Sekele language

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Sekele
Northern ǃXuun
Vasekela
Native to Namibia, Angola
Region Okavango and Ovamboland Territory
Native speakers
8–9,000  (2000)[1]
Kx'a
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
oun – !O!ung
mwj – Maligo
gfx – Mangetti Dune !Xung
vaj – Vasekela
Glottolog oung1238[2]

Northern ǃXuun (Northern Ju) or Sekele (Vasekele, the Angolan Bantu name), also known by the outdated term ǃʼOǃKung [ǃˀoːǃʰũ] "Forest ǃKung" (ǃʼO ǃuŋ) and in one source as Maligo (Sekele Maligo), is the northern variety of the !Kung (ǃXuun) dialect continuum. It was once widespread in southern Angola but now is principally spoken among a diaspora in northern Namibia.

A variety currently being investigated is Mangetti Dune !Kung, spoken by a resettled diaspora community of 500–1000 in Namibia and South Africa in the settlements of Mangetti Dune and Omtaku (Omatako?), east of Grootfontein, Namibia, halfway to the Botswana border; and in Schmidtsdrif, west of Kimberley, South Africa.

Phonology[edit]

Mangetti Dune has clicks with four places of articulation, /ǃ ǀ ǁ ǂ/. (A reported distinction between dental lateral and postalveolar lateral clicks has not been confirmed by further research.)

These come in the same eight series as in Grootfontein !Kung, here represented with the palatal articulation:

Lingual /ǂ ǂʰ ᶢǂ ᵑǂ ᵑ̊ǂʰ/
glottalized /ᵑ̊ǂˀ/
linguo-pulmonic /ǂχ/
linguo-glottalic /ǂ͡kxʼ/

References[edit]

  • Snyman, Jan Winston. 1980. The Relationship Between Angolan ǃXu and Zuǀʼõasi. In Bushman and Hottentot Linguistic Studies 1979, pp. 1–58. Ed. Snyman, J. W.. University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria.
  • Miller, Amanda et al.. 2011. "The Phonetics of the Modernday Reflexes of the Proto‐palatal Click in Juu Languages" (Ekoka and Mangetti Dune)
  1. ^ !O!ung at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Maligo at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Mangetti Dune !Xung at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Vasekela at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Sekele". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

External links[edit]