Malaysian general election, 1969

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Malaysian general election, 1969
Malaysia
1964 ←
members
10 May 1969 - 4 July 1970 → 1974
members

All 144 seats to the Dewan Rakyat
and all 330 state legislature seats in 12 (out of 13, except Sabah) states of Malaysia

73 seats needed for a majority
Registered 3,450,000
Turnout 2,532,042 (73.6%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Tunku abd rahman.jpg PAS DAP
Leader Tunku Abdul Rahman Burhanuddin al-Helmy Goh Hock Guan
Party Alliance PAS DAP
Leader since 23 August 1951 1956 1969
Leader's seat Kuala Kedah No seat Bungsar
Last election 89 seats, 58.5% 9 seats, 14.6% 1 seat, 2.0%
Seats won 74 12 13
Seat change Decrease 15 Increase 3 Increase 12
Popular vote 1,063,238 495,641 286,606
Percentage 44.3% 20.9% 12.1%
Swing Decrease 14.2% Increase 6.3% Increase 10.1%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Gerakan PPP SUPP
Leader Lim Chong Eu S. P. Seenivasagam
Party Gerakan People's Progressive Party Sarawak United People's Party
Leader since 1969 1969
Leader's seat Tanjong Menglembu
Last election New Party 2 seats, 3.4% New Party
Seats won 8 4 5
Seat change Increase 2
Popular vote 178,971 80,756 71,293
Percentage 7.5% 3.4% 3.0%

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
  SNAP USNO PESAKA
Party SNAP United Sabah National Organisation Parti Pesaka Sarawak
Last election New Party New Party New Party
Seats won 9 13 2
Popular vote 64,593 31,947 30,765
Percentage 2.7% 1.3% 1.3%

Prime Minister before election

Tunku Abdul Rahman
Alliance

Prime Minister-designate

Tunku Abdul Rahman
Alliance

General elections were held in Malaysia on 10 May 1969, although voting was postponed until between 6 June and 4 July 1970 in Sabah and Sarawak.[1] This election marked the first parliamentary election held in Sabah and Sarawak after the formation of Malaysia in 1963.

The election resulted in the return to power, with a reduced majority, of the ruling Alliance Party, comprising the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the Malayan Chinese Association, and the Malayan Indian Congress. The Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (Gerakan) and the Democratic Action Party (DAP), which had campaigned against Bumiputra privileges outlined by Article 153 of the Constitution, made major gains in the election.[2] Voter turnout was 73.6%. Opposition won 54 seats in total causing the Alliance to lose its two-thirds majority in the Parliament (two-thirds majority being the majority required to pass most constitutional amendments) for the first time. This election also saw that Alliance lost its majority in Perak, Selangor and Penang in addition to Kelantan.

Results[edit]

Parliamentary results[edit]

Political Party Votes % of vote Seats % of seats +/–
Alliance Party Alliance 1,063,238 44.3 74 51.4 -15
United Malays National Organisation UMNO 52* 36.1 -7
Malaysian Chinese Association MCA 13 9.0 -14
Malaysian Indian Congress MIC 2 1.4 -1
Sarawak Chinese Association SCA 1 0.7 New
Parti Bumiputera Sarawak BUMIPUTERA 6 4.2 New
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party PAS 495,641 20.9 12 8.3 +3
Democratic Action Party DAP 286,606 12.1 13 9.0 +12
Malaysian People's Movement Party Gerakan 178,971 7.5 8 5.6 New
People's Progressive Party PPP 80,756 3.4 4 2.8 +2
Sarawak United People's Party SUPP 71,293 3.0 5 3.5 New
Sarawak National Party SNAP 64,593 2.7 9 6.3 New
United Sabah National Organisation USNO 31,947 1.3 13 9.0 New
Parti Pesaka Sarawak PESAKA 30,765 1.3 2 1.4 New
Parti Ra'ayat Ra'ayat 25,785 1.1 0 0.0 New
Sabah Chinese Association SCA 24,699 1.0 3 2.1 New
United Malaysian Chinese Organisation UMCO 1,808 0.1 0 0.0 New
Independents IND 41,710 1.8 1 0.7 +1
Valid votes 2,397,812
Invalid/blank votes 134,230
Total (turnout: 73.6%) 2,532,042 100.0 144 100.0 +40
Did not vote 917,958
Registered voters 3,450,000
Source: Nohlen et al. [1], [2],[3]
  • Candidates were returned unopposed in 19 constituencies. Election in one constituency postponed.

West Malaysia went to the polls on 10 May, while Sabah was scheduled to vote on 25 May and Sarawak on 7 June. The Alliance won 10 seats in Sabah on nomination day being unopposed in some constituencies, so after the West Malaysian elections they were assured of a clear majority of 76 out of a total of 144 parliamentary seats. Tun Mustapha Datu Harun’s United Sabah National Organisation (Usno) won 10 out of 16 seats unopposed for the Alliance on nomination day.

The opposition parties’ gain at state level was more shocking to the Alliance Party which not only continued to lose to PAS in Kelantan, but also to political infant Gerakan in Penang. No party commanded an absolute majority in two other states. The Alliance held only 14 out of 24 seats in Selangor and 19 out of 40 in Perak.[2]

Very interestingly, the attrition of Malay support was much higher than that of the non-Malays. Malay opposition parties’ vote shares in the peninsula increased drastically from about 15% in 1964 to 25% in 1969 while the support for non-Malay opposition parties remained roughly the same at 26% in both elections. Thanks to the electoral system, however, PAS seats increased from nine to 12 seats only while non-Malay opposition party, DAP, from 12 to 25.

Reaction[edit]

Gerakan and DAP held a victory rally in Kuala Lumpur on 12 May, but the rally turned rowdy, with party members shouting racial epithets at Malay bystanders.[3] UMNO retaliated with its own rally on 13 May, which soon broke out into full-scale rioting, which subsequently became known as the 13 May Incident.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nohlen, D, Grotz, F & Hartmann, C (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume II, p152 ISBN 0-19-924959-8
  2. ^ a b Report on the parliamentary (Dewan Rakyat) and state legislative assembly general elections 1969 of the states of Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak Election Commission of Malaysia
  3. ^ a b Zainon Ahmad (26 July 2007). "The tragedy of May 13, 1969 (part 2)". The Sun. Retrieved 24 June 2010.