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Teeth are common to most vertebrates. But mammals are distinctive in having a variety of teeth with different shapes and functions.
- "In fishes and snakes they usually are sharp processes without sockets, arising from bones of the jaws and the mouth-parts. In crocodiles and all mammals they are located in sockets. The teeth always show the habits and food of animals, and, therefore, are much used by naturalists in classification."
This feature first arose among the Therapsida (mammal-like reptiles). All other Therapsid groups are extinct. But they had different tooth patterns, which helps with classifying fossils.
The Diversity of Teeth
Rabbits and other lagomorphs usually shed their deciduous teeth before (or very shortly after) their birth, and are usually born with their permanent teeth. The teeth of rabbits complement their diet, which consist of a wide range of vegetation. Since many of the foods are abrasive enough to cause attrition, rabbit teeth grow continuously throughout life. Rabbits have a total of 6 incisors, three upper premolars, three upper molars, two lower premolars, and two lower molars on each side. There are no canines. Three to four millimeters of tooth is worn away by incisors every week, whereas the posterior teeth require a month to wear away the same amount.
Anatomy of rabbit teeth
The incisors and cheek teeth of rabbits are called aradicular hypsodont teeth. This is sometimes referred to as an elodent dentition. These teeth grow or erupt continuously. The growth or eruption is held in balance by dental abrasion from chewing a diet high in fiber.
Rodents' incisors grow continuously throughout their lives, a process known as aradicular. Unlike humans whose ameloblasts die after tooth development, rodents continually produce enamel and must wear down their teeth by gnawing on various materials. These teeth are used for cutting wood, biting through the skin of fruit, or for defense. The teeth have enamel on the outside and exposed dentin on the inside, so they self-sharpen during gnawing. On the other hand, continually growing molars are found in some rodent species, such as the sibling vole and the guinea pig. There is variation in the dentition of the rodents, but generally, rodents lack canines and premolars, and have a space between their incisors and molars, called the diastema region.
An adult horse has between 36 and 44 teeth. All horses have twelve premolars, twelve molars, and twelve incisors. Generally, all male equines also have four canine teeth (called tushes) between the molars and incisors. However, few female horses (less than 28%) have canines, and those that do usually have only one or two, which many times are only partially erupted. A few horses have one to four wolf teeth, which are vestigial premolars, with most of those having only one or two. They are equally common in male and female horses and much more likely to be on the upper jaw. If present these can cause problems as they can interfere with the horse's bit contact. Therefore, wolf teeth are commonly removed.
Horse teeth can be used to estimate the animal's age. Between birth and five years, age can be closely estimated by observing the eruption pattern on milk teeth and then permanent teeth. By age five, all permanent teeth have usually erupted. The horse is then said to have a "full" mouth. After the age of five, age can only be conjectured by study of the wear patterns on the incisors, shape, the angle at which the incisors meet, and other factors. The wear of teeth may also be affected by diet, natural abnormalities, and cribbing. Two horses of the same age may have different wear patterns.
A horse's incisors, premolars, and molars, once fully developed, continue to erupt as the grinding surface is worn down through chewing. A young adult horse will have teeth which are 4.5-5 inches long, with the majority of the crown remaining below the gumline in the dental socket. The rest of the tooth will slowly emerge from the jaw, erupting about 1/8" each year, as the horse ages. When the animal reaches old age, the crowns of the teeth are very short and the teeth are often lost altogether. Very old horses, if lacking molars, may need to have their fodder ground up and soaked in water to create a soft mush for them to eat in order to obtain adequate nutrition.
Elephants' tusks are specialized incisors for digging food up and fighting. Elephants are polyphyodonts with teeth are similar to those in manatees, and it is notable that elephants are believed to have undergone an aquatic phase in their evolution.
Elephants have four molars, one on each side of the upper and lower jaw. Until age 40, these are replaced by larger molars. The new molars shift forward from the back of the jaw as the old wear down. The final set of molars last for about twenty years.
Manatees are polyphyodonts with mandibular molars developing separately from the jaw and are encased in a bony shell separated by soft tissue.
In dogs, the teeth are less likely than humans to form dental cavities because of the very high pH of dog saliva, which prevents enamel from demineralizing.
Toothed whales is a suborder of the cetaceans characterized by having teeth. The teeth differ considerably between the species. They may be numerous, with some dolphins bearing over 100 teeth in their jaws. On the other hand, the narwhals have a giant unicorn-like tusk, which is a tooth containing millions of sensory pathways and used for sensing during feeding, navigation and mating. It is the most neurologically complex tooth known. Beaked whales are almost toothless, with only bizarre teeth found in males. These teeth may be used for feeding but also for demonstrating aggression and showmanship.
- Dental Anatomy & Care for Rabbits and Rodents
- Brown, Susan. Rabbit Dental Diseases, hosted on the San Diego Chapter of the House Rabbit Society. Page accessed April 9, 2007.
- Ryšavy, Robin. The Missouri House Rabbit Society, hosted by the Kansas City Missouri House Rabbit Society. Page accessed April 9, 2007.
- Caceci, Thomas. Veterinary Histology with subtitle "Digestive System: Oral Cavity" found here.
- Tummers M and Thesleff I. Root or crown: a developmental choice orchestrated by the differential regulation of the epithelial stem cell niche in the tooth of two rodent species. Development (2003). 130(6):1049-57.
- AM Hunt. A description of the molar teeth and investing tissues of normal guinea pigs. J Dent Res. (1959) 38(2):216-31.
- Patricia Pence (2002), Equine Dentistry: A Practical Guide, Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 0-683-30403-8
- Al Cirelli, Equine Dentition, Nevada: University of Nevada, retrieved 7 June 2010
- Bram, L. et al. MCMLXXXIII. Elephants. Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, Volume 9, p. 183. ISBN 0-8343-0051-6
- The Permanent Canine Teeth, hosted on the University of Illinois at Chicago website. Page accessed February 5, 2007.
- Chris C. Pinney, The Illustrated Veterinary Guide for Dogs, Cats, Birds, and Exotic Pets (Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Books, 1992), p. 187.