Man'en

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Man'en (万延?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") after Ansei and before Bunkyū. This period spanned the years from March 1860 through February 1861.[1] The reigning emperor was Kōmei-tennō (孝明天皇?).

Change of era[edit]

  • March 18, 1860 (Man'en 1 (万延元年?)): The new era name was created to mark the destruction caused by a fire at Edo Castle and the assassination of Ii Naosuke (also known as "the disturbance" or "the incident" at the Sakurada-mon).[2] The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Ansei 7.

The new era name is derived from an hortatory aphorism to be found in The Book of the Later Han: "With 100,000,000,000 descendants, your name will forever be recorded" (豊千億之子孫、歴万載而永延).

Events of the Man'en era[edit]

  • 1860 (Man'en 1): First Western professional photographer to establish residence in Japan, Orrin Freeman began living in Yokohama[3]
  • 1860 (Man'en 1): First foreign mission to the United States.[4]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Man'en" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 607, p. 607, at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
  2. ^ Satow, Ernest Mason et al. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari, p. 38.
  3. ^ Hannavy, John. (2007). Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Photography, Vol. 1, p. 770., p. 770, at Google Books
  4. ^ Press release: "First Japanese Diplomatic Mission to U.S. Is Subject of May 24 Lecture," Library of Congress, April 16, 2010.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Ansei
Era or nengō
Man'en

1860–1861
Succeeded by
Bunkyū