Malkangiri is a town and a Notified Area Council (NAC) in Malkangiri district in the Indianstate of Odisha. It is the headquarters of the Malkangiri district. Malkangiri is the new home of the Bangladeshi refugees, who were rehabilitated since 1965 under the Dandakaranya project. Also some Sri Lankan Tamil refugees were rehabilitated in Malkangiri town, following the armed struggle of LTTE in the early 90's (most of them have returned, baring a couple of house holds). Currently it is one of the most naxalite-affected areas of the state and is a part of the Red Corridor.
As of 2001[update] India census, Malkangiri had a population of 23,110. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Malkangiri has an average literacy rate of 57%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 65%, and female literacy is 48%. In Malkangiri, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Current MLA from Malkangiri Assembly (SC) Constituency is Nimal Chandra Sarkar of INC, who won the seat in 2004. Previous MLAs from this seat were Arabinda Dhali of BJP in 2000 and in 1995, Naka Kanaya who won it for JD in 1990 and for JNP in 1977, Nadiabasi Biswas of INC in 1985, Naka Laxmaya of INC(I) in 1980.