Malpighiales

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Malpighiales
Temporal range: Mid Cretaceous – Recent 115–0Ma
Starr 010309-0546 Calophyllum inophyllum.jpg
Flower of Calophyllum inophyllum (Calophyllaceae)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Families

Malpighiales is one of the largest orders of flowering plants, containing about 16000 species, approximately 7.8% of the eudicots.[2] The order is very diverse, containing plants as different as the willow, violet, Poinsettia and coca plant, and hard to recognize except with molecular phylogenetic evidence. It is not part of any of the classification systems that are based only on plant morphology. Molecular clock calculations estimate the origin of stem group Malpighiales at around 100 Mya (million years ago) and the origin of crown group Malpighiales at about 90 Mya.[3]

Malpighiales is divided into 32 to 42 families, depending upon which clades in the order are given the taxonomic rank of family.[4] In the APG III system, 35 families are recognized.[1] Medusagynaceae, Quiinaceae, Peraceae, Malesherbiaceae, Turneraceae, Samydaceae, and Scyphostegiaceae are consolidated into other families. The largest family, by far, is Euphorbiaceae, with about 6300 species in about 245 genera.[5]

In a 2009 study of DNA sequences of 13 genes, 42 families were placed into 16 groups, ranging in size from one to ten families. Almost nothing is known about the relationships among these 16 groups.[4] Malpighiales and Lamiales are the two large orders whose phylogeny remains mostly unresolved.[6]

Affinities[edit]

Malpighiales is a member of a supraordinal group called the COM clade, which consists of the orders Celastrales, Oxalidales, and Malpighiales.[7] Some describe it as containing a fourth order, Huales, separating the family Huaceae into its own order, separate from Oxalidales.[8]

Some recent studies have placed Malpighiales as sister to Oxalidales sensu lato (including Huaceae),[4][9] while others have found a different topology for the COM clade.[3][7][10]

The COM clade is part of an unranked group known as Fabidae or eurosids I.[11] The fabids, in turn, are part of a group that has long been recognized, namely, the rosids.[12]

History[edit]

The great French botanist Charles Plumier named the genus Malpighia in honor of Marcello Malpighi's work on plants; Malpighia is the type genus for the Malpighiaceae, a family of tropical and subtropical flowering plants.

The family Malpighiaceae was the type family for one of the orders created by Jussieu in his 1789 work Genera Plantarum.[13] Friedrich von Berchtold and Jan Presl described such an order in 1820.[14] Unlike modern taxonomists, these authors did not use the suffix "ales" in naming their orders. The name "Malpighiales" is attributed by some to Carl von Martius.[12] In the twentieth century, it was usually associated with John Hutchinson, who used it in all three editions of his book, The Families of Flowering Plants.[15] The name was not used by those who wrote later, in the nineteen seventies, eighties, and nineties.

The taxon was largely presaged by Hans Hallier in 1912 in an article in the Archiv. Néerl. Sci. Exact. Nat. titled "L'Origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes," in which his Passionales and Polygalinae were derived from Linaceae (in Guttales), with Passionales containing 7 (of 8) families that also appear in the current Malpighiales, namely Passifloraceae, Salicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Achariaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Malesherbiaceae, and Turneraceae, and Polygalinae containing 4 (of 10) families that also appear in the current Malpighiales, namely Malpighiaceae, Violaceae, Dichapetalaceae, and Trigoniaceae.[16]

The first semblance of Malpighiales as we now know it came from a phylogeny of seed plants published in 1993 and based upon DNA sequences of the gene rbcL.[17] This study recovered a group of rosids unlike any group found in any previous system of plant classification. In order to make a clear break with classification systems being used at that time, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group resurrected Hutchinson's name, even though his concept of Malpighiales included much of what is now in Celastrales and Oxalidales.[18]

Circumscription[edit]

Malpighiales is monophyletic and in molecular phylogenetic studies, it receives strong statistical support.[2] Since the APG II system was published in 2003, minor changes to the circumscription of the order have been made. The family Peridiscaceae has been expanded from two genera, to three, and then to four, and transferred to Saxifragales.[4][19]

