK Mark 23||Germany||Pistol||.45 ACP||used by PGK|
|Colt M1911A1||USA||Pistol||.45 ACP||used by 10 Para, GGK and PGK|
|Beretta 92||Italy||Pistol||9×19mm NATO||used by 10 Para and GGK|
|M79||USA||Grenade Launcher||40×46mm||used by PASKAL|
|M60E2||USA||Machine Gun||7.62×51mm NATO||used by PASKAL|
|Steyr AUG||Austria||Assault Rifle||5.56×45mm NATO|
|Carbon 15||USA||Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO|
|AK-102||Russia||Assault Rifle||5.56×45mm NATO||used by PASKAL|
- List of special forces units
- online Human Rights News 2004
- "Malaysian arms gang take hostages". BBC. 4 July 2000. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- "Malaysian arms raid cult charged". BBC. 8 August 2000. Retrieved 8 June 2008.
- "Unit Selam Tempur – miliki kemahiran ala komando". Utusan Malaysia. 28 July 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2008.(Malay)