Mallow, County Cork
|— Town —|
|Motto: Per Ignem et Aquam|
|Elevation||74 m (243 ft)|
|Irish Grid Reference||W549982|
Mallow (Irish: Mala) is a town in County Cork, Ireland, about thirty-five kilometres north of Cork. It is the administrative centre of north County Cork and has been nicknamed the "Crossroads of Munster". The Northern Divisional Offices of Cork County Council are located in the town.
Name in Irish 
The earliest form of the name is Magh nAla, meaning "plain of the stone". In the anglicisation "Mallow", -ow originally represented a reduced schwa sound, which is now however pronounced as a full vowel //. In 1975, Mala—a shortening of Magh nAla—was among the first Irish placenames adopted by statute, on the advice of the Placenames branch of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland.
In the Annals of the Four Masters, compiled in the 1630s, Magh nAla is misrepresented as Magh Eala, the Donegal-based authors being insufficiently familiar with Cork places. P.W. Joyce in 1869 surmised that in Magh Eala [sic], Ealla referred to the river Blackwater, and connected the name to the nearby barony of Duhallow. Professor T. F. O'Rahilly in 1938 interpreted Magh Eala as "plain of the swans". This false etymology remains widely cited and has caused resentment of the official Mala as being a gratuitous simplification of Magh Eala. However, the name Mala has been used in Irish for more than 300 years.
Evidence of pre-historic settlement is found in Beenalaght (13.6 km/8.5 miles south-west of Mallow), where an alignment of six standing stones lie on a hill to the west of the Mallow-Coachford Road. (grid ref: 485 873, Latitude: 52.035818N Longitude: 8.751181W)
During the Irish War of Independence, the town was the HQ of the North Cork Militia – known as North Cork Rifles. The town's RIC barracks was the only one captured nationwide during the war. In retaliation, several main street premises were subsequently torched by the British Army.
Mrs King, wife of Captain W H King, RIC was killed during an attack on her husband near Mallow Railway station. In retaliation, British military and Black and Tans killed three railway workers-Patrick Devitt, Daniel Mullane and Bennett. The killings prompted industrial action by the National Railworkers Union in Britain and Ireland.
Natural occurrence of radon gas 
The urban area has a population of 7,864 (2006 census) and with improved road and rail since the mid-1980s, has developed significant student and worker commuter traffic with Cork city.
Mallow developed as a defensive settlement protecting an important ford on the River Blackwater. Mallow developed in the late 16th century as a plantation town. It has prospered throughout the centuries as a market town due to its rich agricultural hinterland. Irish states-men such as Thomas Davis and William O'Brien were both born in Mallow in the 19th century. The main street in Mallow is called Davis Street (although commonly referred to as Main Street), and joins with William O'Brien Street outside Mallow Town Hall. At the point where Davis Street meets O'Brien Street there is a monument to J.J. Fitzgerald, a little-known local politician who was instrumental in establishing both Mallow Urban District Council and Cork County Council.
The town developed a significant industrial base in the early 20th century, based largely on its agricultural capability, with dairy produce and sugar beet supplying the Sugar Factory, Rowntree Macintosh, Bournes and Dairygold. Changes in the European Union sugar subsidy programme resulted in the closure of the Sugar Beet factory in mid-2006, after 75 years continual production.
The development of Market Square (which contains both residential and commercial units) in 2006 effectively relocated the town centre.
Transport and communications 
Mallow lies at the convergence of several important routes: National Primary Route 20 (N20) north-south road between Cork (35 km) and Limerick (70 km), National Secondary Route 72 (N72) east-west between Dungarvan (51.5 km) and Killarney (41.5 km), National Secondary Route 73 (N73) northeast to Mitchelstown and the M8 motorway (21 km).
Mallow is also served by the Citylink Galway-Cork Airport service.
The Mallow railway viaduct which straddles the Blackwater, commonly known as the "Ten Arch Bridge", was bombed and destroyed during the Irish Civil War. It was rapidly rebuilt in girder form due to its importance in connecting the Cork, Tralee and Dublin lines. An additional line east through Fermoy and Lismore to the Waterford South station closed in 1967. Mallow railway station was opened on 17 March 1849. by the Great Southern and Western Railway. It is currently served by trains to Dublin, Cork and Tralee.
