Malibeyli and Gushchular massacre

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Malibeyli and Gushchular Massacre
Date February 10–12, 1992
Location Malibeyli, Ashaghi Gushchular, Yukhari Gushchular villages of Shusha Rayon, Azerbaijan
Participants Armenian irregular armed units
Outcome 8 civilians

Malibeyli and Gushchular Massacre (Azerbaijani: Malıbəyli və Quşçular qətliamı) were incidents in which eight civilians were killed, according to Helsinki Watch,[1] and according to Azerbaijani sources, 15-50 (exact number unknown)[2][3] ethnic Azerbaijani civilians, by Armenian irregular armed units in simultaneous attacks on the villages of Malibeyli, Ashaghi Gushchular, and Yukhari Gushchular of Shusha district of Azerbaijan, on 10–12 February 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.[4][5][self-published source?]

Overview and massacre[edit]

According to the Memorial, the villages of Malibeyli and Gushchular were attacked by Armenian irregular armed units where the houses were burned and dozens of civilians were killed. Both sides accused the other that the villages were being used as strategic gathering points, covering the artillery positions.[6] According to several eyewitnesses, the Azerbaijani self-defense forces were mixed in with civilians as they fled.[1]

Azerbaijani populated villages of Malibeyli and Gushchular (administratively separated as Ashaghi Gushchular and Yukhari Gushchular) of Shusha district of Azerbaijan are located in the highlands of Karabakh region, close to the regional center of Shusha. The villages had a population of nearly 4,000 people and shared the same village administration. Like Khojaly in 1988, Gushchular and Malibeyli received Azerbaijani refugees from Armenia. The figure ranged from 580 to 1500.[1] When the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict started, the villages became one of the main targets of Armenian armed units. Since October 1991, Malibeyli was in complete blockade. [1][7][8][9]

A report in the newspaper Express Chronicle asserted that on February 5, a helicopter distributed warning leaflets telling villagers they had two days to leave the village before it "would cease to exist", however, no interviews confirmed this report.[1] By the beginning of February 1992, these villages were virtually under siege and frequently shelled by Armenians. According to Human Rights Watch, the villages had a joint self-defense unit of about 80 people, including 17 policemen serving in Gushchular. By February, the Azerbaijani self-defense had only 5 or 6 automatic rifles.[7][third-party source needed] Since October 1991, the residents were confined to their villages and the only way in or out was by helicopter.[1] The last helicopter to fly into Shusha district was shot down by Armenians on January 28. At midnight on February 10, Armenian armed units, reportedly aided by Russian troops, stormed Malibeyli village. The women and children from Malibeyli fled to Gushchular village. Villagers of both villages took positions and fought the enemy until 9 am. All roads to the nearby towns of Shusha and Khojaly were cut off. The closest village was Abdal Gulbaly of Agdam district and required passage through Armenian held villages. Most of the armed ethnic Armenians were volunteers from Syria, Lebanon, the United States, and France.[4][10] The villages were ethnically cleansed and burned.[11][12][verification needed] From 13 to 50 civilians were killed or allegedly massacred in the villages, 15 were taken captive. A crowd of about 2,000 civilians was able to escape to Agdam passing through a 30 km long path through the mountains.[7][third-party source needed] Seizure of Malibeyli and Gushchular villages by Armenian forces took place during the presence of Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe peacekeeping mission in Karabakh and set Shusha and Khojaly in full blockade.[13][14][15][16][third-party source needed]

Malibeyli and Gushchular were attacked by Armenian armored personnel carriers and heavy artillery after large-scale Azerbaijani ground assault against Stepanakert and with the aim to end the shelling of neighboring Armenian villages by Azerbaijani forces.[1][17]

Consequences[edit]

The massacre at Malibeyli and Gushchular was followed by Garadaghly, Agdaban and Khojaly massacres.[18][19][unreliable source?] [20][21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Goldman, Robert K. (1992). Bloodshed in the Caucasus: escalation of the armed conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. Praeger Publishers. pp. 24–27. ISBN 0-275-96241-5. Retrieved 2010-12-20. 
  2. ^ "ARMENIANS TAKE AZERBAIJANI TOWN". Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Press-Release, Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Charles, van der Leeuw (2000). Azerbaijan: A quest for identity. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-21903-2. 
  5. ^ Antero, Leitzinger (1997). Caucasus and an unholy alliance. Kirja-Leitzinger. p. 55. ISBN 952-9752-16-4. 
  6. ^ "Доклад правозащитного центра «Мемориал» о массовых нарушениях прав человека, связанных с занятием населенного пункта Ходжалы в ночь с 25 на 26 февраля 1992 г. вооружёнными формированиями." Memorial.
  7. ^ a b c "ПРОШЛО 18 ЛЕТ СО ДНЯ ОККУПАЦИИ СЕЛ МАЛЫБЕЙЛИ И ГУШЧУЛАР ШУШИ. ПО ЭТОМУ СЛУЧАЮ СОСТОЯЛАСЬ ЦЕРЕМОНИЯ ПОЧТЕНИЯ ПАМЯТИ ПОГИБШИХ". Azerbaijan Community of Nagorno Karabakh. February 11, 2010. Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  8. ^ Cornell, Svante (2001). Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus (Caucasus World). Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 0-7007-1162-7. 
  9. ^ de Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden. New York University Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9. 
  10. ^ Markar, Melkonian (2008). My brother's road. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-530-9. 
  11. ^ "The Deseret News". Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  12. ^ "История Азербайджана". Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  13. ^ "НЕОБЪЯВЛЕННАЯ ВОЙНА ПРОТИВ АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНА". Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Ходжалы - первоочередная мишень". Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Ходжалинский геноцид – чудовищная трагедия ХХ века". Novosti Azerbaijan. February 26, 2010. Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  16. ^ T. Atayev. "Геополитический фон вокруг Карабаха в начале 90-х гг.". Ekho. Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  17. ^ Croissant, Michael P. (2006). The Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict: causes and implications. Praeger Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 0-275-96241-5. Retrieved 22 March 2012. "Following the collapse of the large-scale Azerbaijani ground assault against Stepanakert by the first week of February, ethnic Armenian forces went on the offensive in areas to the north and southwest of the Karabakh capital. With the stated objective of “suppress[ing ] Azeri fire emplacements,” Armenian forces took the village of Malybeyli on 11 February and began a major assault towards Khojaly, a town with both strategic and symbolic value several kilometers north of Stepanakert." 
  18. ^ S. Ilahmqizi (February 23, 2007). "В связи с 15-й годовщиной Ходжалинской трагедии омбудсмен Азербайджана направила обращение в международные организации". Trend News. Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  19. ^ Kathleen, Pellatt (2008). Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and Chechnya: Violence and autonomy in Eurasia's secessionist conflicts. A Thesis submitted to the Division of Graduate Studies of the Royal Military College of Canada. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-494-47900-1. 
  20. ^ Rau, Johannes (2003). Der Nagorny-Karabach-Konflikt (1988-2002). Verlag Dr. Köster, Berlin. p. 80. ISBN 3-89574-510-3. 
  21. ^ "The Debacle: From Kafan To Khojaly – OpEd". Retrieved March 5, 2011. 

Coordinates: 39°49′46″N 46°47′36″E / 39.82944°N 46.79333°E / 39.82944; 46.79333