Satellite image of Harney Lake (left) and Malheur Lake (right)
|Location||Harney County, Oregon|
|Type||natural, eutrophic in an endorheic basin|
|Primary inflows||Donner und Blitzen River, Silvies River, Sodhouse Spring, precipitation|
|Primary outflows||Mud Lake (frequent but intermittent flows)|
|Catchment area||3,083 square miles (7,980 km2)|
|Basin countries||United States|
|Surface area||49,700 acres (20,100 ha)|
|Average depth||2 feet (0.61 m)|
|Max. depth||5 feet (1.5 m)|
|Water volume||84,500 acre feet (104,200,000 m3)|
|Residence time||7.4 years|
|Shore length1||58 miles (93 km)|
|Surface elevation||4,093 feet (1,248 m)|
|Settlements||Burns, Crane, New Princeton|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.|
Malheur Lake is one of the lakes in the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in Harney County in the U.S. state of Oregon. Located about 18 miles (29 km) southeast of Burns, the lake is fed by the Donner und Blitzen River from the south and the Silvies River from the north. Malheur Lake periodically overflows into Mud Lake to the west and thence to Harney Lake, the sink of Harney Basin.
Malheur Lake is a remnant of a much larger Pleistocene lake that drained east to the Malheur River, a tributary of the Snake River. The size of this ancient lake, which existed during a wetter climate, has been estimated at 900 square miles (2,300 km2), with a maximum depth of 35 feet (11 m). Its outlet was originally a channel near Princeton, but lava flows diverted the water to a gap near Crane. Much of the original lake bottom has since turned into desert or become meadows periodically watered by lake overflows. Mud Lake and Harney Lake are also remnants of the original pluvial lake.
The lakes as well as nearby marshes and playas are part of Harney Basin. The basin, a closed depression, covers 5,300 square miles (14,000 km2), which makes it larger than the state of Connecticut.
Malheur Lake Basin redband trout
The Great Basin redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberri) has reduced access to Malheur and Harney lakes due to irrigation diversions, channelization, draining of marshlands and high alkalinities. An exotic carp population is present in Malheur Lake and has caused extreme habitat damage. Harney Lake has been inhospitable to redband trout for many years due to high alkalinities. Today, redband trout in the Malheur Lake Basin are widely distributed in small- and medium-size streams.
The redband trout is a unique subspecies adapted to the Malheur Lake Basin ecosystem. In these closed, high-desert basins, redband trout have evolved to survive in environments with vast extremes of both water flow and temperature. They are one of only eight desert-basin populations of interior native redband trout. The Malheur Lakes redband comprises ten population groups in the closed interior basin of Harney and Malheur lakes. Historically, all streams were interconnected and these fish moved through all the lakes and streams.
While not an officially designated threatened or endangered species, the redband trout is recognized as important resource, and the Steens Mountain Cooperative Management and Protection Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-399) sets aside land in Oregon for protection and research of redband trout.
- Johnson, Daniel M.; Petersen, Richard R.; Lycan, D. Richard; Sweet, James W.; Neuhaus, Mark E., and Schaedel, Andrew L. (1985). Atlas of Oregon Lakes. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 0-87071-343-4.
- "Malheur Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. November 28, 1980. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- "Atlas of Oregon Lakes: Malheur Lake (Harney County)". Portland State University. 1985–2012. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- Orr, Elizabeth L.; Orr, William N. (1999) . Geology of Oregon (5th ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing. pp. 107–08. ISBN 0-7872-6608-6.
- Behnke, R.J. 1992. Native Trout of Western North America. American Fisheries Society Monograph 6. Bethesda, MD.
- Malheur Lake Basin Redband - The Ecological Angler