|Industry||arms industry, machine building|
|Owner(s)||State of Ukraine|
The Malyshev Factory (Ukrainian: Zavod imeni V.O. Malysheva, Завод імені В.О. Малишева), formerly the Kharkiv Locomotive Factory (KhPZ), is a state-owned manufacturer of heavy equipment in Kharkiv, Ukraine. It was named after the Soviet politician Vyacheslav Malyshev. It produces diesel engines, farm machinery, coal mining, sugar refining, and wind farm equipment, but is best known for its production of Soviet tanks, including the BT tank series of fast tanks, the famous T-34 of the Second World War, the Cold War T-64 and T-80, and their modern Ukrainian successor, the T-84. The factory is closely associated with the Morozov Design Bureau (KMDB), designer of military armoured fighting vehicles and the Kharkiv Engine Design Bureau (KEDB) for engines. Also at 1958 it constructed "Kharkovchanka", an off-road vehicle which reached the South Pole next year.
- 1895—Establishment of the Kharkiv Locomotive Factory (Ukrainian: Kharkivsky parovozobudivny zavod or KhPZ, Харківський паровозобудівний завод, ХПЗ)
- 1923—Production line for Kommunar tractors established
- 1928—Renamed Kharkiv Komintern Locomotive Factory (Ukrainian: Kharkivsky parovozobudivny zavod imeni Kominterna, Харківський паровозобудівний завод імені Комінтерна), and the tank design bureau is established
- 1936—Renamed Factory No. 183 (Zavod No. 183)
- 1941—Evacuated to Nizhny Tagil in the Urals and merged with the Uralvagonzavod Factory, to form the Ural Tank Factory No. 183
- 1945—Re-established at Kharkiv Diesel Factory No. 75
- 1957—Renamed Malyshev Plant (Ukrainian: Zavod imeni V.A. Malysheva, Завод імені В.А. Малишева)
The Kharkiv Locomotive Factory (KhPZ) built about 20% of the Russian Empire's railway engines. After the Russian Revolution and the establishment of the Soviet government in Ukraine, the factory was put to work designing and building tractors and, after 1927, tanks. The Leningrad's Bolshevik Factory and the Kharkiv's KhPZ in 1929 became the first two Soviet tank factories to be modernized with German assistance under the Treaty of Rapallo, 1922.
A tank design bureau was established in the factory in 1928, one of several which would be responsible for some of the most successful tanks ever built, and eventually become the Morozov Design Bureau. The KhPZ designed and produced twenty-five T-24 tanks, then nearly eight thousand BT fast tanks. It also built a handful of multi-turreted T-35 tanks.
Shortly before the German invasion of the Soviet Union the KhPZ started series production of the T-34, the most-produced and arguably the best tank of World War II. Series production began in June 1940 in Kharkiv, and later in the Stalingrad Tractor Plant and Krasnoye Sormovo Shipbuilding Plant. In 1941, due to German advances, the factory and design shops were evacuated to the Ural mountains; the plant was merged with Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil into one enterprise called Ural Tank Plant No. 183.
When Ukraine was recaptured, it began production of the new T-44 tank in 1945, and the first prototypes of the T-54. After the war was over, the design bureau and factory gradually transferred all operations back to Kharkiv. The "No. 183" designation was left in Nizhny Tagil, while in Kharkiv the factory merged into Factory No. 75, a previously existing plant known for its T-34 diesel engines. T-54 production was started in the Urals and Kharkiv in 1947–48, and the move ended with the 1951 re-establishment of the Design Bureau, now called KB-60M, in Kharkiv. In 1957, the Factory No. 75 was renamed Malyshev Plant, and next year it took up production of T-55, the most-produced tank ever. The bureau also designed OT-54 and TO-55 flame-thrower tanks, for production at the Omsk Transport Machine Construction Plant. In 1967, T-64 tank production began here, as well as in the Kirov Plant and in the Uralvagonzavod. The T-80 tank, with a high performance gas turbine engine was produced beginning in 1983, followed in 1985 by a more conventional diesel model, T-80UD.
Finished tanks were assembled in several plants, but Soviet industrial planning prevented any region from being able to establish independent arms production. Components and sub-assemblies were produced in different factories, the Malyshev Factory specializing in engines and transmissions.
In independent Ukraine
The Malyshev factory's million-square-metre facility produced 800 tanks in 1991, but underwent difficult times after the breakup of the Soviet Union, producing only 46 tanks until 1996, when a $650 M contract was signed to supply 320 T-80UD tanks to Pakistan. Fulfilling the contract was difficult — the distributed nature of Soviet military industry forced reliance on Russian factories for parts, and Russian political interference forced the development of local capabilities, resulting in the T-84 tank design.
Like many Ukrainian industries, Malyshev was not allowed to negotiate contracts directly with foreign governments, but had to rely on Ukrspetsexport, a government arms-trading company. Although Malyshev was denied exporter status in July 1999, it was given this status by decree of President Leonid Kuchma in November of that year, a move seen to be an election gift to the Kharkiv Oblast (province). Malyshev joined as the leader of thirty-four companies to form an export consortium called Ukrainian Armored Vehicles.
Malyshev has demonstrated main battle tanks to Turkey, Greece, and Malaysia, and has entered into a contract to supply engines for Chinese-made Al-Khalid tanks for Pakistan. In September 2000, a deal was signed to modernize Soviet-made tanks and armoured personnel carries for the United Arab Emirates. The Malyshev factory also manufactures parts for Bizon, a Polish producer of agricultural combines.
In April 2009, the Malyshev Factory signed a contract to upgrade 29 T-64B [Т-64Б] tanks to T-64BM "Bulat" [Т-64БМ "Булат"] standard, for the Ukrainian Army for 200 million hryvnia ($25.1 million). Ten upgraded tanks have been delivered in 2010, and a further 19 are planned to be delivered in 2011. The T-64B tanks being upgraded were originally produced at Kharkiv in 1980.
As of 2012, Malyshev Factory had a sizable tank scrapping operation.
- "Харьковское конструкторское бюро по двигателестроению (ХКБД) (Kharkiv Engine Design Bureau building (KEDB))". Status quo. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2011). T-80 Standard Tank: The Soviet Army's Last Armored Champion. Osprey Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-299-58354-2.
- "T-80UD Main Battle Tank – A Pakistani Perspective". DFI (Indian Defence and Security Analysis). 4 January 2013. Archived from the original on 7 January 2013.
- "Украинская армия получила десять модернизированных Т-64". Week News (WK News). 28 October 2010. Archived from wknews.ru the original on 7 November 2010.
- "Main Characteristics of the Upgraded BM Bulat Battle Tank". Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2004.
- John Reed (5 June 2012). "Soviet Tanks As Far As The Eye Can See". Defense Tech. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Andrew Higgins (22 July 2014). "Bodies of Crash Victims Safely Moved Out of Combat Area". New York Times. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Zaloga, Steven J.; James Grandsen (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two. London: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.
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