Mammary ductal carcinoma
|Classification and external resources|
Histopathologic image from ductal cell carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of breast. Hematoxylin-eosin stain.
Mammary ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer in women. It comes in two forms: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissue, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a noninvasive, potentially malignant, neoplasm that is still confined to the milk ducts (lactiferous ducts), where breast cancer most often originates.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, also known as intraductal carcinoma) is the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer or pre-cancer in women. Ductal carcinoma refers to the development of cancer cells within the milk ducts of the breast. In situ means "in place" and refers to the fact that the cancer has not moved out of the duct and into any surrounding tissue.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is noninvasive breast cancer that encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from low-grade lesions that are not life threatening to high-grade lesions that may harbor foci of invasive breast cancer. DCIS has been classified according to architectural pattern (solid, cribriform, papillary, and micropapillary), tumor grade (high, intermediate, and low grade), and the presence or absence of comedo histology.
DCIS almost never produces symptoms or a lump that can be felt, so it is almost always found through screening mammography. As screening mammography has become more widespread, DCIS has become one of the most commonly diagnosed breast conditions, now accounting for 20% of breast cancers and pre-cancers that are detected through screening mammography. DCIS is usually seen on a mammogram as very small specks of calcium known as microcalcifications. However, not all microcalcifications indicate the presence of DCIS, which must be confirmed by biopsy.
Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common form of invasive breast cancer. It accounts for 55% of breast cancer incidence upon diagnosis, according to statistics from the United States in 2004. On a mammogram, it is usually visualized as a mass with fine spikes radiating from the edges. On physical examination, this lump usually feels much harder or firmer than benign breast lesions such as fibroadenoma. On microscopic examination, the cancerous cells invade and replace the surrounding normal tissues. IDC is divided in several histological subtypes.
Signs and symptoms
In many cases, ductal carcinoma is asymptomatic, and detected as abnormal results on mammography. When symptoms occur, a painless, enlarging mass that does not fluctuate with the menstrual period may be felt.  :274-275 Pinching of the overlying skin may also be seen. Certain subtypes, such as inflammatory carcinomas, may result in a swollen, enlarged and tender breast. All variants of cancer, if there is metastatic spread, may cause enlarged lymph nodes and affect other organs.  :746-747
|This section requires expansion. (December 2013)|
Tumors under 1 cm in diameter are unlikely to spread systemically. Tumors are staged by size.
|Diameter||Tumor size staging number|
|Tumor involves skin or chest wall||T4|
Lymph node involvement
Absence of cancer cells in the lymph nodes is a good indication that the cancer has not spread systemically. Presence of cancer in the lymph nodes indicates the cancer may have spread. In studies, some women have had presence of cancer in the lymph nodes, were not treated with chemotherapy, and still did not have a systemic spread. Therefore, lymph node involvement is not a positive predictor of spread.
|Lymph node status||Lymph node involvement grade|
|No involved nodes||N0|
|Involved node or nodes||N1|
|Involved nodes that are fixed to one another||N2|
Tumor size staging and node involvement staging can be combined into a single clinical staging number.
|Tumor size staging||Node involvement staging||Clinical stage|
The appearance of cancer cells under a microscope is another predictor of systemic spread. The more different the cancer cells look compared to normal duct cells, the greater the risk of systemic spread. There are three characteristics that differentiate cancer cells from normal cells.
- Tendency to form tubular structures
- Nuclear size, shape, and staining intensity
- Mitotic rate - Rate of cell division
The histologic appearance of cancer cells can be scored on these three parameters on a scale from one to three. The sum of these grades is a number between 3 and 9. The score is called a Bloom Richardson Grade (BR) and is expressed [sum of the grades]/9. For example, cells that were graded 2 on all three parameters would result in a BR score of 6/9.
A score of 5 and under is considered Low. 6 to 7 is considered Intermediate. 8 to 9 is considered High.
The presence of cancer cell in small blood vessels is called vascular invasion. The presence of vascular invasion increases the probability of systemic spread.
DNA analysis indicates the amount of DNA in cancer cells and how fast the cancer is growing.
Cells with the normal amount of DNA are called diploid. Cells with too much or too little DNA are called aneuploid. Aneuploid cells are more likely to spread than diploid cells.
DNA testings indicates the rate of growth by determining the number of cells in the synthetic phase (S Phase). An S Phase > 10% means a higher chance of spreading.