The genera Cyrillopsis (Ixonanthaceae), Centroplacus (Centroplacaceae), Bhesa (Centroplacaceae), Aneulophus (Erythroxylaceae), Ploiarium (Bonnetiaceae), Trichostephanus (Samydaceae), Sapria (Rafflesiaceae), Rhizanthes (Rafflesiaceae), and Rafflesia (Rafflesiaceae) had been either added or confirmed as members of Malpighiales by the end of 2009.[4]

Some family delimitations have changed as well, most notably, the segregation of Calophyllaceae from Clusiaceae sensu lato when it was shown that the latter is paraphyletic.[4] Some differences of opinion on family delimitation exist as well. For example, Samydaceae and Scyphostegiaceae may be recognized as families or included in a large version of Salicaceae.[20]

The group is difficult to characterize phenotypically although members often have dentate leaves, with the teeth having a single vein running into a congested and often deciduous apex (i.e., violoid, salicoid, or theoid).[21] Also, zeylanol has recently been discovered in Balanops and Dichapetalum [22] which are in the balanops clade (so-called Chrysobalanaceae s. l.). The so-called parietal suborder (the clusioid clade and Ochnaceae s. l. were also part of Parietales) corresponds with the traditional Violales as 8 (Achariaceae, Violaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Lacistemataceae, Scyphostegiaceae, Turneraceae, Malesherbiaceae, and Passifloraceae) of the order's 10 families along with Salicaceae, which have usually been assigned as a related order or suborder,[23] are in this most derived malpighian suborder, so that 8 of the 10 families of this suborder are Violales. The Flacourtiaceae family has proven to be polyphyletic as the cyanogenic members have been placed in Achariaceae and the ones with salicoid teeth were transferred to Salicaceae.[21]

Phylogeny[edit]

As we know it in 2009, the phylogeny of Malpighiales is, at its deepest level, an unresolved polytomy of 16 clades. It has been estimated that complete resolution of the phylogeny will require at least 25000 base pairs of DNA sequence data per taxon.[24] A similar situation exists with Lamiales and it has been analyzed in some detail.[25] The phylogenetic tree shown below is from Wurdack and Davis (2009). The statistical support for each branch is 100% bootstrap percentage and 100% posterior probability, except where labeled, with bootstrap percentage followed by posterior probability.

Malpighiales
98/100

Putranjivaceae



Lophopyxidaceae




Irvingiaceae


84/100

Centroplacaceae



Caryocaraceae



Pandaceae



Ixonanthaceae



Humiriaceae



Linaceae




Elatinaceae



Malpighiaceae



84/100

Ctenolophonaceae


Rhizophoraceae s.l.  

Erythroxylaceae



Rhizophoraceae




99/100

Balanopaceae


Chrysobalanaceae s.l.  


Trigoniaceae



Dichapetalaceae





Euphroniaceae



Chrysobalanaceae





Ochnaceae s.l.  

Ochnaceae



Medusagynaceae



Quiinaceae



clusioids  
 92/98 

Bonnetiaceae



Clusiaceae





Calophyllaceae




Hypericaceae



Podostemaceae





phyllanthoids  

Picrodendraceae



Phyllanthaceae





Peraceae


 90/90 

Rafflesiaceae


 85/100 

Euphorbiaceae




parietal clade  

Achariaceae


 76/98 

Goupiaceae


 82/100 

Violaceae


Passifloraceae s.l.  

Malesherbiaceae




Turneraceae



Passifloraceae







Lacistemataceae


Salicaceae s.l.  