Mallow Racecourse, now known as Cork Racecourse, became an emergency airfield on April 18, 1983, when a Mexican Gulfstream II business jet piloted by Captain Reuben Ocaña made a precautionary landing. A temporary tarmacadam runway of 910 m (3,000 ft) in length which was paid for by the plane's insurers was laid to enable the aircraft to leave five weeks later, whereas in the meantime Captain Ocaña became a local celebrity. On May 23, 1983 just before the plane departed, the Captain said his farewell to the people of Ireland in the Irish language. The runway was subsequently utilised for parking during race meets and was a popular facility for learner driving. Light aircraft have occasionally landed at the racecourse on the grass area. The F3A World Model Aircraft Aerobatic Championship was held there in 2001. The 1983 formed the basis of the 2010 film The Runway.
Founded in 1882, Mallow Rugby Club is one of the oldest rugby clubs in the country and one of the predominant sporting clubs in the area. Former players include Munster Second Row Ian Nagle, who played juvenile rugby for Mallow and Ulster Prop Jerry Cronin, who played juvenile and Junior Rugby for the club.
Mallow Golf Club, founded in 1947, is located just outside Mallow and has 18 holes.
Mallow has a cinema as well as other community amenities such The Youth Centre as well a nearby swimming pool. It also has several gyms and a driving range situated a few kilometres from the town centre.
The town also has several pubs and night clubs to cater to every demographic.
- Birthplace of Thomas Osborne Davis (1814 – 1845), nationalist, politician, author, poet and patriot. Author of the famous Irish rebel song "A Nation Once Again".
- Birthplace of William O'Brien (1852 – 1928), nationalist, journalist, agrarian agitator, social revolutionary, politician, party leader, newspaper publisher and author.
- Birthplace of John Francis Moriarty (1855-1915) Attorney General for Ireland and judge of the Irish Court of Appeal.
- Birthplace of Seán Sherlock (Labour Party TD) for Cork East Constituency, elected to Dáil Éireann 2007 General Election.
- Donovan (singer)
- Stephen O'Flynn, League of Ireland footballer currently with St. Patrick's Athletic
- John Hogan (1805–1892) was a United States Representative from Missouri born in Mallow.
- Ancestral home of US Congressman Tip O'Neill
- Joe Lynch (Actor)
- Elaine Crowley, TV3
- Paul Kane (1810-1871) Canadian painter
International relations 
Twin towns — Sister cities 
Mallow is twinned with the towns of
See also 
- Metropolitan Cork
- List of towns and villages in Ireland
- Mallow (Parliament of Ireland constituency)
- The Corkman
- "Census 2006 – Volume 1 – Population Classified by Area" (PDF). Central Statistics Office Census 2006 Reports. Central Statistics Office Ireland. April 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Census for post 1821 figures.
- Lee, JJ (1981). "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
- Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850". The Economic History Review 37 (4): 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x.
- Placenames Database of Ireland
- Gazetteer of Ireland / Gasaitéar na hÉireann. Government of Ireland. ISBN 0-7076-0076-6.
- "I.R. Uimh. 133/1975 — An tOrdú Logainmneacha (Foirmeacha Gaeilge) (Uimh. 1) (Postbhailte) 1975." (in Irish). Government of Ireland. 1975-07-22. Retrieved 2008-01-27. "Mallow (33) Mala (g. Mhala)"
- "Placenames Orders". Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- "The Placenames Commission". Archived from the original on 2007-09-24. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- Ó hÚrdail, Roibeárd (1996-03-01). "Marshmallows". The Irish Times. p. 15.
- Weir, A (1980). Early Ireland. A Field Guide. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. p. 113. ISBN 0-85640-212-5.
- "Beenalaght". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
- O'Donoghue, Florence (1954). No other law: the story of Liam Lynch and the Irish Republican Army, 1916-1923. Irish Press. p. 132.
- "Record radon levels found at Mallow office". RTÉ News. 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Ireland's Radon Gas Levels Dangerous". Radon Barrier Co Ltd. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Mallow station". Railscot – Irish Railways. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
- Wilkinson, Ron (25 July 2012). "The Runway – Movie Review". Monsters and Critics. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Official Mallow Rugby Website
- Official Mallow United FC Website
- Mallow Golf Club
- Cork Racecourse At Mallow
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