The results of DNA testing are considered less reliable predictors of spread than size, histology, and lymph node involvement.
|This section requires expansion. (December 2013)|
According to the NIH Consensus Conference[where?], if DCIS is allowed to go untreated, the natural course or natural history varies according to the grade of the DCIS. Unless treated, approximately 60 percent of low-grade DCIS lesions will have become invasive at 40 years follow-up. High-grade DCIS lesions that have been inadequately resected and not given radiotherapy have a 50 percent risk of becoming invasive breast cancer within seven years. Approximately half of low-grade DCIS detected at screening will represent overdiagnosis, but overdiagnosis of high-grade DCIS is rare. The natural history of intermediate-grade DCIS is difficult to predict. Approximately one-third of malignant calcification clusters detected at screening mammography already have an invasive focus.
The prognosis of IDC depends, in part, on its histological subtype. Mucinous, papillary, cribriform, and tubular carcinomas have longer survival, and lower recurrence rates. The prognosis of the most common form of IDC, called "IDC Not Otherwise Specified", is intermediate. Finally, some rare forms of breast cancer (e.g. sarcomatoid carcinoma, inflammatory carcinoma) have a poor prognosis. Regardless of the histological subtype, the prognosis of IDC depends also on tumor size, presence of cancer in the lymph nodes, histological grade, presence of cancer in small vessels (vascular invasion), expression of hormone receptors and of oncogenes like HER2/neu.
These parameters can be entered into models that provide a statistical probability of systemic spread. The probability of systemic spread is a key factor in determining whether radiation and chemotherapy are worthwhile. The individual parameters are important also because they can predict how well a cancer will respond to specific chemotherapy agents.
Overall, the 5-year survival rate of invasive ductal carcinoma was approximately 85% in 2003.
Treatment of IDC depends on the size of the mass (size of the tumor measured in its longest direction):
- <4 cm mass: surgery to remove the main tumor mass and to sample the lymph nodes in the axilla. The stage of the tumor is ascertained after this first surgery. Adjuvant therapy (i.e. treatment after surgery) may include a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy (e.g. tamoxifen) and/or targeted therapy (e.g. trastuzumab). More surgery is occasionally needed to complete the removal of the initial tumor or to remove recurrences.
- 4 cm or larger mass: modified (a less aggressive form of radical mastectomy) radical mastectomy (because any malignant mass in excess of 4 cm in size exceeds the criteria for a lumpectomy) along with sampling of the lymph nodes in the axilla.
The treatment options offered to an individual patient are determined by the form, stage and location of the cancer, and also by the age, history of prior disease and general health of the patient. Not all patients are treated the same way.
Surgical excision aimed at excising all of the abnormal duct elements is a common treatment. Radiation after this surgery further reduces the risk that the DCIS will recur.
DCIS patients have two surgery strategy choices: They are lumpectomy (most commonly followed by radiation therapy) or mastectomy. The survival rate is equally high for both treatments, 96 percent or higher.
Women also have the option of rejecting surgery. The survival rate here is unknown. Women who reject surgery tend to be older or have other, serious health problems, which further complicates comparisons.
Adjunct radiotherapy after lumpectomy offers equivalent survival to mastectomy, although there is a slightly higher risk of recurrence of DCIS or invasive breast cancer. The addition of radiation therapy to lumpectomy reduces the risk of local recurrence to approximately 12 percent, of which approximately half will be DCIS and half will be invasive breast cancer; the risk of recurrence is 1 percent for women undergoing mastectomy. In addition, radiation therapy may reduce recurrence among patients with DCIS getting breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) as compared to breast-conserving surgery alone according to a systematic review. Patients who received breast-conserving surgery plus radiation therapy had a lower DCIS recurrence rate than patients who received breast conserving surgery alone. The use of radiation therapy did not have an effect on mortality.
Black women with DCIS have higher risks of local recurrence of DCIS or invasive breast cancer than white women. Extensive DCIS of high grade, large size, and resected with minimal surgical margins, even with radiotherapy, also have a higher risk of recurrence.
Because of the higher risk of recurrence, mastectomy may be the preferred treatment for some women or in certain instances e.g. if:
- DCIS is "multi-focal" (present in two or more areas of the breast).
- The DCIS tumor is relatively large or of high grade.
- Failure to achieve adequate margins on attempted lumpectomy.
- The breast has previously received radiation treatment.
- The patient has had scleroderma or another disease of the connective tissue, which can complicate radiation treatment.
- The patient lives in an area where radiation treatment is inaccessible or inconvenient.
- The patient is under the age of 40.
A system for analyzing the suitability of DCIS patients for the options of breast conservation without radiation, breast conservation with radiation, or mastectomy is called the Van Nuys Prognostic Scoring Index (VNPI). This VNPI analyzes DCIS features in terms of size, grade, surgical margins, and patient age and assigns "scores" to favorable features.