Samydaceae




Scyphostegiaceae



Salicaceae








In 2012, Xi et al. managed to obtain a more resolved phylogenetic tree than previous studies through the use of data from a large number of genes. They included analyses of 82 plastid genes from 58 species (they ignored the problematic Rafflesiaceae), using partitions identified a posteriori by applying a Bayesian mixture model. Xi et al. had identified 12 additional clades and three major, basal clades.[26][27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. 
  2. ^ a b Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). Malpighiales At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website
  3. ^ a b Susana Magallón and Amanda Castillo (2009), Angiosperm diversification through time, American Journal of Botany 96 (1): 349–365, doi:10.3732/ajb.0800060, PMID 21628193 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Kenneth J. Wurdack and Charles C. Davis (2009), Malpighiales phylogenetics: Gaining ground on one of the most recalcitrant clades in the angiosperm tree of life, American Journal of Botany 96 (8): 1551–1570, doi:10.3732/ajb.0800207, PMID 21628300 
  5. ^ Alan Radcliffe-Smith. 2001. Genera Euphorbiacearum. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Richmond, England.
  6. ^ Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Peter K. Endress, and Mark W. Chase (2005), Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms, Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer, ISBN 978-0-87893-817-9 
  7. ^ a b Hengchang Wang, Michael J. Moore, Pamela S. Soltis, Charles D. Bell, Samuel F. Brockington, Roolse Alexandre, Charles C. Davis, Maribeth Latvis, Steven R. Manchester, and Douglas E. Soltis (10 Mar 2009), Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (10): 3853–3858, doi:10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC 2644257, PMID 19223592 
  8. ^ Alexander B. Doweld. 2001. Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen systematis plantarum vascularium (Tracheophyta). Geos: Moscow, Russia.
  9. ^ Li-Bing Zhang and Mark P. Simmons (2006), Phylogeny and delimitation of the Celastrales inferred from nuclear and plastid genes, Systematic Botany 31 (1): 122–137, doi:10.1600/036364406775971778 
  10. ^ J. Gordon Burleigh, Khidir W. Hilu, and Douglas E. Soltis (2009), "File 7", Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms, BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 61, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-61, PMC 2674047, PMID 19292928 
  11. ^ Philip D. Cantino, James A. Doyle, Sean W. Graham, Walter S. Judd, Richard G. Olmstead, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, and Michael J. Donoghue (2007), Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta, Taxon 56 (3): 822–846., doi:10.2307/25065865 
  12. ^ a b Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  13. ^ Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1789), Genera Plantarum, Paris: Herrisant and Barrois, p. 252 
  14. ^ James L. Reveal (2008 onward), "A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants", Home page of James L Reveal and C. Rose Broome  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  15. ^ John Hutchinson The Families of Flowering Plants 3rd edition. 1973. Oxford University Press.
  16. ^ Lawrence, George. 1960. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants, p. 132. Macmillan, New York
  17. ^ Mark W. Chase et alii (42 authors). 1993. "Phylogenetics of seed plants: An analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80(3):528-580.
  18. ^ The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003), An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141 (4): 399–436, doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x 
  19. ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Clayton, Joshua W.; Davis, Charles C.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Cheek, Martin; Savolainen, Vincent; Amorim, André M.; Soltis, Pamela S. (2007). "Monophyly and relationships of the enigmatic family Peridiscaceae". Taxon 56 (1): 65–73. 
  20. ^ Mac H. Alford. 2007. "Samydaceae". Version 6 February 2007". In: The Tree of Life Web Project.
  21. ^ a b Judd, W.S. & Olmstead, R.G. 2004. A survey of tricolpate(eudicot) phylogenetic relationships. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 1627–1644.
  22. ^ Darbah V. F., Oppong, E. K. & Eminah, J. K. 2012.Chemical investigation of the stem bark of Dichapetalum magascariennse Poir. International Journal of Applied Chemistry 8 (3), 199-207.
  23. ^ Brummitt, 1992. Vascular Plant Families and Genera. Kew.
  24. ^ Shuguang Jian, Pamela S. Soltis, Matthew A. Gitzendanner, Michael J. Moore, Ruiqi Li, Tory A. Hendry, Yin-Long Qiu, Amit Dhingra, Charles D. Bell, and Douglas E. Soltis (2008), Resolving an Ancient, Rapid Radiation in Saxifragales, Systematic Biology 57 (1): 38–57, doi:10.1080/10635150801888871, PMID 18275001 
  25. ^ Wortley, Alexandra H.; Rudall, Paula J.; Harris, David J.; Scotland, Robert W. (2005). "How Much Data are Needed to Resolve a Difficult Phylogeny? Case Study in Lamiales". Systematic Biology 54 (5): 697–709. 
  26. ^ Catalogue of Organisms: Malpighiales: A Glorious Mess of Flowering Plants
  27. ^ Xi, Z.; Ruhfel, B. R.; Schaefer, H.; Amorim, A. M.; Sugumaran, M.; Wurdack, K. J.; Endress, P. K.; Matthews, M. L.; Stevens, P. F.; Mathews, S.; Davis, C. C. (2012). "Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (43): 17519. doi:10.1073/pnas.1205818109.  edit