|16 million (2000–2004)|
|Bahasa Malaysia Kod Tangan|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature)|
Malaysian (Malay: Bahasa Malaysia), or Standard Malay, is the official language of Malaysia and a standardised register of the Malacca dialect of Malay. It is over 95% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people. As a second language, it is spoken by an estimated 14 million, mostly Malaysians from ethnic minorities. It is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary school.
The Malaysian name for the language is Bahasa Malaysia (literally "the language of Malaysia"). This term is occasionally found in English.
Article 152 of the Federation designates Malay as the official language. Between 1986 and 2007, the official term Bahasa Malaysia was replaced by "Bahasa Melayu". Today, to recognise that Malaysia is composed of many ethnic groups (and not only the ethnic Malays), the term Bahasa Malaysia has once again become the government's preferred designation for the "Bahasa Kebangsaan" (National Language) and the "Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu" (unifying language/lingua franca). The language is sometimes simply referred to as Bahasa or BM.
The Malaysian language is normally written using a Latin alphabet called Rumi, though an Arabic alphabet called Jawi also exists. Rumi is official while efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use in Malaysia. The Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes.
Extent of use
The Malaysian language became the sole official language in West Malaysia in 1968, and in East Malaysia gradually from 1974.[clarification needed] English continues, however, to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts. Other minority languages such as Tamil, Punjabi, Gujarati, Malayalam, Telugu, Sindhi, Hindi, Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien and Hakka are also commonly used by the country's large Indian and Chinese ethnic minority populations.
Sounds and grammar
The Malaysian language has most of its words borrowed from Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindi, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, certain Chinese dialects, Arabic and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms). Modern Malaysian Malay is also heavily influenced by Indonesian.
Colloquial and contemporary usage
Contemporary usage of Malay includes a set of slang words, formed by innovations of standard Malay words or incorporated from other languages, spoken by the urban speech community, which may not be familiar to the older generation, such as awek (girl), balak (guy) or cun (pretty). New plural pronouns have also been formed out of the original pronouns and the word orang (person), such as kitorang (kita + orang, the exclusive "we", in place of kami) or diorang (dia + orang, "they"). Code-switching between English and Malaysian and the use of novel loanwords is widespread, forming Bahasa Rojak. Consequently, this phenomenon has raised the displeasure of language purists in Malaysia, in their effort to uphold the proper use of the national language.
- Differences between the Malaysian and Indonesian languages
- Indonesian language
- Jawi, an Arabic alphabet for Malay
- Language politics
- Malaysian English, English language used formally in Malaysia.
- Varieties of Malay
- Malaysian at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
- "Kedah MB defends use of Jawi on signboards". The Star. 26 August 2008.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Standard Malay". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Ethonologue, "Standard Malay"
- Ministry of Education: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS- TO UPHOLD BAHASA MALAYSIA AND TO STRENGTHEN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE (MBMMBI); access date 3 November 2013
- Back to Bahasa Malaysia. Thestar.com.my (4 June 2007). Retrieved on 19 October 2010.
- Penggunaan Istilah Bahasa Malaysia Dan Bukan Bahasa Melayu Muktamad, Kata Zainuddin. BERNAMA, 5 November 2007
- Sneddon, James N. "The Indonesian Language: its history and role in modern society".
|Malay edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|For a list of words relating to Malaysian language, see the Malaysian language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- The Extent of the Influence of Tamil on the Malay Language: A Comparative Study – Dr. T.Wignesan(This paper was given at the VIIIth World Tamil Studies Congress, held in the Tamil University in Tanjavur, India, on December–January 1994-95 Now published in the critical collection: T.Wignesan. Sporadic Striving amid Echoed Voices, Mirrored Images & Stereotypic Posturing in Malaysian-Singaporean Literatures. Allahabad: Cyberwit.net, 2008, xix-244p.)
- Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature Malaysia, in Malay only)
- Malay Online Web Application with 40 Interactive Free Lessons
- Malay–English Online Dictionary (from Malay to English only) from Webster's Dictionary
- Malay–English–Chinese Online Dictionary from Cari Internet
- Online Malay Text-to-Speech Demo
- The Malay Spelling Reform, Asmah Haji Omar, (Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, 1989-2 pp. 9–13 later designated J11)
- Pogadaev, V.A., Rott, N. V. Kamus Bahasa Russia – Bahasa Malaysia. Lebih kurang 30 000 perkataan. Moscow: Russky Yazik, 1986