Malkapur is a city and a municipal council in Buldhana district in the Indianstate of Maharashtra. Malkapur is also known as the entrance of Vidarbha. It is a major industrial and educational center in Buldhana district. Malkapur is known for producing cotton. It is one of the largest cotton producer in the area. In the British era it was known as the "white gold of Vidarbha." Malkapur has a vast paper industry and the primary paper suppliers to Mumbai are in Malkapur. Malkapur also has many dal mills, and a major agricultural industry specializing in mahyco and ankur seeds. Chemical plants are also situated at MIDC.A newly formed fruit ripening industry at NH-6,namely"OASIS FRUIT RIPENING AND COLD CHAMBERS"is largest in buldana district,having ripening capacity of 26 thousand kgs per day. Malkapur is a well-known grain and cloth market due to its proximity to Madhya Pradesh. It is one of the major producer of red chillies and produce finest chillies of the country. It is located on Hajira - KolkattaNational Highway 6. NH6 is a pat of Asian Highway 46 from Kharagpur to Dhule. Malkapur is infamous for its poor roads and water supply. Though Purna River is flows only 10 km near the city, the municipality supplies water once in a week or 8–10 days. The water supplied is not clean and one can see the mud particles floating in it. Also whole city is not covered with water supply. All the roads, except some as Buldhana road are full with cracks and disturb the city traffic.
One of the old gates of the rampart of dressed stones had an inscription to the effect that it was erected in 1729 during the reign of Muhammad Malikkhan. Malkapur is mentioned in Ain-i-Akbari as the headquarters of a paragana in the sarkar of Narnala. The town is said to have been founded about five centuries back by a prince of the Faruqi house of Khandesh and is said to have been named by him after the princess, Malika, his daughter. (there are lots of stories about the name of this city one of educated personality named Mohammad Rafique Rangrej told that the name of this may took after the name of sufi Malekha miya near mangal gate one of oldest gate in old city) But the story is improbable as no record of any journey in this direction by Miran Ghani Adil Khan, the Faruqi prince of the period has yet been traced. In 1761 the town was rich enough to pay Rs. 60,000 to the army of Raghunath Rav for exemption from plunder. The Nizams used to keep a force of about 20,000 men in this frontier district of their dominions. Daulatrav Shinde and Raghuji Bhosle were encamped near Malkapur when the British envoy Colonel Collins, after presenting General Wellesley's ultimatum, quit Shinde's camp in 1803.Malkapur was the scene of several petty battles between zamin-dars, rural talukdars, Rajputs and Muslims during the period between the beginning of the nineteenth century and the Assignment of Berar to the East India Company in 1853. The following extract taken from the Old Buldhana District Gazetteer published in 1910 gives an interesting account of one of these fights which took place in 1837.In 1837 a Man shot dead a Rajput of Dattala who had insulted him at the Pimpalgaon fair. The act generated a blood feud, and twelve years later Lal Singh of Dattala, without warning or fresh provocation, assembled a band of nearly three thousand Hindus to avenge his relation's death. The fanatical Sikhs of Nanded on the Godavari sent a contingent of five hundred men and the first news of the impending attack came to the Musalmans of Malkapur from their friends at Patur, who sent hasty word that this formidable company was marching hy. The Rajputs and Sikhs assaulted Malkapur. There was the usual street lighting, burning, sacking, and slaying, though not many lives were lost, and the Muhammedans were worsted. This was, however, only the first game of the rubber, for the Musahnans were flocking to the fray from neighbouring towns; from Burhanpur especially a strong body had set out. The police and the local militia under the talukdar were utterly powerless, but detachments of the Nizam's army (The Hyderabad contingent.) under Major Arthur Wyndham, then arrived, and found Malkapur empty and deserted. The Musal-mans had been driven out and the Rajputs had retreated to Dattala, where they afterwards had a skirmish with the troops.' The Kazi family of Malkapur are noble and with very rich cultural back ground. The Kazi is responsible for the muslim community marriages, leading prayers on the two EID's and socially connected with the society.
As of 2001[update] Indian census, Malkapur had a population of 72,015. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Malkapur has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; male literacy is 75%, and female literacy is 63%. In Malkapur, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.