Tamoxifen or another hormonal therapy is recommended for some women with estrogen-receptor positive DCIS to help prevent invasive breast cancer. Hormonal therapy further decreases the risk of recurrence of DCIS or the development of invasive breast cancer. However, hormone treatment increases the risk of endometrial cancer, severe circulatory problems, or stroke. In addition, hot flashes, vaginal dryness, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and a possibility of premature menopause are common for pre-menopausal women who start treatment.
Unlike women with invasive breast cancer, most women with DCIS do not undergo chemotherapy as it is usually completely removed by surgery. Some institutional series reporting significant rates of recurrent invasive cancers after mastectomy for DCIS have recently endorsed routine sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in these patients, while others have concluded it be reserved for selected patients. Most agree that SNB should be considered with tissue diagnosis of high risk DCIS (grade III with palpable mass or larger size on imaging) as well as in patients undergoing mastectomy after a core or excisional biopsy diagnosis of DCIS. Experts are not sure whether all women with DCIS would eventually develop invasive breast cancer if they live long enough without undergoing treatment.
- Virnig BA, Shamliyan T, Tuttle TM, Kane RL, and Wilt TJ. "Diagnosis and Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)". Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 185, AHRQ Publication No.09-E018. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- Welch HG, Woloshin S, Schwartz LM (February 2008). "The sea of uncertainty surrounding ductal carcinoma in situ--the price of screening mammography". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 100 (4): 228–9. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn013. PMID 18270336.
- Ernster VL, Ballard-Barbash R, Barlow WE, et al. (October 2002). "Detection of ductal carcinoma in situ in women undergoing screening mammography". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94 (20): 1546–54. doi:10.1093/jnci/94.20.1546. PMID 12381707.
- Percentage values are from United States statistics 2004. Subtype specific incidences are taken from Table 6 (invasive) and Table 3 (in situ) from Eheman CR, Shaw KM, Ryerson AB, Miller JW, Ajani UA, White MC (June 2009). "The changing incidence of in situ and invasive ductal and lobular breast carcinomas: United States, 1999-2004". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 18 (6): 1763–9. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1082. PMID 19454615.. These are divided by total breast cancer incidence (211,300 invasive and 55,700 in situ cases) as reported from Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2003-2004 
- Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. (21st ed. ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. 2010. ISBN 978-0-7020-3084-0.
- . ISBN 978-0-8089-2366-4. Missing or empty
- Link, John; The Breast Cancer Survival Manual, 4th Edition
- Evans, A. (2004). Breast Cancer Research 6: P23. doi:10.1186/bcr842. 
- NOTE: Number really refers to invasive ductal carcinoma, despite title. Arpino G, Bardou VJ, Clark GM, Elledge RM (2004). "Infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: tumor characteristics and clinical outcome". Breast Cancer Res. 6 (3): R149–56. doi:10.1186/bcr767. PMC 400666. PMID 15084238.
- Zuckerman, D (December 2009). "DCIS: Mostly Good News". Cancer Prevention and Treatment Fund.
- Kerlikowske, K.; Molinaro, A. M.; Gauthier, M. L.; Berman, H. K.; Waldman, F.; Bennington, J.; Sanchez, H.; Jimenez, C.; Stewart, K. et al. (2010). "Biomarker Expression and Risk of Subsequent Tumors After Initial Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Diagnosis". JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 102 (9): 627–637. doi:10.1093/jnci/djq101. PMC 2864293. PMID 20427430.
- Witkiewicz AK, Dasgupta A, Nguyen KH, et al. (June 2009). "Stromal caveolin-1 levels predict early DCIS progression to invasive breast cancer". Cancer Biology & Therapy 8 (11): 1071–1079. doi:10.4161/cbt.8.11.8874. PMID 19502809.
- "NIH DCIS Consensus Conference Statement". National Institutes of Health. September 2009.
- Virnig, BA; Tuttle, TM; Shamliyan, T; Kane, RL (2010). "Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a systematic review of incidence, treatment, and outcomes". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 102 (3): 170–8. doi:10.1093/jnci/djp482. PMID 20071685.
- Tan JC, McCready DR, Easson AM, Leong WL (February 2007). "Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in ductal carcinoma-in-situ treated by mastectomy". Annals of Surgical Oncology 14 (2): 638–45. doi:10.1245/s10434-006-9211-9. PMID 17103256.
- van Deurzen CH, Hobbelink MG, van Hillegersberg R, van Diest PJ (April 2007). "Is there an indication for sentinel node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast? A review". European Journal of Cancer 43 (6): 993–1001. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2007.01.010. PMID 17300928.
- Yen TW, Hunt KK, Ross MI, et al. (April 2005). "Predictors of invasive breast cancer in patients with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: a guide to selective use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in management of ductal carcinoma in situ". Journal of the American College of Surgeons 200 (4): 516–26. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2004.11.012. PMID 15804465.
- Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma
- Free patient booklet to guide DCIS patients in choosing treatment options