Malaysian general election, 1990
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General elections were held in Malaysia on 21 October 1990. Elections to the federal parliament and 11 of the 13 state assemblies (except Sabah and Sarawak) were held simultaneously. The result was a victory for the Barisan Nasional (BN) at the federal level and 10 of the 11 state elections. The opposition alliance Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (APU) won a landslide victory over BN in the state of Kelantan, winning all 39 state assembly seats. Voter turnout was 72.3%.
The elections marked the first after United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) party split and the subsequent constitutional crisis in 1988. The reconstituted UMNO Baru (New UMNO), led by incumbent Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, and the newly formed Parti Melayu Semangat 46 (S46), led by Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah, contested for the first time in the elections.
The Muslim opposition parties, Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Semangat 46, Barisan Jemaah Islamiah Se-Malaysia (BERJASA) and Parti Hizbul Muslimin Malaysia (HAMIM) teamed up to form the Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (APU). On the other hand, Semangat 46, Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS), which withdrew from the Barisan Nasional (BN) at the eleventh hour of the general election, teamed up as Gagasan Rakyat. However, these two opposition alliances cooperated in the election but not openly due to the sensitivity of the secular DAP and the Islamic PAS working together.
At the federal level, the BN coalition under the leadership of incumbent Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad won 127 of the 180 parliament seats to form the federal government.
|Political Party||Votes||% of vote||Seats||% of seats||+/–|
|United Malays National Organisation||UMNO||71||39.4||-12|
|Malaysian Chinese Association||MCA||18||10.0||+1|
|United Traditional Bumiputera Party||PBB||10||5.6||+2|
|Malaysian Indian Congress||MIC||6||3.3||0|
|United Sabah National Organisation||USNO||6||3.3||+1|
|Malaysian People's Movement Party||Gerakan||5||2.8||0|
|Sarawak Native People's Party||PBDS||4||2.2||-1|
|Sarawak United People's Party||SUPP||4||2.2||0|
|Sarawak National Party||SNAP||3||1.7||-1|
|People's Progressive Party||PPP||0||0.0||0|
|Muslim Unity Movement||APU||1,218,211||21.8||15||8.3||New|
|Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party||PAS||391,813||7.0||7||3.9||+6|
|Democratic Action Party||DAP||985,228||17.1||20||11.1||-4|
|United Sabah Party||PBS||128,260||2.3||14||7.7||+4|
|Other parties and independents||276,136||4.9||4||2.2||0|
|Total (turnout: 72.3%)||5,751,725||100.0||180||100.0||+3|
|Did not vote||2,248,275|
|Voting age population||8,882,000|
|Source: Nohlen et al. |
- Arah Aliran Malaysia: Penilaian Pilihan Raya satu himpunan kerta kertas 62-halaman daripada Institut Penyelidikan Asia Tenggara selepas pilihan raya 1999.