Malus baccata

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Malus baccata
Malus-baccata.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Malus
Species: M. baccata
Binomial name
Malus baccata
(L.) Borkh.

Malus baccata is a species of apple known by the common names Siberian crabapple, Siberian crab, Manchurian crab apple and Chinese crab apple.[1][2][3] It is native to most of Asia, but is also grown elsewhere as an ornamental tree and for rootstock. It is used for bonsai. It bears plentiful fragrant white flowers and edible red to yellow fruit of about 1 cm diameter.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Malus baccata is native to Eastern Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, China, Korea, Bhutan, India and Nepal,[1] where it is common to mixed forests on hilly slopes at elevations up to 1500 meters.[4] The tree is found in Japan,[3] and it has also been introduced to Canada and the US where it is mostly found around the Great Lakes.[5]

Features[edit]

Trunk of M. baccata

Trees grow up to 10–14 meters high. They have arching or overhanging red-brown branches and red-brown buds. Petioles are 2–5 cm long, with few glands. Leaves are elliptic or oval shaped, (3–8)×(2–3.5) cm in size. Pedicels are slender and 1.5–4 cm long. They bear white fragrant flowers of 3–3.5 cm diameter which groups by 4–6. Petals are white and oval-shaped, with a size of 2–2.5 cm. Fruits are red to yellow and are only about 1 cm in diameter; they form dense clusters and resemble cherries from a distance. Flowering occurs in spring, with fruits appearing in September–October.[4][2][3]

Subordinate taxa[edit]

The subordinate taxa include[1][4][3]

  • M. baccata var. baccata (10–14 meters tall)
  • M. baccata var. daochengensis
  • M. baccata var. gracilis (4–6 m)
  • M. baccata var. himalaica
  • M. baccata var. jinxianensis
  • M. baccata var. mandshurica (Manchurian crab apple, 5–10 m)
  • M. baccata var. xiaojinensis

Uses[edit]

M. baccata is used as ornament for its flowers and fruit. Fruits are edible and are eaten fresh or dried. As one of the tallest and most resistant to cold and pest[6] species of its genus, M. baccata is used for experimental breeding and grafting of other crabapples.[7][8] In particular, it is a common genetic source for M. pumila and M. asiatica in northern and north-eastern China.[1][4] M. baccata var. mandshurica is used for bonsai.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Malus baccata information from NPGS/GRIN. Ars-grin.gov. Retrieved on 2011-02-22.
  2. ^ a b Andrew Jackson Downing (1859). The fruits and fruit trees of America: or, The culture, propagation, and management, in the garden and orchard, of fruit trees generally. J. Wiley & sons. pp. 228–. Retrieved 21 February 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d Ran Levy-Yamamori; Ran Levy; Gerard Taaffe (17 September 2004). Garden plants of Japan. Timber Press. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-88192-650-7. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d Malus baccata in Flora of China @. Efloras.org. Retrieved on 2011-02-22.
  5. ^ PLANTS Profile for Malus baccata (Siberian crab apple) | USDA PLANTS. Plants.usda.gov (2005-04-04). Retrieved on 2011-02-22.
  6. ^ D. K. Kishore; Dr. Satish K. Sharma (2006). Temperate horticulture: current scenario. New India Publishing. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-81-89422-36-3. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  7. ^ John C. Roecklein; PingSun Leung (1 January 1987). A Profile of economic plants. Transaction Publishers. pp. 238–. ISBN 978-0-88738-167-6. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  8. ^ Western Fruit Gardening. University of California Press. pp. 100, 136–137. GGKEY:45WEAJKYP7F. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  9. ^ William M. Ciesla; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2002). Non-wood forest products from temperate broad-leaved trees. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-92-5-104855-9. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 

External links[edit]