Rape by gender
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Since only a small percentage of acts of sexual violence are brought to the attention of the authorities, it is difficult to compile accurate statistics. Often, the statistics of successful convictions are looked at lieu of this. The U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1997) stated that that 91% of United States people whose rape accusations resulted in convictions against the accused were female and 9% were male. It also stated that 99% of the people convicted of and imprisoned in response to rape accusations were male, with only 1% of those convicted being female.
Rape of females by males 
In 2011, the US Centers for Disease Control found that "nearly 20% of all women" suffered rape or attempted rape sometime in their life. More than a third of the victims were raped before the age of 18.
A woman's physiological response to sexual contact is involuntary. In some cases, women can become physically aroused, produce natural lubrication, and even experience orgasms against their will during rape. One proposed explanation for this genital arousal in some women is that it acts as a preparatory mechanism which served in the past to protect women from genital injury during unwanted sex. This is in line with previous research showing that many women show vaginal lubrication when exposed to a broad array of sexual stimuli (even that involving chimps) regardless of stated preferences and subjective feelings.
Pregnancy may result from rape. The rate varies between settings and depends particularly on the extent to which non-barrier contraceptives are being used. A study of adolescents in Ethiopia found that among those who reported being raped, 17% became pregnant after the rape, a figure which is similar to the 15–18% reported by rape crisis centres in Mexico. A longitudinal study in the United States of over 4000 women followed for 3 years found that the national rape related pregnancy rate was 5.0% per rape among victims aged 12–45 years, producing over 32,000 pregnancies nationally among women from rape each year. Experience of coerced sex at an early age reduces a woman’s ability to see her sexuality as something over which she has control.
Rape of males by males 
Male-on-male rape has historically been shrouded in secrecy due to the stigma associated with males being raped by other males. According to psychologist Dr. Sarah Crome, fewer than 1 in 10 male-male rapes are reported. As a group, male rape victims reported a lack of services and support, and legal systems are often ill-equipped to deal with this type of crime.
Research from the UK suggests that almost 3% of men reported a non-consensual sexual experience as adults and over 5% of men reported sexual abuse as a child. This does not take into account the possibility of underreporting. Recognition of male on male rape in law has historically been limited; the first successful prosecution for attempted male on male rape in the UK was not until 1995.
Several studies argue that male-male prisoner rape, as well as female-female prisoner rape, are common types of rape which go unreported even more frequently than rape in the general population.
The rape of men by men has been documented as a weapon of terror in warfare.
Rape of males by females 
Much like female erectile response, male erectile response is involuntary, meaning that a man need not be aroused for his penis to become erect and be placed in a woman's vagina; mechanical stimulation is all that is necessary.
However, male victims of sexual abuse by females often face social, political, and legal double standards. Gender-neutral laws have combated the perception that rape rarely occurs to men, and other laws have eliminated the term rape altogether. In 1978 in the UK, Joyce McKinney was sentenced to 12 months in prison for forcing a man to have sex with her while chained up, but she did not serve it because she jumped bail.
Rape of females by females 
Female-on-female rape is often labeled "lesbian rape", though the sexual orientation of one or both (or more) persons involved may or may not actually be lesbian. Assault by forcible stimulation of external sexual female genitalia or forced penetration by another woman is possible with the use of strap-ons, other dildos, other foreign objects such as the use of the tongue (inserted or external) in forced oral sex, or forced digital manipulation, and non-consensual tribadism.
A few books, such as Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships by Dr. Claire M. Renzetti, No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships by Janice Ristock, and Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? by Lori B. Girshick also cover the topic of rape of women by other women.
- "Sex Offenses and Offenders". http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-016.
- Human Rights WatchNo Escape: Male Rape In U.S. Prisons. Part VII. Anomaly or Epidemic: The Incidence of Prisoner-on-Prisoner Rape.; estimates that 100,000–140,000 violent male-male rapes occur in U.S. prisons annually; compare with FBI statistics that estimated 90,000 violent male-female rapes occur annually.
- Robert W. Dumond, "Ignominious Victims: Effective Treatment of Male Sexual Assault in Prison," August 15, 1995, p. 2; states that "evidence suggests that [male-male sexual assault in prison] may a staggering problem"). Quoted in Mariner, Joanne; (Organization), Human Rights Watch (2001-04-17). No escape: male rape in U.S. prisons. Human Rights Watch. p. 370. ISBN 978-1-56432-258-6. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Struckman-Johnson, David (2006). "A Comparison of Sexual Coercion Experiences Reported by Men and Women in Prison". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 21 (12): 1591–1615. doi:10.1177/0886260506294240. ISSN 0886-2605. PMID 17065656.; reports that "Greater percentages of men (70%) than women (29%) reported that their incident resulted in oral, vaginal, or anal sex. More men (54%) than women (28%) reported an incident that was classified as rape."
- Rape and sexual assault of women: findings from the British Crime Survey. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- "Nearly 20% of women in the US are raped or suffer attempted rape at some point in their lives, a US study says.". BBC World. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
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- "Male rape victims left to suffer in silence". abc.net.au. February 9, 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
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- Storr, Will (17 July 2011). "The rape of men". The Observer (Guardian.co.uk). Retrieved 17 July 2011. "Sexual violence is one of the most horrific weapons of war, an instrument of terror used against women. Yet huge numbers of men are also victims." Text " Society " ignored (help); Text " The Observer" ignored (help)
- Philip M. Sarrel; William H. Masters (1982). "Sexual molestation of men by women". Archives of Sexual Behavior 11 (2): 82–88. doi:10.1007/BF01541979. PMID 7125884.
- "Male Rape". The National Center for Victims of Crime. 1997. Retrieved 2006-03-12.
- Barbara Krahé; Renate Scheinberger-Olwig, Steffen Bieneck (2003). "Men's Reports of Nonconsensual Sexual Interactions with Women: Prevalence and Impact". Archives of Sexual Behavior 32 (5): 165. doi:10.1023/A:1022456626538.
- Myriam S. Denov (2004). Perspectives on female sex offending: a culture of denial. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7546-3565-9.
- "Male Sexual Victimization Myths & Facts". malesurvivor.org. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- Rape – Overview; Act and Mental State, Wayne R. LaFave Professor of Law, University of Illinois, "Substantive Criminal Law" 752-756 (3d ed. 2000)
- See, for example, Michigan Statutes for the first degree felony, section 520b, "(1) A person is guilty of criminal sexual conduct in the first degree if he or she engages in sexual penetration of another person."
- Renzetti, Claire M. Violent Betrayal: Partner Abuse in Lesbian Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1992, ISBN 0-8039-3888-8.
- Ristock, Janice. No More Secrets: Violence in Lesbian Relationships. New York: Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-92946-6.
- Girshick, Lori B. Woman-to-Woman Sexual Violence: Does She Call It Rape? (The Northeastern Series on Gender, Crime, and the Law). Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2000, ISBN 1-55553-527-5.